Friday, December 15, 2017

Does the rot start at the top? New different Flynn effect research



Does the rot start at the top?

From Twitter, a Flipboard magazine by James Thompson

As readers of this blog will know, it is usually Woodley of Menie who darkens these pages with talk of genetic ruin, while James Flynn is the plucky New Zealander…

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Wednesday, December 13, 2017

Talking to yourself? Here’s the science behind that little voice in your head



Talking to yourself? Here's the science behind that little voice in your head

The brain considers talking to ourselves in our heads to be very similar to speaking our thoughts out loud. And the…

Read it on Flipboard

Read it on irishexaminer.com




Tuesday, December 12, 2017

Research Byte: Reading and math achievement relations—a meta-analysis

The Association Between Arithmetic and Reading Performance in School: A Meta-Analytic Study

Article link

Vivian Singer and Kathernie Strasser

Many studies of school achievement find a significant association between reading and arithmetic achievement. The magnitude of the association varies widely across the studies, but the sources of this variation have not been identified. The purpose of this paper is to examine the magnitude and determinants of the relation between arithmetic and reading performance during elementary and middle school years. We meta-analyzed 210 correlations between math and reading measures, coming from 68 independent samples (the overall sample size was 58923 participants). The meta-analysis yielded an average correlation of 0.55 between math and reading measures. Among the moderators tested, only transparency of orthography and use of timed or untimed tests were significant in explaining the size of the correlation, with the largest correlations observed between timed measures of arithmetic and reading and between math and reading in opaque orthographies.

Implications for Instruction

The reported findings have practical implica-tions for the teaching of arithmetic and lan-guage. Specifically, they show that, although there may be some skills specific to language and to arithmetic performance, those specific factors can only partially account for the vari-ance in either of them. This highlights the im-portance of teaching general skills such as lan-guage processing and problem solving. Based on these findings, we consider it essential that, to make better educational decisions, educators as well as clinical practitioners take into account the wide arrange of possible factors that deter-mine performance in arithmetic and reading in school, instead of visualizing learning problems as the result of isolated deficits. In the curricu-lum, arithmetic and reading are presented as dissociated domains, but our results suggest that it may be beneficial to focus on their relation, be it from the perspective of common cognitive factors that influence both of them, or from a causal perspective where one of them influences the other. One corollary of the conception of arithmetic and reading as very separate domains may be the assumption that, because language is key for literacy development, it could not play a vital role for arithmetic learning, downplaying the importance of language for arithmetic learn-ing, and limiting the interventions available for teachers and special educators

Keywords: arithmetic, reading, schoolchildren

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Saturday, December 09, 2017

Research review of efficacy of effort testing with culturally, ethnically, and linguistically diverse populations

Cross-Cultural Feigning Assessment: A Systematic Review of Feigning Instruments Used With Linguistically, Ethnically, and Culturally Diverse Samples

Alicia Nijdam-Jones and Barry Rosenfeld Fordham University

The cross-cultural validity of feigning instruments and cut-scores is a critical concern for forensic mental health clinicians. This systematic review evaluated feigning classification accuracy and effect sizes across instruments and languages by summarizing 45 published peer-reviewed articles and unpublished doctoral dissertations conducted in Europe, Asia, and North America using linguistically, ethnically, and culturally diverse samples. The most common psychiatric symptom measures used with linguistically, ethnically, and culturally diverse samples included the Structured Inventory of Malingered Symptom-atology, the Miller Forensic Assessment of Symptoms Test, and the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI). The most frequently studied cognitive effort measures included the Word Recogni-tion Test, the Test of Memory Malingering, and the Rey 15-item Memory test. The classification accuracy of these measures is compared and the implications of this research literature are discussed.

Public Significance Statement This study suggests that there is only a modest amount of research examining the use of feigning assessment measures with linguistically, ethnically, and culturally diverse populations. As psychol-ogists in the United States and other Western, English-speaking countries assess individuals from diverse linguistic, ethnic, and cultural backgrounds, it is important that the assessment techniques that they rely on have demonstrated utility in non-English cultures and languages.

Lick on image to enlarge. Article link.




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Research Byte: The Role of Visuospatial Ability in the Raven's Progressive Matrices

File under Gf and Gv as per CHC theory.

The Role of Visuospatial Ability in the Raven's Progressive Matrices

Nicolette A. Waschl, Ted Nettelbeck, and Nicholas R. Burns

School of Psychology, University of Adelaide, SA, Australia

Abstract:

Debate surrounding the role of visuospatial ability in performance on the Raven's Progressive Matrices (RPM) has existed since their conception. This issue has yet to be adequately resolved, and may have implications regarding sex differences in scores. Therefore, this study aimed to examine the relationship between RPM performance, visuospatial ability and fluid ability, and any sex differences in these relationships. Data were obtained from three samples: two University samples completed the Advanced RPM and one population-based sample of men completed the Standard RPM. All samples additionally completed an alternative measure of fluid ability, and one or more measures of visuospatial ability. Structural equation modeling was used to examine the relationships between performance on the visuospatial and fluid ability tests and performance on the RPM. Visuospatial ability was found to significantly contribute to performance on the RPM, over and above fluid ability, supporting the contention that visuospatial ability is involved in RPM performance. No sex differences were found in this relationship, although sex differences in visuospatial ability may explain sex differences in RPM scores.

Keywords: Raven's Progressive Matrices, fluid ability, visuospatial ability, sex differences

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Friday, December 08, 2017

Teaching spatial cognition and thinking. Embodied cognition design principles

Teaching students to think spatially through embodied actions: Design principles for learning environments in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics

D. DeSutter* and M. Stieff

Abstract

Spatial thinking is a vital component of the science, technology, engineering, and mathematics curriculum. However, to date, broad development of learning environments that target domain-specific spatial thinking is incomplete. The present article visits the problem of improving spatial thinking by first reviewing the evidence that the human mind is embodied: that cognition, memory, and knowledge representation maintain traces of sensorimotor impressions from acting and perceiving in a physical environment. In particular, we review the evidence that spatial cognition and the ways that humans perceive and conceive of space are embodied. We then propose a set of design principles to aid researchers, designers, and practitioners in creating and evaluating learning environments that align principled embodied actions to targets of spatial thinking in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics.

Click on image to enlarge. Article link.




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Research Byte: Spatial (Gv) training improves math ach (Gq) positive study


Spatial Training Improves Children's Mathematics Ability

Yi-Ling Cheng and Kelly S. Mix

Michigan State University

We tested whether mental rotation training improved math performance in 6- to 8-year-olds. Children were pretested on a range of number and math skills. Then one group received a single session of mental rotation training using an object completion task that had previously improved spatial ability in children this age (Ehrlich, Levine, & Goldin-Meadow, 2006). The remaining children completed crossword puzzles instead. Children's posttest scores revealed that those in the spatial training group improved significantly on calculation problems. In contrast, children in the control group did not improve on any math tasks. Further analyses revealed that the spatial training group's improvement was largely due to better performance on missing term problems (e.g., 4+_____=11)

Article link.

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Scientists create atlas of developing human brain, the most complex human organ



Scientists create atlas of developing human brain, the most complex human organ

From Mind the Gap, a Flipboard magazine by Lawrence Villegas

Everybody likes travelling around the world but what if we tell you that now you can travel through human brains as…

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Read it on indiatoday.intoday.in




Thursday, December 07, 2017

International Cognitive Ability Resource Project FYI

Dear ICAR user,

I hope this email finds you well.

As ICAR admin, I would like to ask you for a favour. The ICAR core team is conducting a number of online studies, and it would be great if you could help with the data collection. You can either inform your colleagues by forwarding the links to your department, or kindly invite your friends to the online tests by sharing them on social networks. We are very grateful for your support and appreciate your generous contribution.

1. FaceIQ available at faceiq.icar-project.com
There are a number of fun tests with instant feedback, which measure various aspects of face perception skills as well as intelligence and personality. Please contact ls523@cam.ac.uk if there are any questions.

2. SAPA available at sapa-project.org/
The SAPA project aims to advance the studies of individual differences. The test, of variable length, consists of a variety of item types that help you explore your personality and cognitive ability. Please contact david-condon@northwestern.edu if there are any questions.

3. Spatial Planning Game available at concerto4.e-psychometrics.com/?wid=189&tid=32
Try out the newly developed map game, which not only measures your spatial planning ability but also provides lots of fun ''travelling'' online. Please contact bsl28@cam.ac.uk if there are any questions.

4. Challenging number series reasoning test available at concerto5.icar-project.com/new/test/numberquiz
Challenge yourself with the newly developed intelligence test. This enhanced difficulty contains number series reasoning problems as well as matrices-style tasks. Please contact ls523@cam.ac.uk if there are any questions.

Lastly, I would like to take the opportunity and wish you in advance a joyful festive season and a happy, healthy and peaceful new year!

Best,
ICAR admin
--
The International Cognitive Ability Resource Project (ICAR)
www.icar-project.com



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Wednesday, November 29, 2017

This Is the Trait All Creative Geniuses Share



This Is the Trait All Creative Geniuses Share

From Twitter, a Flipboard magazine by Jessica Stillman

Scientists put a bunch of geniuses in a house and observed them. This is what they discovered. Author Truman Capote, poet William Carlos Williams, and a…

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Read it on inc.com




Monday, November 27, 2017

Knowing, applying, and reasoning about arithmetic: Roles of domain-general and numerical skills in multiple domains of arithmetic learning.



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Knowing, applying, and reasoning about arithmetic: Roles of domain-general and numerical skills in multiple domains of arithmetic learning.
// Developmental Psychology - Vol 46, Iss 4

The longitudinal relations of domain-general and numerical skills at ages 6–7 years to 3 cognitive domains of arithmetic learning, namely knowing (written computation), applying (arithmetic word problems), and reasoning (arithmetic reasoning) at age 11, were examined for a representative sample of 378 Finnish children. The results showed that domain-general skills, including spatial visualization, language, rapid automatized naming, and working memory, contributed independently to arithmetic learning. These relations were mostly mediated via basic number competence (i.e., counting sequence and number system knowledge), although spatial visualization remained predictive of arithmetic outcomes. The findings underscore a similar developmental course of arithmetic learning across different cognitive domains where domain-general skills build a launchpad for advanced arithmetic via enhancing basic number competence. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)
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Sunday, November 26, 2017

How do the brains of intelligent people work?



How do the brains of intelligent people work?

From NEUROSCIENCE, a Flipboard magazine by Glossex

People with a higher-than-average intelligence level have brains that are "wired" in a different way, researchers say. A new study suggests that…

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Read it on medicalnewstoday.com




Friday, November 24, 2017

Distinct neural substrates of visuospatial and verbal-analytic reasoning as assessed by Raven’s Advanced Progressive Matrices



Distinct neural substrates of visuospatial and verbal-analytic reasoning as assessed by Raven's Advanced Progressive Matrices

From Brain/Vision, a Flipboard magazine by CinemaoftheMind

Article | Open Zhencai Chen, • Alain De Beuckelaer, • Xu Wang & • Jia Liu…

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Read it on nature.com




Wednesday, November 22, 2017

DARPA Is Spending $65 Million to Meld Mind and Machine



DARPA Is Spending $65 Million to Meld Mind and Machine

The U.S. defense agency that specializes in "out-there" science and technology endeavors is on a quest to bridge the gap between brain and…

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Read it on blogs.discovermagazine.com




Fronto-parietal structural connectivity in childhood predicts development of functional connectivity and reasoning ability: a large-scale longitudinal investigation



Fronto-parietal structural connectivity in childhood predicts development of functional connectivity and reasoning ability: a large-scale longitudinal investigation

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Read it on jneurosci.org




Monday, November 20, 2017

Network Neuroscience Theory of Human Intelligence



Network Neuroscience Theory of Human Intelligence

An enduring aim of research in the psychological and brain sciences is to understand the nature of individual differences in human intelligence,…

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Read it on cell.com




Navigation Test Battery - Gv

File under large scale spatial navigation (Gv).  http://www.iqscorner.com/search/label/Gv

Navigation Test Battery

Navigation Test Battery This experimental software was designed to address different mechanisms crucial for everyday navigation. Specifically, it provides a …

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Read it on osf.io




Friday, November 17, 2017

CHC theory evolution: Processing speed-Gs

Click on images to enlarge
























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Can brain training reduce dementia risk? Despite new research, the jury is still out



Can brain training reduce dementia risk? Despite new research, the jury is still out

From The Guardian, a Flipboard magazine by The Guardian

There are good reasons to be cautious about a new study claiming computer-based training can reduce the risk of…

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Read it on theguardian.com




Dementia breakthrough? Brain-training game 'significantly reduces risk'



Dementia breakthrough? Brain-training game 'significantly reduces risk'

From Brain, a Flipboard magazine by tommysclee

A recent study has been hailed as a "breakthrough" in dementia prevention, after finding that a brain-training exercise can…

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Read it on medicalnewstoday.com




Tuesday, November 14, 2017

Intellectual Disability and the Death Penalty: Current Issues and Controversies: Marc J. Tassé Ph.D., John H. Blume JD MAR: 9781440840142: Amazon.com: Books




Providing key information for students or professionals in the fields of criminology, education, psychology, law, and law enforcement, this book documents the legal and clinical aspects of the issues related to intellectual disability and the death penalty.


• Provides a comprehensive review of the legal and clinical aspects of the death penalty and intellectual disability

• Offers a detailed discussion of the Supreme court decision in Atkins v. Virginia as well as a review of court decisions since that 2002 ruling

• Details the diagnostic issues related to determination of intellectual disability, such as the assessment of intellectual functioning, adaptive behavior, and age of onset

• Shares best practices in clinical assessment and important forensic matters that must be considered





Differentiation of cognitive abilities in the WAIS-IV at the item level - ScienceDirect


Abstract

It is known that studying the differentiation of cognitive abilities is associated with many methodological challenges. In the recent years, methods have been developed to address these challenges. However, these methods require that the item scores of an intelligence test are combined into a composite score which may affect the power to detect the differentiation effect or even produce spurious results. Therefore, in this study, an item level approach is presented that can be used to simultaneously test for ability differentiation, age differentiation, and age differentiation-dedifferentiation. The new method is investigated in two small simulation studies, and applied to the standardization data of the Hungarian WAIS-IV. Results indicate that the ability differentiation effect is consistently present in the items of the WAIS-IV while there is no consistent age differentiation and/or age differentiation-dedifferentiation effect.





Differentiation of cognitive abilities and the Medical College Admission Test - ScienceDirect

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0191886917306608

Monday, November 13, 2017

Memory complaints and cognitive decline: Data from the GuidAge study



Memory complaints and cognitive decline: Data from the GuidAge study

From THE SCIENCE OF My LIFE, a Flipboard magazine by duskdiver

A memory complaint, also called Subjective Cognitive Decline (SCD), is a subjective disorder that appears to be relatively common,…

Read it on Flipboard

Read it on eurekalert.org



******************************************************
Kevin McGrew, PhD
Educational Psychologist
Director, Institute for Applied Psychometrics
IAP
******************************************************

Neurons are seen exploding across the brain "like fireworks" in the most detailed map ever made



Neurons are seen exploding across the brain "like fireworks" in the most detailed map ever made

From Brain Philosophy, a Flipboard magazine by Sandra Clark

Beyond teaching us more about the structure of the brain, these maps could help unlock some of the…

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Read it on alphr.com




Sunday, November 12, 2017

Brain imaging reveals brain stem alterations in children with autism



Brain imaging reveals brain stem alterations in children with autism

From Brain/Vision, a Flipboard magazine by CinemaoftheMind

Children with autism show different patterns of connectivity than controls do in brain stem regions associated with balance.…

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Read it on spectrumnews.org




Saturday, November 11, 2017

Tactile abilities (Gh) in the CHC taxonomy overview. Plus new study with possible support for tactile working memory

Interesting new study that provides some support for a possible tactile working memory (Gwm) ability in the CHC taxonomy. Much more research needed before one could consider adding it to CHC taxonomy. Click on image to enlarge.





Article link.

Abstract

The human prefrontal cortex (PFC) has been shown to be important for metacognition, the capacity to monitor and control one's own cognitive processes. Here we dissected the neural architecture of somatosensory metacognition using navigated single-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to modulate tactile working memory (WM) processing. We asked subjects to perform tactile WM tasks and to give a confidence rating for their performance after each trial. We circumvented the challenge of interindividual variability in functional brain anatomy by applying TMS to two PFC areas that, according to tractography, were neurally connected with the primary somatosensory cortex (S1): one area in the superior frontal gyrus (SFG), another in the middle frontal gyrus (MFG). These two PFC locations and a control cortical area were stimulated during both spatial and temporal tactile WM tasks. We found that tractography-guided TMS of the SFG area selectively enhanced metacognitive accuracy of tactile temporal, but not spatial WM. Stimulation of the MFG area that was also neurally connected with the S1 had no such effect on metacognitive accuracy of either the temporal or spatial tactile WM. Our findings provide causal evidence that the PFC contains distinct neuroanatomical substrates for introspective accuracy of tactile WM.


Key words: metacognition, TMS, tractography, working memory

——————————

Below is a section (submitted draft copy) of our (Joel Schneider and I) forthcoming CHC update chapter. In Gh we currently did not see enough support for a tactile working memory factor, although we have speculated that such memory may exist (see italic font sections).

Schneider, W. J., & McGrew, K. S. (in press). The Cattell-Horn-Carroll Theory of Cognitive Abilities. In D. P. Flanagan & Erin M .McDonough (Eds.), Contemporary intellectual assessment: Theories, tests and issues (4thed.,) New York: Guilford PressHere is link to current 3rd edition.

SUBMITTED DRAFT: DO NOTE QUOTE

Tactile abilities (Gh):  Tactile abilities (Gh) can be defined as the ability to detect and process meaningful information in haptic (touch) sensations. It includes perceiving, discriminating and manipulating touch stimuli.

Gh refers not to sensitivity of touch, but to the cognition one performs with tactile sensations. Because this ability is not yet well defined and understood, it is hard to describe authoritatively. We speculate that it will include such things as tactile visualization (object identification via palpation), localization (where has one been touched), memory (remembering where one has been touched), texture knowledge (naming surfaces and fabrics by touch), and many others. Tests of Gh have long been used in neuropsychological batteries because of their ability to detect brain injury, especially to the somatosensory cortex. Attempts to developed haptic-based assessment batteries have also been developed for individuals who are blind or have severe visual disabilities (e.g., the Blind Learning Aptitude Test).

Much to the disdain of new parents, our initial explorations of the world as infants is filled with touching, grabbing, and sucking almost any object within immediate reach. The human sense of touch, be it with our hands or mouth, provides perceptual information regarding our immediate environment and serves as a primary foundation for the development of many concepts. The importance of touch permeates our discussion of learning as “we often talk about ‘grasping’ an idea, ‘getting a handle on’ a problem, or being ‘touched’ by a reading” (Minogue & Jones, 2006, p. 317). Driven by recent technological developments in robotics, 3D printers (making it possible to develop precise 3D stimuli), prosthetic limbs and hands, touch screen mobile devices and haptic feedback displays, technology to aid the visually impaired, the teleoperation of remote sensing or manipulation devices (telesurgery; operating remote drones), virtual reality based training and simulation (e.g., training of surgeons), etc., there has been increasing interest and research into tactile or haptic abilities (Kappers & Bergmann Tiest, 2013).

Circumscribing the emerging research on haptic perception is beyond the scope of this chapter. Haptic perceptual characteristics include such material properties as roughness, compliance, viscosity, friction, temperature, density and weight, and spatial properties, such as shape, curvature, length, volume and orientation, as well as quantitative properties such as numerosity (Kappers & Bergmann Tiest, 2013). A complete understanding of haptic perception requires understanding the peripheral sensory receptors (in the skin, muscles, tendons and joints), research that has identified two channels of haptic perception (“what” and “where”), and other issues such as vision-touch interactions, affective touch, and neural plasticity (Lederman & Klatzky, 2009). Furthermore, consumer psychologists have learned that some individuals have a “need for touch” (Peck & Childers, 2003) when evaluating products to counter common visual misperceptions (some scientists refer to touch as the “reality sense”; Nuszbaum, Voss, Klauer, & Betsch, 2010). The implications of touch for cognition are recognized by many educators who advocate the use of “hands-on” instruction (see Minogue & Jones, 2006, for emerging educational applications of haptic sensations).

Narrow Abilities within Tactile Abilities (Gh)

Despite the recent increase and variety of haptic perception research and applications, the limited structural evidence research does not allow us to articulate a more nuanced version of the fundamental factors of haptic abilities than outlined in our 2012 chapter —there are yet no well-supported cognitive ability factors within Gh. Although Stankov, Seizova-Cajic and Roberts (2001) identified a narrow tactile sensitivity (TS) factor, this is a sensory ability (refers to the ability to make fine discriminations in haptic sensations) and not a cognitive ability. For example, if two caliper points are placed on the skin simultaneously, we perceive them as a single point if they are close together. Some people can make finer discriminations than others. The very narrow TS factor was found to be minimally related to higher-level broad CHC abilities (Gf, Gv, Ga; Stankov et al., 2001). Two new (or previously overlooked) Gh structural evidence studies summarized below were either inconclusive or are based on samples to small to suggest revisions to the Gh domain.

In a factor study of the tactile measures from the Dean-Woodcock Sensory Motor Battery and CHC measures with a conormed cognitive battery of measures representative of the Cattell-Horn-Carroll (CHC) model of intelligence, Decker (2010) found that the Palm Writing and Object Identification tests did not form a distinct Gh factor and either loaded on a processing speed (Gs) factor or were factorially complex (Gs and Gv). Ballesteros, Bardisa, Millar and Reales (2005) investigated the psychometric characteristics, including factor analysis, of a psychological test battery designed to measure the perceptual and cognitive abilities of children with visual handicaps. The 20-test battery materials consist of raised-dot, raised-surface shapes and displays, and familiar and novel 3-D objects that required active touch. In a small sample, exploratory factor analysis identified six factors—spatial comprehension, short-term memory, object identification, shape identification efficient exploration, material and texture discrimination. Given the small sample size and the lack of other CHC ability indicators, the Ballesteros et al. (2005) study can only be considered suggestive and a first step in the exploration of the structural nature of Gh.

Assessment Recommendations for Gh

Most practical and clinical applications of Gh tests actually use sensory acuity tests. There are currently no available tests of higher-order Gh processes that are clearly distinct from Gv or Gs. The Halstead-–Reitan Neuropsychological Test Battery and the Dean-Woodock–Woodcock Neuropsychological Battery include several Gh tests.

Comments and Unresolved Issues Related to Gh

1. How is Gh to be distinguished from Gv and Gf? Two well-designed studies (Roberts, Stankov, Pallier, & Dolph, 1997; Stankov et al., 2001) found it difficult to distinguish between complex tests assumed to measure Gh and well-defined markers of Gv and Gf. Why might this be so? If the test involves identifying common objects (coins, keys, books, etc.) by handling them while blindfolded, the examinee is essentially using the hands instead of the eyes to visualize an object in the “minds eyes.”

2. What about “dynamic touch”? Do abilities from the Gh and kinesthetic (Gk) domains combine to reflect individual differences in dynamic touch (Stankov et al., 2001; Turvey, 1996)?

3. Like the presence of imagery in vision and auditory abilities, does some form of haptic imagery ability exist? What role would it play in Gh abilities?



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Friday, November 10, 2017

Research Byte: Is General Intelligence Little More Than the Speed of Higher-Order Processing?

Although a small sample, this is still and interesting study. The results are consistent with the continued nexus of the g, Gf, Gwm, attentional control and speed of higher order processing (especially P300 in ERP’s), white matter tract integrity and the PFIT model of intelligence as well as the recent process overlap theory (POT) of g.

Click on images to enlarge









Article link.

Anna-Lena Schubert, Dirk Hagemann, and Gidon T. Frischkorn Heidelberg University

ABSTRACT

Individual differences in the speed of information processing have been hypothesized to give rise to individual differences in general intelligence. Consistent with this hypothesis, reaction times (RTs) and latencies of event-related potential have been shown to be moderately associated with intelligence. These associations have been explained either in terms of individual differences in some brain-wide property such as myelination, the speed of neural oscillations, or white-matter tract integrity, or in terms of individual differences in specific processes such as the signal-to-noise ratio in evidence accumulation, executive control, or the cholinergic system. Here we show in a sample of 122 participants, who completed a battery of RT tasks at 2 laboratory sessions while an EEG was recorded, that more intelligent individuals have a higher speed of higher-order information processing that explains about 80% of the variance in general intelligence. Our results do not support the notion that individuals with higher levels of general intelligence show advantages in some brain-wide property. Instead, they suggest that more intelligent individuals benefit from a more efficient transmission of information from frontal attention and working memory processes to temporal-parietal processes of memory storage.

Keywords: ERP latencies, event-related potentials, intelligence, processing speed, reaction times



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Thursday, November 09, 2017

Childhood Music Training Induces Change in Micro and Macroscopic Brain Structure: Results from a Longitudinal Study | Cerebral Cortex



Childhood Music Training Induces Change in Micro and Macroscopic Brain Structure: Results from a Longitudinal Study | Cerebral Cortex

From Neuro, a Flipboard magazine by Jack

Several studies comparing adult musicians and nonmusicians have…

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Research Byte: What Causes the Anti-Flynn Effect? A Data Synthesis and Analysis of Predictors




Woodley of Menie, M. A., Peñaherrera-Aguirre, M., Fernandes, H. B. F., & Figueredo, A.-J. (2017). What Causes the Anti-Flynn Effect? A Data Synthesis and Analysis of Predictors. Evolutionary Behavioral Sciences. Advance online publication.

Article link.


Abstract

Anti-Flynn effects (i.e., secular declines in IQ) have been noted in a few countries. Much speculation exists about the causes of these trends; however, little progress has been made toward comprehensively testing these. A synthetic literature search yielded a total of 66 observations of secular IQ decline from 13 countries, with a combined sample size of 302,234 and study midyears spanning 87 years, from 1920.5 to 2007.5. Multilevel modeling (MLM) was used to examine the effect of study midyear, and (after controlling for this and other factors) hierarchical general linear modeling (GLM) was used to examine the following sequence of predictors: domain “g-ness” (a rank-order measure of g saturation) Index of Biological State (IBS; a measure of relaxed/reversed selection operating on g), per capita immigration, and the 2-way interactions IBS × g-ness and Immigration × g-ness. The MLM revealed that the anti-Flynn effect has strengthened in more recent years. Net of this, the GLM found that g-ness was a positive predictor; that is, less aggregately g-loaded measures exhibited bigger IQ declines; IBS was not a significant predictor; however immigration predicted the decline, indicating that high levels of immigration promote the anti-Flynn effect. Among the interactions there was a negative effect of the Immigration × g-ness interaction, indicating that immigration promotes IQ decline the most when the measure is higher in g-ness. The model accounted for 37.1% of the variance among the observations. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)


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Monday, November 06, 2017

12 Finalists named to take part in the Brainnovations Pitch Contest (December 6th, 2017)



12 Finalists named to take part in the Brainnovations Pitch Contest (December 6th, 2017)

Proud and excited to announce the 12 groundbreaking startups that will get to pitch their idea and solutions at…

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Read it on sharpbrains.com




Sunday, November 05, 2017

Wig (2017, in press)-Segregated Systems of Human Brain Networks


Click on images to enlarge.

Article link.

This is an excellent and thought provoking brain network review that addresses the push-pull between optimal (and necessary) brain network segregation and more transient and fluid integration “on demand” to meet new task demands. Excellent summary.








ABSTRACT

The organization of the brain network enables its function. Evaluation of this
organization has revealed that large-scale brain networks consist of multiple segregated subnetworks of interacting brain areas. Descriptions of resting state network architecture have provided clues for understanding the functional significance of these segregated subnetworks, many of which corre-
spond to distinct brain systems. The present report synthesizes accumulating evidence to reveal how maintaining segregated brain systems renders the human brain network functionally specialized, adaptable to task demands, and largely resilient following focal brain damage. The organizational properties that support system segregation are harmonious with the properties that promote integration across the network, but confer unique and importantfeatures to the brain network that are central to its function and behavior.

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Saturday, November 04, 2017

Mathematical (Gq) giftedness: Review of cognitive, conative and neural variables

Click on image to enlarge.

Article link.




ABSTRACT

Most mathematical cognition research has focused on understanding normal adult function and child development as well as mildly and moderately impaired mathematical skill, often labeled developmental dyscalculia and/or mathematical learning disability. In contrast, much less research is available on cognitive and neural correlates of gifted/excellent mathematical knowledge in adults and children. In order to facilitate further inquiry into this area, here we review 40 available studies, which examine the cognitive and neural basis of gifted mathematics. Studies associated a large number of cognitive factors with gifted mathematics, with spatial processing and working memory being the most frequently identified contributors. However, the current literature suffers
from low statistical power, which most probably contributes to variability across findings. Other major shortcomings include failing to establish domain and stimulus specificity of findings, suggesting causation without sufficient evidence and the frequent use of invalid backward inference in neuro-imaging studies. Future studies must increase statistical power and neuro-imaging studies must rely on supporting behavioral data when interpreting findings. Studies should investigate the factors shown to correlate with math giftedness in a more specific manner and determine exactly how individual factors may contribute to gifted math ability.


SELECTIVE SUMMARY CONCLUSION STATEMENTS

In line with the heterogeneous nature of mathematical disabilities (e.g., Rubinsten and Henik, 2009; Fias et al., 2013), mathematical giftedness also seems to correlate with numerous factors—(see Appendix A for which factors were found in each study). These factors roughly fall into social, motivational, and cognitive domains. Specifically, in the social and motivational domains, motivation, high drive, and interest to learn mathematics, practice time, lack of involvement in social interpersonal, or religious issues, authoritarian attitudes, and high socio-economic status have all been related to high levels of mathematical achievement. Speculatively, it is interesting to ask whether some of these factors may be related to the so-called Spontaneous Focusing on Numerosity (SFON) concept which appears early in life and means that some children have a high tendency to pay attention to numerical information (Hannula and Lehtinen, 2005). To clarify this question, longitudinal studies could investigate whether high SFON at an early age is associated with high levels of mathematical expertise in later life. Better assessment of individual variability is also important, for example, Albert Einstein (who was a gifted even if sometimes “lazy” mathematician; see e.g., Isaacson, 2008) was famously anti-authoritarian.

In terms of cognitive variables, we found that spatial processing, working memory, motivation/practice time, reasoning, general IQ, speed of information processing, short-term memory, efficient switching from working memory to episodic memory, pattern recognition, inhibition, fluid intelligence, associative memory, and motor functions were all associated with mathematical giftedness. As a caveat it is important to point out that mere “significance counting” (i.e., just considering studies with statistical significant results regarding a concept) can be very misleading especially in the typically underpowered context of psychology and neuro-imaging research (see e.g., Szucs and Ioannidis, 2017). However, considering the patchy research, this is the best we can do at the moment. In addition, even if meta-analyses were possible, these also typically only take into account published research, so they usually (highly) overestimate effect sizes especially from small scale studies (see Szucs and Ioannidis, 2017).


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Friday, November 03, 2017

The landscape of brain health innovation: 130 experts and pioneers in 18 countries (and counting)



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The landscape of brain health innovation: 130 experts and pioneers in 18 countries (and counting)
// SharpBrains

— Registrants for the 2017 SharpBrains Virtual Summit (December 5-7th) as of November 3rd, 2017

Just a quick update on how registration stands for the upcoming 2017 SharpBrains Virtual Summit: Brain Health & Enhancement in the Digital Age (December 5-7th).

We are proud to report that so far 130 experts, pioneers and practitioners are registered to participate.

95 seem to be based in the US and 35 abroad, based on IP address during registration, with the following country breakdown:

  • United States 95
  • Australia 7
  • Canada 6
  • United Kingdom 4
  • Israel 3
  • Norway 2
  • Italy 2
  • Taiwan 1
  • Singapore 1
  • India 1
  • France 1
  • Sweden 1
  • Spain 1
  • Portugal 1
  • Brazil 1
  • Argentina 1
  • South Africa 1
  • Brunei 1

__________

Please consider joining us to explore the latest brain science and tech and market trends and to help shape Brain Health & Enhancement in the Digital Age.

For context, organizations represented in past Summits include: AARP, Alegent Health Immanuel Medical Center, Allstate Insurance, Alzheimer's Association, BBC, Bon Secours New York Health System, Brain Injury Association of America, Campbell Soup Company, Greenville Hospital System, Harvard Business Review, HealthComm Inc., Human Dimension Taskforce, US Army, Institute For The Future, Intel, Johnson & Johnson, Los Angeles County Dept of Public Health, McGovern Institute of Neurotechnology, MIT, National Resource Ctr. Osher Lifelong Learning Institutes, Nutrition Science Solutions, One Laptop Per Child, OptumHealth Behavioral Solutions, Piedmont Gardens, PsychologyToday, Procter & Gamble, Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, Stanford University, Sun Microsystems, UC Berkeley, UnitedHealth Group, Winter Park Health Foundation, Workers' Compensation Regulatory Authority, UCSF.

And the backgrounds of previous participants include: Biomedical Engineers, CEOs, Digital Media professionals, Entrepreneurs, Game publishers, Healthcare technologists, Marketing Executives, Medical Students, Neurologists, Neuropsychologists, Non profit board members, Occupational Therapists, Pharmaceutical Executives, Post doctorate researchers, Professors and Researchers, Psychiatrists, Psychologists, Psychotherapists, Scientific Publishers, Social Workers, Speech Pathologists, Talent management/HR, and Wellness professionals.

Looking forward to a great conference!

__________

Learn more & Reserve your Spot HERE

(10%-off promo code for SharpBrains readers: sharp2017)


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Thursday, November 02, 2017

How to detect the risk of dyslexia before learning to read - Scienmag: Latest Science and Health News



How to detect the risk of dyslexia before learning to read - Scienmag: Latest Science and Health News

Almost 10% of the world population suffers dyslexia. Establishing an early diagnosis would allow…

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Sunday, October 29, 2017

Is “g” overemphasized in intelligence research—commentary by Stankov

Commentary: Overemphasized “g”

Lazar Stankov

Abstract: In this paper I argue that the emphasis on “g” has become a hindrance to the study of broadly defined human cognitive abilities. Abilities captured by the first- and second-stratum factors in the Cattel-Horn-Carroll (CHC) theory have been neglected. The focus has been on a narrow range of cognitive processes that excludes those common to some sensory modalities and a host of new tasks and constructs that have become available through recent conceptual analyses and technological developments. These new areas have emerged from psychology itself (complex problem solving tasks and emotional intelligence) and from disciplines related to psychology like education and economics (economic games and cognitive biases in decision-making).

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Meta-analysis supports cognitive ability differentiation hypotheses (SLODOR)

A B S T R A C T

The cognitive ability differentiation hypothesis, which is also termed Spearman's Law of Diminishing Returns, proposes that cognitive ability tests are less correlated and less g loaded in higher ability populations. In ad-dition, the age differentiation hypothesis proposes that the structure of cognitive ability varies across respondent age. To clarify the literature regarding these expectations, 106 articles containing 408 studies, which were published over a 100-year time span, were analyzed to evaluate the empirical basis for ability as well as age differentiation hypotheses. Meta-analyses provide support for both hypotheses and related expectations. Results demonstrate that the mean correlation and g loadings of cognitive ability tests decrease with increasing ability, yet increase with respondent age. Moreover, these effects have been nearly constant throughout the century of analyzed data. These results are important because we cannot assume an invariant cognitive structure for dif-ferent ability and age levels. Implications for practice as well as drawbacks are further discussed.

Article link.





Saturday, October 28, 2017

Concept maps effective instructional method: A meta-analysis

Click on images to enlarge.  Article link.





Abstract

A concept map is a node-link diagram in which each node represents a concept and each link identifies the relationship between the two concepts it connects. We investigated how using concept maps influences learning by synthesizing the results of 142 independent effect sizes (n = 11,814). A random-effects model meta-analysis revealed that learning with concept and knowledge maps produced a moderate, statistically significant effect (g = 0.58, p < 0.001). A moderator analysis revealed that creating concept maps (g = 0.72, p < 0.001) was associated with greater benefit relative to respective comparison conditions than studying concept maps (g = 0.43, p < 0.001). Additional moderator analyses indicated learning with concept maps was superior to other instructional comparison conditions, and was effective across science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) and non-STEM knowledge domains. Further moderator analyses, as well as implications for theory and practice, are provided.

The following text is a direct quote from the conclusion section.

Nesbit and Adesope (2013) proposed seven cognitively oriented hypotheses that could explain the advantages of using concept maps for teaching and learning in comparison with reading text, listening to lectures, participating in discussions, writing summaries, and other instructional activities. First, using concept maps may enable dual coding of information in verbal and visual components of longer-term memory and thereby support more effective retrieval. Second, in comparison with text, they may allow cognitive load to be distributed across the visual and verbal channels of working memory, thus avoiding an overload of verbal working memory. Third, concept maps tend to consolidate multiple references to a concept at a single point in space, while in text, audio or other sequential formats the references would be spread over the sequence. Consolidating all relationships to a concept around a single point, a kind of spatial contiguity, may promote a more semantically integrated understanding of the concept. Fourth, in some types of concept maps, particularly those specified by Novak and Cañas (2008), superordinate and subordinate semantic relationships (e.g., mammal-squirrel) are signaled more strongly than they typically are in text. Fifth, the noun-verb-noun syntax used to express propositions in concept maps is much simpler and more accessible to poor readers and writers than the typical prose of expository text. Sixth, the decisions required to construct a concept map (e.g., determining which nodes should be placed close together) entail greater elaborative or germane processing than the decisions required to construct expository text. Finally, because concept maps take up more space than text, they may demand a greater degree of concision or summarization which in turn prompts greater elaborative processing.



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Friday, October 27, 2017

Table of contents : Nature Neuroscience— issue on Spatial cognition



Table of contents : Nature Neuroscience

From Twitter, a Flipboard magazine by Hugo Spiers

Current issue ISSUE Previous November 2017, Volume 20No11pp1431-1653 Editorial • Obituary • Q&A • Commentary • Perspectives • Reviews • News and Views •…

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Thursday, October 26, 2017

DARPA's new brain device increases learning speed by 40%



DARPA's new brain device increases learning speed by 40%

Cheap and Non-Invasive New research funded by the U.S. Department of Defense's Defense Advanced Research Project Agency (DARPA) has…

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******************************************************
Kevin McGrew, PhD
Educational Psychologist
Director, Institute for Applied Psychometrics
IAP
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Musicians have better memory than nonmusicians: A meta-analysis

More research, this time a meta-analysis, documenting the cognitive benefits of musical training. I better not show this to my mother who never liked the fact that I only took one year of piano:)

Musicians have better memory than nonmusicians: A meta-analysis

Francesca Talamini, Gianmarco Altoè, Barbara Carretti, Massimo Grassi

Abstract

The three meta-analyses revealed a small effect size for long-term memory, and a medium effect size for short-term and working memory, suggesting that musicians perform better than nonmusicians in memory tasks. Moreover, the effect of the moderator suggested that, the type of stimuli influences this advantage.

Click on image to enlarge. Article link.




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Topics in Cognitive Science - Volume 9, Issue 4 - Sketching and Cognition: Edited by Kenneth D. Forbus and Shaaron Ainsworth



Topics in Cognitive Science - Volume 9, Issue 4 - Sketching and Cognition: Edited by Kenneth D. Forbus and Shaaron Ainsworth

You have free access to this content Kenneth D. Forbus and Shaaron…

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Wednesday, October 25, 2017

CFA of WISC-V: A five factor CHC battery

There are dueling factor study articles regarding the WISC-V in the research literature. Here is the take of Reynolds and Keith, who, IMHO, tend to do some of the best factor structure research in intelligence testing.

The five factors look like clear Gc, Gv, Gf, Gwm and Gs CHC factors.

Abstract

The purpose of this research was to test the consistency in measurement of Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Chil-dren-Fifth Edition (WISC-V; Wechsler, 2014) constructs across the 6 through 16 age span and to understand the constructs measured by the WISC-V. First-order, higher-order, and bifactor confirmatory factor models were used. Results were compared with two recent studies using higher-order and bifactor exploratory factor analysis (Canivez, Watkins, & Dombrowski, 2015; Dombrowski, Canivez, Watkins, & Beaujean, 2015) and two using con-firmatory factor analysis (Canivez, Watkins, & Dombrowski, 2016; Chen, Zhang, Raiford, Zhu, & Weiss, 2015). We found evidence of age-invariance for the constructs measured by the WISC-V. Further, both g and five distinct broad abilities (Verbal Comprehension, Visual Spatial Ability, Fluid Reasoning, Working Memory, and Processing Speed) were needed to explain the covariances among WISC-V subtests, although Fluid Reasoning was nearly equivalent to g. These findings were consistent whether a higher-order or a bifactor hierarchical model was used, but they were somewhat inconsistent with factor analyses from the prior studies. We found a correlation between Fluid Reasoning and Visual Spatial factors beyond a general factor (g) and that Arithmetic was primarily a direct indicator of g. Composite scores from the WISC-V correlated well with their corresponding underlying factors. For those concerned about the fewer numbers of subtests in the Full Scale IQ, the model implied relation between g and the FSIQ was very strong.

Click on images to enlarge.  Article link.










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More support for P-FIT model of intelligence

Abstract

The authors describe the brain regions involved in the process of intelligence using as a basis, the models of the theory of frontoparietal integration (P-FIT Model). They also correlate the model described with functional areas of Brodmann, integrating them into the tertiary brain areas and address the subcortical structures involved in cognitive processes, including the memory. The studies performed by functional magnetic resonance, also unmask various regions related with intelligence, neither previously described by Brodmann nor even in conventional models of learning. The anterior insular cortex presents itself as the most recent tertiary area to be considered. Subcortical structures, when injured, mimick injuries to the cerebral cortex, demonstrating their great participation in cognition. The topographies of aphasia and the functioning mechanisms of the bearers of learning disorders, including dyslexic, dysgraphia and dyscalculic should be reconsidered. A better understanding of this topographic anatomy may clarify the mechanisms used in those individuals with cerebral lesions.

Click on images to enlarge.  Article link.







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An Analysis of the CHC model for Comparing Cognitive Architectures

From the computer science literature

An Analysis of the CHC model for Comparing Cognitive Architectures


Abstract There are many cognitive architectures available nowadays, and each architecture has its own different mechanisms. Therefore, we need to identify the advantages and disadvantages of these architectures in order to improve upon them. In this paper, we propose new metrics for comparing cognitive architectures based on the Cattell-Horn-Carroll (CHC) model, which is used in psychology to explain factors of intelligence. Here, we analyze factors of intelligence in the CHC model and interpret them as elements of a new cognitive architecture. Then, the CHC model is investigated with respect to “data” and “processing” to obtain a metric for each component. We present examples using Soar and LIDA to illustrate comparing different cognitive architectures and demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach.

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Monday, October 23, 2017

The Evolution of the Cattell-Horn-Carroll (CHC) Theory of Intelligence: Schneider & McGrew 2018 summary


The Evolution of the Cattell-Horn-Carroll (CHC) Theory of Intelligence: Schneider & McGrew 2018 summary from Kevin McGrew

This presentation includes a portion of key material to be published in a forthcoming CHC update/revision chapter--In D. P. Flanagan & Erin M .McDonough (Eds.), Contemporary intellectual assessment: Theories, tests and issues (4thed.,) New York: Guilford Press.

This is only a small amount of the chapter. Also, I have inserted some new material related to test interpretation that is not included in the to-be-published chapter. The tentative date for publication of the Flanagan book is spring 2018. The majority, but not all, of this SlideShare presentation was originally presented at the 2017 NYASP conference October 19,2017.

Sunday, October 22, 2017

Elsevier Neuroscience Books Win BMA Book Awards | SciTech Connect



Elsevier Neuroscience Books Win BMA Book Awards | SciTech Connect

We are proud to announce that several Elsevier neuroscience books were honored at the British Medical Association (BMA) annual 2017…

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Tuesday, October 17, 2017

PsycTESTS



PsycTESTS

Database Type Bibliographic, plus full text and multimedia. (76% of test records contain the actual test or test items.) Record Types Descriptive summaries of the test and its development…

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Sunday, October 15, 2017

What Is Your Mental Lexicon?



What Is Your Mental Lexicon?

From Psychology, a Flipboard magazine by Birgit

"The fact that a speaker can mentally find the word that he/she wants in less than 200 milliseconds, and in certain cases, even before it is heard, is proof that the…

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Monday, October 09, 2017

Predicting when a sound will occur relies on the brain's motor system - Scienmag: Latest Science and Health News



Predicting when a sound will occur relies on the brain's motor system - Scienmag: Latest Science and Health News

Whether it is dancing or just tapping one foot to the beat, we all experience how…

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