Monday, March 04, 2013

CHC Theory: Long-term storage and retrieval (Glr) definition

Long-Term Storage & Retrieval (Glr):   The ability to store, consolidate, and retrieve information over periods of time measured in minutes, hours, days, and years. Short-term memory has to do with information that has been encoded seconds ago and must be retrieved while it is being actively maintained in primary memory. Short-term memory tests often involve information that is stored in long-term memory. What distinguishes Gsm from Glr tests is that there is a continuous attempt to maintain awareness of that information. A Glr test involves information that has been put out of immediate awareness long enough for the contents of primary memory to be displaced completely. In Glr tests, continuous maintenance of information in primary memory is difficult, if not impossible.

 Glr-Learning Efficiency:  All tasks of learning efficiency must present more information than can be retained in Gsm
  • Associative Memory (MA). The ability to remember previously unrelated information as having been paired.
  • Meaningful Memory (MM). The ability to remember narratives and other forms of semantically related information. 
  • Free Recall Memory (M6). The ability to recall lists in any order.

Glr-Retrieval Fluency:  The rate and fluency at which individuals they can access information stored in long-term memory.

       (Fluency factors they involve the production of ideas)
  • Ideational Fluency (FI). Ability to rapidly produce a series of ideas, words, or phrases related to a specific condition or object. Quantity, not quality or response originality, is emphasized.
  • Associational Fluency (FA). Ability to rapidly produce a series of original or useful ideas related to a particular concept. In contrast to Ideational Fluency (FI), quality rather quantity of production is emphasized. 
  • Expressional Fluency (FE). Ability to rapidly think of different ways of expressing an idea.
  • Sensitivity to Problems/Alterative Solution Fluency (SP). Ability to rapidly think of a number of alternative solutions to a particular practical problem
  • Originality/Creativity (FO). Ability to rapidly produce original, clever, and insightful responses (expressions, interpretations) to a given topic, situation, or task.

       (Fluency abilities that involve the recall of words)
  • Naming Facility (NA). Ability to rapidly call objects by their names. In contemporary reading research, this ability is called rapid automatic naming (RAN) or speed of lexical access
  • Word Fluency (FW). Ability to rapidly produce words that share a non-semantic feature.

       (Fluency abilities related to figures)
  • Figural Fluency (FF). Ability to rapidly draw or sketch as many things (or elaborations) as possible when presented with a nonmeaningful visual stimulus (e.g., set of unique visual elements). Quantity is emphasized over quality.
  • Figural Flexibility (FX). Ability to rapidly draw different solutions to figural problems.
The above definitions were abstracted from Schneider and McGrew's (2012) contemporary CHC theory chapter in the form of a special CHC v2.0 publication. See the chapter for more in depth information regarding this ability domain and contemporary CHC theory.

Prior definitions in this series can be found here.

Thanks to Dr. Scott Barry Kaufman for permission to to use the above graphic depiction of this CHC ability. These CHC icons are part of Dr. Kaufman's book, Ungifted: Intelligence Redefined, and are the creative work of George Doutsiopoulos.

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