Sunday, May 01, 2022

The sexes do not differ in general intelligence, but they do in some specifics - ScienceDirect

 The sexes do not differ in general intelligence, but they do in some specifics - ScienceDirect 
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0160289622000320?via%3Dihub

Abstract
Reliable and meaningful sex differences exist in specific cognitive abilities despite no reliable or meaningful sex difference in general intelligence. Here we use Cattell-Horn-Carroll (CHC) theory to highlight research findings related to sex differences in intelligence, with a focus on studies of test scores from comprehensive intelligence measures that were obtained from large and representative samples of children and adolescents. Female advantages in latent processing speed and male advantages in latent visual processing are the most meaningful and consistently reported sex differences regarding CHC broad cognitive abilities. Differences have been reported in narrow and specific ability constructs such as mental rotation and object memory location. In academic achievement, the largest and most consistent findings are female advantages in writing, whereas male advantages at higher math ability levels are also found. Empirical descriptions of sex differences should consider the breadth of the construct under study and incorporate analysis beyond simple mean differences. Score analysis methods that utilize multiple-group confirmatory factor models and multiple-indicator multiple cause models are useful to address the former, and analysis methods such as quantile regression and male-female ratio calculations along score distributions are useful to address the latter. An understanding of why specific ability differences exist in combination and in the presence of similarities will improve researchers' understanding of human cognition and educational achievements.

******************************************
Kevin S. McGrew, PhD
Educational & School Psychologist
Director
Institute for Applied Psychometrics (IAP)
https://www.themindhub.com
******************************************

Thursday, April 28, 2022

The Unique Role of Spatial Working Memory for Mathematics Performance| Journal of Numerical Cognition

 The Unique Role of Spatial Working Memory for Mathematics Performance| Journal of Numerical Cognition 
https://jnc.psychopen.eu/index.php/jnc/article/view/7159
Abstract
We explored the multi-dimensionality of mathematics and working memory (WM) by examining the differential relationships between different areas of mathematics with visual, spatial, and verbal WM. Previous research proposed that visuospatial WM is a unique predictor of mathematics, but neuroimaging and cognitive research suggest divisions within visuospatial WM. We created a new WM task to isolate visuospatial WM's visual and spatial components and maintained consistent design across tasks and found that spatial WM predicted mathematics and visual WM did not. We also found that verbal WM predicted all mathematics areas included, while spatial WM was a unique predictor of numerical understanding and geometry, not arithmetic and estimation. These findings integrate previous neuroimaging, cognitive and educational psychology research and further our understanding of the relationship between WM and mathematics.


******************************************
Kevin S. McGrew, PhD
Educational & School Psychologist
Director
Institute for Applied Psychometrics (IAP)
https://www.themindhub.com
******************************************

Tuesday, April 26, 2022

The sexes do not differ in general intelligence, but they do in some specifics - ScienceDirect

 The sexes do not differ in general intelligence, but they do in some specifics - ScienceDirect 
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0160289622000320

Abstract
Reliable and meaningful sex differences exist in specific cognitive abilities despite no reliable or meaningful sex difference in general intelligence. Here we use Cattell-Horn-Carroll (CHC) theory to highlight research findings related to sex differences in intelligence, with a focus on studies of test scores from comprehensive intelligence measures that were obtained from large and representative samples of children and adolescents. Female advantages in latent processing speed and male advantages in latent visual processing are the most meaningful and consistently reported sex differences regarding CHC broad cognitive abilities. Differences have been reported in narrow and specific ability constructs such as mental rotation and object memory location. In academic achievement, the largest and most consistent findings are female advantages in writing, whereas male advantages at higher math ability levels are also found. Empirical descriptions of sex differences should consider the breadth of the construct under study and incorporate analysis beyond simple mean differences. Score analysis methods that utilize multiple-group confirmatory factor models and multiple-indicator multiple cause models are useful to address the former, and analysis methods such as quantile regression and male-female ratio calculations along score distributions are useful to address the latter. An understanding of why specific ability differences exist in combination and in the presence of similarities will improve researchers' understanding of human cognition and educational achievements.

******************************************
Kevin S. McGrew, PhD
Educational & School Psychologist
Director
Institute for Applied Psychometrics (IAP)
https://www.themindhub.com
******************************************

Monday, April 11, 2022

Moving Beyond the Ableist Roots of Educational Psychology: Audit of the Field and a Path Forward | SpringerLink

 Moving Beyond the Ableist Roots of Educational Psychology: Audit of the Field and a Path Forward | SpringerLink 
https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10648-022-09673-6

In the current literature review, we studied the articles published between 2010 and July 2020 in six prominent educational psychology journals to determine the extent to which students with disabilities (SWD) have recently been included in the field's most visible literature, and the nature of that inclusion when it occurred. Although scholars routinely cite articles from special education journals, findings indicated that SWD were specifically included in only 11.4% of the studies that were published. Most of these studied detailed interventions to support students' math and reading skills, with far fewer articles addressing the remaining breadth of topics across the field of educational psychology. After demonstrating the extent to which SWD have been underrepresented in the field's top journals over the previous decade, we draw on DisCrit theory to describe how constructs such as ableism and multiple models of disability can help scholars resist deficit mindsets about SWD in their classroom-based research samples. We argue for a proliferation of epistemologies (and subsequently methodologies), enabling educational psychologists not only to account for the experiences of SWD in ways that uphold our field's commitment to rigorous and ecologically valid research, but also to better ensure that educational psychology theories account for the full breadth of human diversity.

******************************************
Kevin S. McGrew, PhD
Educational & School Psychologist
Director
Institute for Applied Psychometrics (IAP)
https://www.themindhub.com
******************************************

Friday, March 25, 2022

Connections between mathematics and reading development: Numerical cognition mediates relations between foundational competencies and later academic outcomes. - PsycNET

Spencer, M., Fuchs, L. S., Geary, D. C., & Fuchs, D. (2022). Connections between mathematics and reading development: Numerical cognition mediates relations between foundational competencies and later academic outcomes. Journal of Educational Psychology, 114(2), 273–288. https://doi.org/10.1037/edu0000670
We examined longitudinal relations between 1st-grade cognitive predictors (early nonverbal reasoning, processing speed, listening comprehension, working memory, calculation skill, word-problem solving, word-reading fluency, attentive behavior, and numerical cognition) and 2nd-grade academic outcomes (calculations, word-problem solving, and word reading) in 370 children (Mage = 6.55 years, SDage = 0.33 years at the start of the study) who were identified as at-risk or not-at-risk for mathematics disability. Path analysis mediation models revealed that numerical cognition, assessed at an intermediary timepoint, mediated the effects of processing speed, working memory, calculation skill, word-problem solving, and attentive behavior on all 3 outcomes. Findings indicate that multiple early domain-general cognitive abilities are related to later mathematics and reading outcomes and that numerical cognition processes, which may track ease of forming symbol-concept associations, predict later performance across both academic domains. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved)
Impact Statement
Educational Impact and Implications Statement—Given the frequent co-occurrence of difficulties in learning mathematics and reading, identifying the processes and skills that support success in both domains is important. The study showed that several domain-general abilities, such as working memory and attentive behavior, contributed to earlier and later calculation skill, word-problem solving, and word-reading fluency. More critically, the study showed that one bridge between the codevelopment of reading and mathematics achievement is the fluency of processing basic numerical relationships. The numerical measure in turn likely indexes the ease with which students form symbol-concept associations, and this cognitive system might be contributing to the co-occurrence of difficulties in mathematics and reading. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved)


 Connections between mathematics and reading development: Numerical cognition mediates relations between foundational competencies and later academic outcomes. - PsycNET 
https://doi.apa.org/doiLanding?doi=10.1037%2Fedu0000670

******************************************
Kevin S. McGrew, PhD
Educational & School Psychologist
Director
Institute for Applied Psychometrics (IAP)
https://www.themindhub.com
******************************************

Monday, March 07, 2022

Working memory development: A 50-year assessment of research and underlying theories - ScienceDirect

 Working memory development: A 50-year assessment of research and underlying theories - ScienceDirect 
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0010027722000634

Working memory development: A 50-year assessment of research and underlying theories
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NelsonCowan
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https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cognition.2022.105075
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Abstract
The author has thought about working memory, not always by that name, since 1969 and has conducted research on its infant and child development since the same year that the seminal work of Baddeley and Hitch (1974) was published. The present article assesses how the field of working memory development has been influenced since those years by major theoretical perspectives: empiricism (along with behaviorism), nativism (along with modularity), cognitivism (along with constructivism), and dynamic systems theory. The field has not fully discussed the point that these theoretical perspectives have helped to shape different kinds of proposed working memory systems, which in turn have deeply influenced what is researched and how it is researched. Here I discuss that mapping of theoretical viewpoints onto assumptions about working memory and trace the influence of this mapping on the field of working memory development. I illustrate where these influences have led in my own developmental research program over the years.

******************************************
Kevin S. McGrew, PhD
Educational & School Psychologist
Director
Institute for Applied Psychometrics (IAP)
https://www.themindhub.com
******************************************

Thursday, March 03, 2022

Cognitive Ability and Job Performance: Meta-analytic Evidence for the Validity of Narrow Cognitive Abilities | SpringerLink

 Cognitive Ability and Job Performance: Meta-analytic Evidence for the Validity of Narrow Cognitive Abilities | SpringerLink 
https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10869-022-09796-1

Cognitive Ability and Job Performance: Meta-analytic Evidence for the Validity of Narrow Cognitive Abilities
Abstract
Cognitive ability is one of the best predictors of performance on the job and past research has seemingly converged on the idea that narrow cognitive abilities do not add incremental validity over general mental ability (GMA) for predicting job performance. In the present study, we propose that the reason for the lack of incremental validity in previous research is that the narrow cognitive abilities that have been assessed most frequently are also the abilities that are most highly correlated with GMA. Therefore, we expect that examining a broader range of narrow cognitive abilities that are less highly correlated with GMA will demonstrate incremental validity for narrow abilities. To examine this prediction, we conducted an updated meta-analysis of the relationship between cognitive ability and a multidimensional conceptualization of job performance (task performance, training performance, organizational citizenship behavior, counterproductive work behavior, withdrawal). Using several different methods of analyzing the data, results indicated that the narrow cognitive abilities that are the least highly correlated with GMA added substantial incremental validity for predicting task performance, training performance, and organizational citizenship behavior. These results have important implications for the assessment of cognitive ability and the employee selection process.

******************************************
Kevin S. McGrew, PhD
Educational & School Psychologist
Director
Institute for Applied Psychometrics (IAP)
https://www.themindhub.com
******************************************

Tuesday, March 01, 2022

Graphs do not lead people to infer causation from correlation. - PsycNET

https://psycnet.apa.org/record/2022-36700-001

Fansher, M., Adkins, T. J., & Shah, P. (2022). Graphs do not lead people to infer causation from correlation. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied. Advance online publication. https://doi.org/10.1037/xap0000393

Abstract
Media articles often communicate the latest scientific findings, and readers must evaluate the evidence and consider its potential implications. Prior work has found that the inclusion of graphs makes messages about scientific data more persuasive (Tal & Wansink, 2016). One explanation for this finding is that such visualizations evoke the notion of "science"; however, results are mixed. In the current investigation we extend this work by examining whether graphs lead people to erroneously infer causation from correlational data. In two experiments we gave participants realistic online news articles in which they were asked to evaluate the research and apply the work's findings to a real-life hypothetical scenario. Participants were assigned to read the text of the article alone or with an accompanying line or bar graph. We found no evidence that the presence of graphs affected participants' evaluations of correlational data as causal. Given that these findings were unexpected, we attempted to directly replicate a well-cited article making the claim that graphs are persuasive (Tal & Wansink, 2016), but we were unsuccessful. Overall, our results suggest that the mere presence of graphs does not necessarily increase the likelihood that one infers incorrect causal claims. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved)

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***********************************************
Kevin S. McGrew,  PhD
Educational Psychologist
Director
Institute for Applied Psychometrics (IAP)
www.themindhub.com
************************************************

Friday, February 25, 2022

From MDPI: "The Transition to Noncommunicable Disease: How to Reduce Its Unsustainable Global Burden by Increasing Cognitive Access to Health Self-Management"

https://www.mdpi.com/1396952:

The Transition to Noncommunicable Disease: How to Reduce Its Unsustainable Global Burden by Increasing Cognitive Access to Health Self-Management

Abstract: The global epidemic of noncommunicable diseases (NCDs), such as cardiovascular disease and diabetes, is creating unsustainable burdens on health systems worldwide. NCDs are treatable but not curable. They are less amenable to top-down prevention and control than are the infectious diseases now in retreat. NCDs are mostly preventable, but only individuals themselves have the power to prevent and manage the diseases to which the enticements of modernity and rising prosperity have made them so susceptible (e.g., tobacco, fat-salt-carbohydrate laden food products). Rates of nonadherence to healthcare regimens for controlling NCDs are high, despite the predictable long-term ravages of not self-managing an NCD effectively. I use international data on adult functional literacy to show why the cognitive demands of today’s NCD self-management (NCD-SM) regimens invite nonadherence, especially among individuals of below-average or declining cognitive capacity. I then describe ways to improve the cognitive accessibility of NCD-SM regimens, where required, so that more patients are better able and motivated to[...]


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Tuesday, February 22, 2022

From MDPI: "How Intelligence Can Be a Solution to Consequential World Problems"

https://www.mdpi.com/si/69309

How Intelligence Can Be a Solution to Consequential World ProblemsDear Colleagues,
The idea of the proposed symposium is to ask major contributors to the field of intelligence to take one consequential real-world problem—a problem of their choice—and to write about how what we know about intelligence could help us to solve the problem. What is, has been, or could be the role of human intelligence in solving a consequential problem the world faces?

A large proportion of intelligence research is devoted to basic issues; for example, what is the psychometric structure of intelligence? What are the cognitive bases of intelligence? What are the brain-based correlates (or even causes) of intelligence? What does intelligence predict? What are the validity and reliability of a certain kind of intelligence test, compared with those of other such tests? What makes a particular theory valid?
Such research is needed, but there are also problems larger than those presented in intelligence tests, including problems of today. Some of those larger problems have also become world problems. Here is a sample of such problems, some of which are new, while other problems are not: the pandemic, polarization and immobilization in democratic systems, human-rights violations, unequal opportunities, social[...]


******************************************************
Kevin McGrew, PhD
Educational Psychologist
Director, Institute for Applied Psychometrics
IAP
www.themindhub.com
******************************************************

Sunday, February 13, 2022

A neurocognitive psychometrics account of individual differences in attentional control. - PsycNET

Yet another study supporting the prominent role of attentional control (AC) for higher level cognition.

 A neurocognitive psychometrics account of individual differences in attentional control. - PsycNET 
https://doi.apa.org/doiLanding?doi=10.1037%2Fxge0001184

******************************************
Kevin S. McGrew, PhD
Educational & School Psychologist
Director
Institute for Applied Psychometrics (IAP)
https://www.themindhub.com
******************************************

Saturday, February 12, 2022

The genetics of g and specific cognitive #CHC abilites. A must read. Includes a commentary rant directed at my fellow #schoolpsychologist #IQ test researchers

https://www.biorxiv.org/content/10.1101/2022.02.05.479237v1

The genetics of specific cognitive abilities
Francesca ProcopioQuan ZhouZiye WangAgnieska Gidziela 
View ORCID Profile
Kaili Rimfeld 
View ORCID Profile
Margherita MalanchiniRobert Plomin
doi: https://doi.org/10.1101/2022.02.05.479237 
This article is a preprint and has not been certified by peer review [what does this mean?].
0000000
Abstract
Most research on individual differences in performance on tests of cognitive ability focuses on general cognitive ability (g), the highest level in the three-level Cattell-Horn-Carroll (CHC) hierarchical model of intelligence. About 50% of the variance of g is due to inherited DNA differences (heritability) which increases across development. Much less is known about the genetics of the middle level of the CHC model, which includes 16 broad factors such as fluid reasoning, processing speed, and quantitative knowledge. We provide a meta-analytic review of 863,041 monozygotic-dizygotic twin comparisons from 80 publications for these middle-level factors, which we refer to as specific cognitive abilities (SCA). Twin comparisons were available for 11 of the 16 CHC domains. The average heritability across all SCA is 55%, similar to the heritability of g. However, there is substantial differential heritability and the SCA do not show the dramatic developmental increase in heritability seen for g. We also investigated SCA independent of g (g-corrected SCA, which we refer to as SCA.g). A surprising finding is that SCA.g remain substantially heritable (53% on average), even though 25% of the variance of SCA that covaries with g has been removed. Our review frames expectations for genomic research that will use polygenic scores to predict SCA and SCA.g. Genome-wide association studies of SCA.g are needed to create polygenic scores that can predict SCA profiles of cognitive abilities and disabilities independent of g. These could be used to foster children's cognitive strengths and minimise their weaknesses.

Blog masters comment.  Although there are constant critical battles re the relevance of intelligence testing and CHC theory in school psychology (my professional roots), many of the critics fail to recognize that intelligence theory and research is not owned by the small applied sandbox of school psychology.  Mainstream psychological researchers (i.e., serious scholars of intelligence research, cognitive psychologists, neuropsychologists, genetic psychologists, etc.) are finding tremendous value in using the CHC taxonomy to organize research, meta-analysis, and commentaries.  The use of the CHC taxonomy to organize research and literature reviews is one of the most important contributions of CHC theory.  I have repeatedly articulated the importance of this contribution in many publications since 1997…the most recent being my chapter with Joel Schneider in Contemporary Intellectual Assessment (4th edition).  I was pleased to see our contribution reflected in this current paper by the authors using one of our taxonomic organizations to ground their research.  The image is below, which is from our prior 2012 chapter.

What I find interesting is that many CHC specific cognitive abilities demonstrated significant heritabilities after g-heritability variance is statistically removed, and, the specific cognitive abilities do NOT show the same developmental heritability trend as g.  These findings, in part, are consistent with John Horn's long standing arguement that psychometric g is just a statistical abstraction and that differential developmentalheritability, neurocognitive, and outcome relations evidence provides strong support for the validity of the broad CHC factors…with Horn going as far as saying g does not really exist as a real brain or biological based mechanism.  And, recent psychometric network-based theories (dynamic mutualism, wired intelligence, process overlap; brain network research) can account for the positive definite nature of correlation matrices (without involving a latent g variable), which, along with the failure to find a brain or biological based theoretical or psychological g despite over 100 years of research ("g is the Loch Ness Monster of Psychology", McGrew, 2021) suggests that psychometric g is just that…a statistical abstraction.  The findings in this paper need to be "chewed on" by those SP IQ test structural researchers who seem to be "stuck on psychometric g"….I call them "g-centrists" (McGrew et al., 2022 manuscript in preparation).  

Yes, my fellow SP's, our strong "staticism" dust-bowel empirical factor studies of IQ test batteries (often with the same blunt hammer every time…….bi-factor or EFA with SL orthogonalization; I was guilty of being similarly enamored with CFA as the ultimate "truth test" early in my career before I learned better, through my ongoing consultation and guidance by two important mentors—John Horn and especially Jack McArdle, who unfortunately passed away last week) are almost completely devoid of the integration of substantive mainstream research and theory.  Much of our structural research may be statistically strong….but it is substantively very weak and nearly void of substantive research and theory.  We are contributing to the theory crises in psychology (Fried, 2020), especially via the conflation of psychometric/statistical g with theoretical/psychological g.  Intelligence and IQ tests are not the sole property of SP…research on CHC and other theories of intelligence, and providing valid psychometric measures of these constructs, is important for moving all of psychologies (and related fields) intelligence-related theoretical research forward.  Thanks for letting me vent.  Click on images to enlarge.




Some findings.





******************************************
Kevin S. McGrew, PhD
Educational & School Psychologist
Director
Institute for Applied Psychometrics (IAP)
https://www.themindhub.com
******************************************

Tuesday, February 08, 2022

A neurocognitive psychometrics account of individual differences in attentional control. - PsycNET

https://doi.apa.org/doiLanding?doi=10.1037%2Fxge0001184

Schubert, A.-L., Löffler, C., & Hagemann, D. (2022). A neurocognitive psychometrics account of individual differences in attentional control. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General. Advance online publication. https://doi.org/10.1037/xge0001184
Attention control processes play an important role in many substantial psychological theories but are hard to reliably and validly measure on the subject-level. Therefore, associations between individual differences in attentional control and other variables are often inconsistent. Here we propose a novel neurocognitive psychometrics account of attentional control that integrates model parameters from the dual-stage two-phase model (Hübner et al., 2010), a mathematical model of selective attention, with neural correlates of conflict processing (i.e., latencies of the stimulus-locked lateralized readiness potential) in a multilayer structural equation model framework. We analyzed data from 150 participants who completed the Eriksen Flanker task while their EEG was recorded and used the neurocognitive psychometric approach to distinguish between two sequential stages of information-processing—target selection and response selection. Model parameters and neural correlates showed convergent validity and could be meaningfully related to each other. Together, these neurocognitive process parameters jointly explained 37 % of the variance in individual differences in higher-order cognitive abilities that were assessed with a battery of intelligence tests and working memory tasks. Individuals with greater cognitive abilities were not only better at focusing their attention on the target stimulus but also at subsequent response-selection. All in all, our results support the idea that individual differences in attentional control processes are related to individual differences in cognitive abilities. Moreover, they provide hope that the measurement crisis of individual differences in attentional control can be overcome by integrating measurement approaches from related disciplines such as mathematical psychology and cognitive neuroscience. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved)

******************************************
Kevin S. McGrew, PhD
Educational & School Psychologist
Director
Institute for Applied Psychometrics (IAP)
https://www.themindhub.com
******************************************

Thursday, February 03, 2022

Attention control and process overlap theory: Searching for cognitive processes underpinning the positive manifold - ScienceDirect

 Attention control and process overlap theory: Searching for cognitive processes underpinning the positive manifold - ScienceDirect 
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0160289622000101?via%3Dihub

Highlights


We discuss process overlap theory and the executive attention framework.

Both theories provide explanations for the positive manifold among ability tests.

Analyses revealed that attention control had the highest loading on the g-factor.

Attention control largely explained the positive correlations between abilities.

Abstract
Process overlap theory provides a contemporary explanation for the positive correlations observed among cognitive ability measures, a phenomenon which intelligence researchers refer to as the positive manifold. According to process overlap theory, cognitive tasks tap domain-general executive processes as well as domain-specific processes, and correlations between measures reflect the degree of overlap in the cognitive processes that are engaged when performing the tasks. In this article, we discuss points of agreement and disagreement between the executive attention framework and process overlap theory, with a focus on attention control: the domain-general ability to maintain focus on task-relevant information and disengage from irrelevant and no-longer relevant information. After describing the steps our lab has taken to improve the measurement of attention control, we review evidence suggesting that attention control can explain many of the positive correlations between broad cognitive abilities, such as fluid intelligence, working memory capacity, and sensory discrimination ability. Furthermore, when these latent variables are modeled under a higher-order g factor, attention control has the highest loading on g, indicating a strong relationship between attention control and domain-general cognitive ability. In closing, we reflect on the challenge of directly measuring cognitive processes and provide suggestions for future 

******************************************
Kevin S. McGrew, PhD
Educational & School Psychologist
Director
Institute for Applied Psychometrics (IAP)
https://www.themindhub.com
******************************************

Sex differences in adolescents’ occupational aspirations: Variations across time and place

https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0261438

We investigated sex differences in 473,260 adolescents' aspirations to work in things-oriented (e.g., mechanic), people-oriented (e.g., nurse), and STEM (e.g., mathematician) careers across 80 countries and economic regions using the 2018 Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA). We analyzed student career aspirations in combination with student achievement in mathematics, reading, and science, as well as parental occupations and family wealth. In each country and region, more boys than girls aspired to a things-oriented or STEM occupation and more girls than boys to a people-oriented occupation. These sex differences were larger in countries with a higher level of women's empowerment. We explain this counter-intuitive finding through the indirect effect of wealth. Women's empowerment is associated with relatively high levels of national wealth and this wealth allows more students to aspire to occupations they are intrinsically interested in. Implications for better understanding the sources of sex differences in career aspirations and associated policy are discussed.


******************************************
Kevin S. McGrew, PhD
Educational & School Psychologist
Director
Institute for Applied Psychometrics (IAP)
https://www.themindhub.com
******************************************

Thursday, January 27, 2022

J. Intell. | Free Full-Text | Linguistic Influences on Cognitive Test Performance: Examinee Characteristics Are More Important than Test Characteristics

J. Intell. | Free Full-Text | Linguistic Influences on Cognitive Test Performance: Examinee Characteristics Are More Important than Test Characteristics
https://www.mdpi.com/2079-3200/10/1/8

******************************************
Kevin S. McGrew, PhD
Educational & School Psychologist
Director
Institute for Applied Psychometrics (IAP)
https://www.themindhub.com
******************************************