Saturday, August 19, 2017

A cognitive cost of the need to achieve? via BrowZine

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A cognitive cost of the need to achieve?
Modrek, Anahid; Kuhn, Deanna
Cognitive Development: Vol. 44 – 2017: 12 - 20

10.1016/j.cogdev.2017.08.003

Sunday, August 13, 2017

Brain Training - The "Controversy" | SciTech Connect

http://scitechconnect.elsevier.com/brain-training-the-controversy/

Fine-Tuning Cross-Battery Assessment Procedures: After Follow-Up Testing, Use All Valid Scores, Cohesive or Not via BrowZine




Another brilliant piece of work by Joel Schneider.  I have been talking about ability domain cohesion for the past decade (http://www.iqscorner.com/search?q=Cohesion)....now Joel has outlined how to deal with the concept psychometrically.  Well done.

Fine-Tuning Cross-Battery Assessment Procedures: After Follow-Up Testing, Use All Valid Scores, Cohesive or Not
Schneider, W. Joel; Roman, Zachary
Journal of Psychoeducational Assessment: Articles in press

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Working memory bombshell



Working memory bombshell

The picture shows that working memory for simple repetition (Forwards Digit Span, Forward Corsi Blocks) has increased slightly over 43 years, whilst working memory for the…

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The default brain network




Thursday, August 10, 2017

Sixth Circuit Court of Appeals rules (Black v Carpenter, 2017) against norm obsolescence (Flynn effect) adjustment of IQ scores in Atkins death penalty cases

A newly published 6th Circuit opinion (Black v Carpenter, 2017) rules against norm obsolescence (the Flynn effect) in the evaluation of IQ test scores in Atkins ID death penalty cases.  I obviously disagree with this decision as outlined in my 2015 chapter in the AAIDD "The Death Penalty and Intellectual Disability" (Polloway, 2015).

I have no further comment at this time as my expert opinion is clearly articulated in the AAIDD publication and I will continue my efforts to educate the courts.  This decision is at variance with the official positions of American Association on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities (AAIDD) and the American Psychiatric Association (DSM-5), the two professional associations with official  guidance regarding  the diagnosis of ID. 

This looks like another issue that might need the attention of SCOTUS.

The following section is extracted from the complete ruling.


E. Implications of the Flynn Effect

There is good reason to have pause before retroactively adjusting IQ scores downward to offset the Flynn Effect. As we noted above, see n.1, supra, the Flynn Effect describes the apparent rise in IQ scores generated by a given IQ test as time elapses from the date of that specific test’s standardization. The reported increase is an average of approximately three points per decade, meaning that for an IQ test normed in 1995, an individual who took that test in 1995 and scored 100 would be expected to score 103 on that same test if taken in 2005, and would be expected to score 106 on that same test in 2015. This does not imply that the individual is “gaining intelligence”: after all, if the same individual, in 2015, took an IQ test that was normed in 2015, we would expect him to score 100, and we would consider him to be of the same “average” intelligence that he demonstrated when he scored 100 on the 1995-normed test in 1995. Rather, the Flynn Effect implies that the longer a test has been on the market after initially being normed, the higher (on average) an individual should perform, as compared with how that individual would perform on a more recently normed IQ test.

At first glance, of course, the Flynn Effect is troubling: if scoring 70 on an IQ test in 1995 would have been sufficient to avoid execution, then why shouldn’t a score of 76 on that same test administered in 2015 (which would produce a “Flynn-adjusted” score of 70) likewise suffice to avoid execution? Further, even if IQ tests were routinely restandardized every year or two to reset the mean score to 100, and even if old IQ tests were taken off the market so as to avoid the Flynn Effect “inflation” of scores that is visible when an IQ test continues to be administered long after its initial standardization, that would only mask, but not change, the fact that IQ scores are said to be rising.

Indeed, perhaps the most puzzling aspect of the Flynn Effect is that it is true. As Dr. Tassé states in his declaration, “[t]he so-called ‘Flynn Effect’ is NOT a theory. It is a wellestablished scientific fact that the US population is gaining an average of 3 full-scale IQ points per decade.” The implications of the Flynn Effect over a longer period of time are jarring: consider a cohort of individuals who, in 1917, took an IQ test that was normed in 1917 and received “normal” scores (say, 100, on average). If we could transport that same cohort of individuals to the present day, we would expect their average score today on an IQ test normed in 2017—a century later—to be thirty points lower: 70, making them mentally retarded, on average.

Alternatively, consider a cohort of individuals who, in 2017, took an IQ test that was normed in 2017 and received “normal” scores (of 100, on average). If we could transport that same cohort of individuals to a century ago, we would expect that their average score on a test normed in 1917 would be thirty points higher: 130, making them geniuses, on average.

It thus makes little sense to use Flynn-adjusted IQ scores to determine whether a criminal is sufficiently intellectually disabled to be exempt from the death penalty. After all, if Atkins stands for the proposition that someone with an IQ score of 70 or lower in 2002 (when Atkins was decided) is exempt from the death penalty, then the use of Flynn-adjusted IQ scores would conceivably lead to the conclusion that, within the next few decades, almost no one with borderline or merely below-average IQ scores should be executed, because their scores when adjusted downward to 2002 levels would be below 70. Indeed, the Supreme Court did not amplify just what moral or medical theory led to the highly general language that it used in Atkins when it prohibited the imposition of a death sentence for criminals who are “so impaired as to fall within the range of mentally retarded offenders about whom there is a national consensus,” 536 U.S. at 317. If Atkins had been a 1917 case, the majority of the population now living—if we were to apply downward adjustments to their IQ scores to offset the Flynn Effect from 1917 until now—would be too mentally retarded to be executed; and until the Supreme Court tells us that it is committed to making such downward adjustments, we decline to do so.

* * *

COLE, Chief Judge, concurring in the opinion except for Section II.E. I concur with the majority opinion except as to the section discussing the implications of the Flynn Effect. In holding that Black did not prove that he had significantly subaverage general intellectual functioning, we concluded that Black’s childhood IQ scores would be above 70 even if we adjusted those scores to account for both the SEM and the Flynn Effect. Accordingly, I would not address the question of whether we should apply a Flynn Effect adjustment in cases generally because it is unnecessary to the resolution of Black’s appeal. Regardless, courts, including our own in Black I, have regarded the Flynn Effect as an important consideration in determining who qualifies as intellectually disabled. See, e.g., Black v. Bell, 664 F.3d 81, 95–96 (6th Cir. 2011); Walker v. True, 399 F.3d 315, 322–23 (4th Cir. 2005).


Sharing Neural Mechanisms of Individual Differences in Working Memory Capacity: Observations From Functional Neuroimaging Studies via BrowZine

Neural Mechanisms of Individual Differences in Working Memory Capacity: Observations From Functional Neuroimaging Studies
Minamoto, Takehiro; Tsubomi, Hiroyuki; Osaka, Naoyuki
Current Directions in Psychological Science: Vol. 26 Issue 4 – 2017: 335 - 345

10.1177/0963721417698800

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Wednesday, August 09, 2017

Fronto-parietal structural connectivity in childhood predicts development of functional connectivity and reasoning ability: a large-scale longitudinal investigation | Journal of Neuroscience

More support for PFIT theory of intelligence

Fronto-parietal structural connectivity in childhood predicts development of functional connectivity and reasoning ability: a large-scale longitudinal investigation | Journal of Neuroscience

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Tuesday, August 08, 2017

Book nook: Executive Functions in Health and Disease: New book to help integrate Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuropsychology



Executive Functions in Health and Disease: New book to help integrate Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuropsychology

Neuroscience used to be the monopoly of a few elite universities located in a handful…

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Sunday, August 06, 2017

Cognitive hearing aid filters noise

Interesting story, thought you might like it.

Cognitive Hearing Aid Filters Out the Noise

Find stories to share everyday with Juice a Paper.li app for iPhone.
Download it today!



*********************************************
Kevin McGrew, PhD
Educational Psychologist 
Director
Institute for Applied Psychometrics
*********************************************

Sharing The Flynn effect for verbal and visuospatial short-term and working memory: A cross-temporal meta-analysis via BrowZine

The Flynn effect for verbal and visuospatial short-term and working memory: A cross-temporal meta-analysis
Wongupparaj, Peera; Wongupparaj, Rangsirat; Kumari, Veena; Morris, Robin G.
Intelligence: Vol. 64 – 2017: 71 - 80

10.1016/j.intell.2017.07.006

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Saturday, August 05, 2017

The Neuroscience Of Drumming: Researchers Discover The Secrets Of Drumming & The Human Brain



The Neuroscience Of Drumming: Researchers Discover The Secrets Of Drumming & The Human Brain

By Josh Jones via The Mind Unleashed(Open Culture) An old musician's joke goes "there are three kinds of…

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Saturday, July 29, 2017

What Predicts Academic Performance? Beyond IQ

Consistent with the MACM model and beyond IQ research.  http://www.iqscorner.com/search/label/Beyond%20IQ

What Predicts Academic Performance?

By Dr. Brian Davidson | Jul 26, 2017 Synopsis There is a growing movement to measure and build social-emotional skills to help students succeed. But which of these…

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Friday, July 28, 2017

Hierarchical Exploratory Factor Analyses of the Woodcock-Johnson IV Full Test Battery: Implications for CHC Application in School Psychology. via BrowZine

Hierarchical Exploratory Factor Analyses of the Woodcock-Johnson IV Full Test Battery: Implications for CHC Application in School Psychology.
Dombrowski, Stefan C.; McGill, Ryan J.; Canivez, Gary L.
School Psychology Quarterly: Articles in press



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Wednesday, July 26, 2017

Growth mindset does not predict academic achievement, study finds



Growth mindset does not predict academic achievement, study finds

There is no evidence to support the theory that growth mindsets predict academic achievement, a new study has claimed. If anything,…

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The contribution of spatial ability to mathematics achievement in middle childhood via BrowZine

The contribution of spatial ability to mathematics achievement in middle childhood
Gilligan, Katie A.; Flouri, Eirini; Farran, Emily K.
Journal of Experimental Child Psychology: Vol. 163 – 2017: 107 - 125

10.1016/j.jecp.2017.04.016

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Tuesday, July 25, 2017

Time processing in children with mathematical difficulties via BrowZine

Time processing in children with mathematical difficulties
Cester, Ilaria; Mioni, Giovanna; Cornoldi, Cesare
Learning and Individual Differences: Vol. 58 – 2017: 22 - 30

10.1016/j.lindif.2017.07.005

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Saturday, July 22, 2017

Evaluating WAIS–IV structure through a different psychometric lens: structural causal model discovery as an alternative to confirmatory factor analysis via BrowZine

Evaluating WAIS–IV structure through a different psychometric lens: structural causal model discovery as an alternative to confirmatory factor analysis
van Dijk, Marjolein J. A. M.; Claassen, Tom; Suwartono, Christiany; van der Veld, William M.; van der Heijden, Paul T.; Hendriks, Marc P. H.
The Clinical Neuropsychologist: Articles in press



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Thursday, July 20, 2017

Reading and mathematics equally important to science achievement: Results from nationally-representative data via BrowZine

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Reading and mathematics equally important to science achievement: Results from nationally-representative data
Barnard-Brak, Lucy; Stevens, Tara; Ritter, William
Learning and Individual Differences: Vol. 58 – 2017: 1 - 9

10.1016/j.lindif.2017.07.001

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Monday, July 17, 2017

Check out “The MindHub” on Flipboard

Flip through The MindHub by Kevin McGrew http://flip.it/LsQsAN

As an FYI.  Aside from my blogs and Twitter, the MindHub (Dr. Kevin McGrew) also shares curated content via the MindHub Flipboard magazine.



******************************************************
Kevin McGrew, PhD
Educational Psychologist
Director, Institute for Applied Psychometrics
IAP
******************************************************

Saturday, July 15, 2017

Sharing Introduction to Special Issue: “Current Perspectives on Neuroplasticity” via BrowZine

Introduction to Special Issue: "Current Perspectives on Neuroplasticity"
Rivera, Susan M.; Carlson, Stephanie M.; David Zelazo, Philip
Cognitive Development: Vol. 42 – 2017: 1 - 3

10.1016/j.cogdev.2017.05.003

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Friday, July 14, 2017

Brain Structure Study in Children Suggests Biological Overlaps in Disorders Usually Considered Distinct



Brain Structure Study in Children Suggests Biological Overlaps in Disorders Usually Considered Distinct

Looking at the brains of children with various psychiatric illnesses, researchers have…

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Sharing The Neurocognitive Profile of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: A Review of Meta-Analyses via BrowZine

The Neurocognitive Profile of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: A Review of Meta-Analyses
Pievsky, Michelle A.; McGrath, Robert E.
Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology: Articles in press



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Wednesday, July 12, 2017

Rhythmic firing of brain cells supports communication in brain network for language



Rhythmic firing of brain cells supports communication in brain network for language

A good night's sleep refreshes body and mind, but a poor night's sleep can do just the opposite. A study from…

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Research Domain Criteria (RDoC)



Research Domain Criteria (RDoC)

RDoC is a research framework for new ways of studying mental disorders. It integrates many levels of information (from genomics to self-report) to better understand…

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Journal of Expertise



Journal of Expertise

The Journal of Expertise (JoE) is a peer-reviewed journal dedicated to publishing original scholarship in the area of expertise and expert performance, including both basic and…

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Tuesday, July 11, 2017

Sharing Developmental change in the influence of domain-general abilities and domain-specific knowledge on mathematics achievement: An eight-year longitudinal study. via BrowZine

Developmental change in the influence of domain-general abilities and domain-specific knowledge on mathematics achievement: An eight-year longitudinal study.
Geary, David C.; Nicholas, Alan; Li, Yaoran; Sun, Jianguo
Journal of Educational Psychology: Vol. 109 Issue 5 – 2017: 680 - 693

10.1037/edu0000159

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Monday, July 10, 2017

Cattell-Horn-Carroll (CHC) theory of cognitive abilities (v2.5) "official" broad and narrow defilntions

This was first published 7-10-17.  A minor edit to the working memory capacity code (Wc and not WM) was made 7-20-17.


CHC broad and narrow ability definitions (07-20-17)-v 2.5

(Abstracted from: Schneider, W. J., & McGrew, K. S. (in press). The Cattell-Horn-Carroll Theory of Cognitive Abilities. In D. P. Flanagan & Erin M .McDonough (Eds.), Contemporary intellectual assessment: Theories, tests and issues (4th ed.,) New York: Guilford Press.)

Narrow abilities with bold font = major ability; regular font = minor ability.  If all factor codes are regular font under a broad ability = insufficient data to classify as major or minor (Schneider & McGrew, in press).   Italic narrow factor code font designates “tentative” abilities.   Broad ability color codes (as per Ackerman et al.’s PPIK model of intelligence).  Blue – Intelligence-as-process; Gray – Intelligence-as-knowledge; Green – Intelligence-as-Process (speed/fluency); Red = other tentatively identified broad abilities.

 Dr. Joel Schneider and I have recently submitted our new/revised Cattell-Horn-Carroll (CHC) theory chapter for publication in the 4th edition of the Flanagan and Harrison Contemporary intellectual assessment book (see reference above).  Most of the CHC broad and narrow definitions did not change, some changed in minor ways, and others changed significantly.  The rationale for changes will be presented in our chapter when the book is published.  Here I present the abstracted up-to-date definitions.  A PDF copy an be downloaded here.  Be sure to purchase the book when it becomes available to learn more about the changes in some of the definitions and proposed revisions to CHC theory.


Fluid reasoning (Gf): The use of deliberate and controlled procedures (often requiring focused attention) to solve novel “on the spot” problems that cannot be solved by using previously learned habits, schemas, and scripts.

·   Induction (I): The ability to observe a phenomenon and discover the underlying principles or rules that determine its behavior. This ability is also known as rule inference.
·   General sequential reasoning (RG): The ability to reason logically using known premises and principles. This ability is also known as deductive reasoning or rule application.
·   Quantitative reasoning (RQ): The ability to reason with quantities, mathematical relations, and operators.
·   Reasoning Speed (RE):  The ability to reason with quantities, mathematical relations, and operators.
·   Piagetian Reasoning (RP):  Seriation, conservation, classification and other cognitive abilities as defined by Piaget’s developmental theory.

Short-term working memory (Gwm): The ability to maintain and manipulate information in active attention. The mind’s mental “scratchpad” or “workbench.”  

·   Auditory short-term storage (Wa):  The ability to encode and maintain verbal information in primary memory.
·   Visual-spatial short-term storage (Wv): The ability to encode and maintain visual information in primary memory.
·   Attentional Control (AC):  The ability to manipulate the spotlight of attention flexibly to focus on task-relevant stimuli and ignore task irrelevant stimuli. Sometimes referred to as spotlight or focal attention, focus, control of attention, executive controlled attention, or executive attention.
·   Working memory capacity (WM):  The ability to manipulate information in primary memory.  Technically not a narrow ability (WMC = short-term storage + AC).

Learning efficiency (Gl):  The ability the ability to learn, store, and consolidate new information over periods of time measured in minutes, hours, days, and years.

·   Associative memory (MA):  The ability to form a link between two previously unrelated stimuli such that the subsequent presentation of one of the stimuli serves to activate the recall of the other stimuli.
·   Meaningful memory (MM):  The ability to remember narratives and other forms of semantically related information.
·   Free recall memory (M6): The ability to recall lists in any order.

Visual-spatial processing (Gv):  The ability to make use of simulated mental imagery to solve problems.  Perceiving, discriminating and manipulating images in the “mind’s eye.”

·   Visualization (Vz):  The ability to perceive complex visual patterns and mentally simulate how they might look when transformed (e.g., rotated, changed in size, partially obscured, and so forth).
·   Speeded rotation (SR):  The ability to solve problems quickly using mental rotation of simple images. This ability is similar to Vz but is distinct because as it involves the speed at which mental rotation tasks can be completed.
·   Imagery (IM):  The ability to voluntarily mentally produce very vivid images of objects, people or events that are not actually present.
·   Closure speed (CS):  The ability to quickly identify and access a familiar, meaningful visual object stored in long-term memory from incomplete or obscured (e.g., vague, partially obscured, disguised, disconnected) visual cues of the object without knowing in advance what the object is.
·   Flexibility of closure (CF):  The ability to identify a visual figure or pattern embedded in a complex distracting or disguised visual pattern or array, when one knows in advance what the pattern is.
·   Visual memory (MV):  The ability to remember complex visual images over short periods of time (less than 30 seconds).
·   Spatial scanning (SS):  The ability to quickly and accurately survey (visually explore) a wide or complicated spatial field or pattern with multiple obstacles and identify a target configuration or identify a path through the field to a target end point.
·   Serial perceptual integration (PI):  The ability to recognize an object after only parts of it are shown in rapid succession.
·   Length estimation (LE):  The ability to visually estimate the length of objects (without using measurement instruments).
·   Perceptual illusions (IL):  The ability to not be fooled by visual illusions.
·   Perceptual alternations (PN): Consistency in the rate of alternating between different visual perceptions.
·   Perceptual speed (P):  See definition under Gs.  P has a secondary loading on Gv.

Auditory processing (Ga):  The ability to discriminate, remember, reason, and work creatively (on) auditory stimuli, which may consist of tones, environmental sounds, and speech units.

·   Phonetic coding (PC):  The ability to distinctly hear phonemes, blend sounds into words, and segment words into parts, sounds, or phonemes. 
·   Speech sound discrimination (US):  The ability to detect and discriminate differences in speech sounds (other than phonemes) under conditions of little or no distraction or distortion.
·   Resistance to auditory stimulus distortion (UR):  The ability to hear words or extended speech passages correctly under conditions of distortion or background noise.
·   Maintaining and judging rhythm (U8):  The ability to recognize and maintain a musical beat.
·   Memory for sound patterns (UM):  The ability to retain (on a short-term basis) auditory codes such as tones, tonal patterns, or speech sounds.
·   Musical discrimination and judgment (U1 U9):  The ability to discriminate and judge tonal patterns in music with respect to melodic, harmonic, and expressive characteristics (phrasing, tempo, harmonic complexity, intensity variations).
·   Absolute pitch (UP):  The ability to perfectly identify the pitch of tones.
·   Sound localization (UL):  The ability to localize heard sounds in space.

Comprehension-knowledge (Gc):  The ability to comprehend and communicate culturally-valued knowledge. Gc includes the depth and breadth of both declarative and procedural knowledge and skills such as language, words, and general knowledge developed through experience, learning and acculturation.

·   Language Development (LD):  An intermediate stratum ability to comprehend and communicate using language. The general understanding of spoken language at the level of words, idioms, and sentences. 
·   Lexical knowledge (VL):  The knowledge of the definitions of words and the concepts that underlie them. Vocabulary knowledge.
·   General (verbal) information (K0):  The breadth and depth of knowledge that one’s culture deems essential, practical, or worthwhile for everyone to know.
·   Listening ability (LS): The ability to understand speech.  This ability starts with comprehending single words and increases to long complex verbal statements.
·   Communication ability (CM):  The ability to use speech to communicate effectively.
·   Grammatical sensitivity (MY):  The awareness of the formal rules of grammar and morphology of words in speech.

Domain-specific knowledge (Gkn):  The depth, breadth, and mastery of specialized declarative and procedural knowledge (knowledge not all members of a society are expected to have).  The Gkn domain is likely to contain more narrow abilities than are currently listed in the CHC model.

·   General science information (K1):  The range of scientific knowledge (e.g., biology, physics, engineering, mechanics, electronics).
·   Knowledge of culture (K2):  The range of knowledge about the humanities (e.g., philosophy, religion, history, literature, music, and art).
·   Mechanical knowledge (MK):  Knowledge about the function, terminology, and operation of ordinary tools, machines, and equipment.
·   Foreign language proficiency (KL):  Similar to language development (see Gc) but in another language.
·   Knowledge of signing (KF):  The knowledge of finger spelling and signing (e.g., American Sign Language).
·   Skill in lip reading (LP):  Competence in the ability to understand communication from others by watching the movement of their mouths and expressions.
Reading and writing (Grw):  The depth and breadth of declarative and procedural knowledge and skills related to written language.
·   Reading comprehension (RC):  The ability to understand written discourse.
·   Reading decoding (RD):  The ability to identify words from text.
·   Reading speed (RS):  The rate at which a person can read connected discourse with full comprehension. Also listed under Gs.
·   Writing ability (WA):  The ability to use written text to communicate ideas clearly.
·   Spelling ability (SG):  The ability to spell words.
·   Writing speed (WS):  The ability to copy or generate text quickly.  Also listed under Gs and Gps.
·   English usage (EU): Knowledge of the mechanics of writing (e.g., capitalization, punctuation, and word usage).

Quantitative knowledge (Gq):   The depth and breadth of declarative and procedural knowledge related to mathematics. The Gq domain is likely to contain more narrow abilities than are currently listed in the CHC model.

·   Mathematical knowledge (KM):  The range of general knowledge, not performance of mathematic operations or the solving of problems.
·   Mathematical achievement (A3):  Measured (tested) mathematics achievement.

Retrieval fluency (Gr):  The rate and fluency at which individuals can access information stored in long-term memory.
·   Ideational fluency (FI):  The ability to rapidly produce a series of ideas, words, or phrases related to a specific condition or object.
·   Expressional fluency (FE):  The ability to rapidly think of different ways of expressing an idea.
·   Associational fluency (FA):  The ability to rapidly produce a series of original or useful ideas related to a particular concept.
·   Sensitivity to problems/alternative solution fluency (SP): The ability to rapidly think of several alternative solutions to a practical problem.
·   Originality/creativity (FO):  The ability to rapidly produce original, clever, and insightful responses (expressions, interpretations) to a given topic, situation, or task.
·   Speed of lexical access (LA):  The ability to rapidly retrieve words from an individual’s lexicon.  Verbal efficiency or automaticity of lexical access.  An intermediate stratum level ability.
·   Naming facility (NA):  The ability to rapidly call objects by their names.
·   Word fluency (FW):  The ability to rapidly produce words that share a phonological (e.g., fluency of retrieval of words via a phonological cue) or semantic feature (e.g., fluency of retrieval of words via a meaning-based representation).
·   Figural fluency (FF):  The ability to rapidly draw or sketch as many things (or elaborations) as possible when presented with a nonmeaningful visual stimulus (e.g., a set of unique visual elements).
·   Figural flexibility (FX):  The ability to rapidly draw different solutions to figural problems.

Processing speed (Gs):  The ability to control attention to automatically, quickly and fluently perform relatively simple repetitive cognitive tasks. Attentional fluency or attentional speediness
·   Perceptual speed (P):  An intermediate stratum level ability that can be defined as the speed and fluency with which similarities or differences in visual stimuli (e.g., letters, numbers, patterns, etc.) can be searched and compared in an extended visual field.
·   Perceptual speed-search (Ps):  The speed and fluency of searching or scanning an extended visual field to locate one or more simple visual patterns
·   Perceptual speed-compare (Pc):  The speed and fluency of looking up and comparing visual stimuli that are side-by-side or more widely separated in an extended visual field.
·   Number facility (N):  The speed, fluency and accuracy in manipulating numbers, comparing number patterns, or completing basic arithmetic.
·   Reading speed (fluency) (RS):  The speed and fluency of reading text with full comprehension. Also listed under Grw.
·   Writing speed (fluency) (WS):  The speed and fluency of generating or copying words or sentences. Also listed under Grw and Gps.

Reaction and decision speed (Gt): The speed of making very simple decisions or judgments when items are presented one at a time.

·   Simple reaction time (R1):  Reaction time to the onset of a single visual or auditory stimulus.
·   Choice reaction time (R2):  Reaction time when a very simple choice must be made.
·   Inspection time (IT):  The speed at which differences in visual stimuli can be perceived.
·   Semantic processing speed (R4):   Reaction time when a decision requires some very simple encoding and mental manipulation of the stimulus content.
·   Mental comparison speed (R7):  The reaction time required when stimuli must be compared for a particular characteristic or attribute.

Psychomotor speed (Gps):   The ability to perform skilled physical body motor movements (e.g., movement of fingers, hands, legs) with precision, coordination, fluidity or strength.
·   Speed of limb movement (R3):  The speed of arm and leg movement. This speed is measured after the movement is initiated. Accuracy is not important.
·   Writing peed (fluency) (WS):  The speed at which written words can be copied. Also listed under Grw and Gps.
·   Speed of articulation (PT): The ability to rapidly perform successive articulations with the speech musculature.
·   Movement time (MT):  The time taken to physically move a body part (e.g., a finger) to make the required response, after a decision or choice has been made, in an elementary cognitive task.

Psychomotor abilities (Gp):  The ability to perform skilled physical body motor movements (e.g., movement of fingers, hands, legs) with precision, coordination, or strength. The Gp domain is likely to contain more narrow abilities than are currently listed in the CHC model.

·   Manual dexterity (P1):  The ability to make precisely coordinated movements of a hand or a hand and the attached arm.
·   Finger dexterity (P2):  The ability to make precisely coordinated movements of the fingers (with or without the manipulation of objects).
·   Static strength (P3):  The ability to exert muscular force to move (push, lift, pull) a relatively heavy or immobile object.
·   Gross body equilibrium (P4):  The ability to maintain the body in an upright position in space or regain balance after balance has been disturbed.
·   Multilimb coordination (P6):  The ability to make quick specific or discrete motor movements of the arms or legs.
·   Arm-hand steadiness (P7):  The ability to precisely and skillfully coordinate arm–hand positioning in space.
·   Control precision (P8):  The ability to exert precise control over muscle movements, typically in response to environmental feedback (e.g., changes in speed or position of object being manipulated).
·   Aiming (AI):  The ability to precisely and fluently execute a sequence of eye–hand coordination movements for positioning purposes.

Olfactory abilities (Go):  The ability to detect and process meaningful information in odors. The Go domain is likely to contain more narrow abilities than are currently listed in the CHC model.
·   Olfactory memory (OM): The ability to recognize previously encountered distinctive odors.

Tactile (haptic) abilities (Gh):   The ability to detect and process meaningful information in haptic (touch) sensations. It includes perceiving, discriminating and manipulating touch stimuli.  Currently there are no well-supported narrow Gh cognitive ability factors.

Kinesthetic abilities (Gk):  The ability to detect and process meaningful information in proprioceptive sensations. Currently there are no well-supported narrow Gk cognitive ability factors within Gk.

Emotional intelligence (Gei):  The ability to perceive emotions expressions, understand emotional behavior, and solve problems using emotions.

·     Emotion perception (Ep):  The ability to accurately recognize emotions in the face, voice, and behavior.
·     Emotion knowledge (Ek):  Knowledge of the antecedents of emotions and the consequences of emotional expression.
·     Emotion management (Em):  The ability to regulate one’s emotions deliberately and adaptively.
·     Emotion utilization (Eu):  The ability to make adaptive use of emotion, especially to facilitate reasoning.