Tuesday, April 06, 2021

The Relationship between Theory of Mind and Intelligence: A Formative g Approach

The Relationship between Theory of Mind and Intelligence: A Formative g Approach

https://doi.org/10.3390/jintelligence9010011
Theory of Mind (ToM) is the ability understand that other people's mental states may be different from one's own. Psychometric models have shown that individual differences in ToM can largely be attributed to general intelligence (g) (Coyle et al. 2018). Most psychometric models specify g as a reflective latent variable, which is interpreted as a general ability that plays a causal role in a broad range of cognitive tasks, including ToM tasks. However, an alternative approach is to specify g as a formative latent variable, that is, an overall index of cognitive ability that does not represent a psychological attribute (Kovacs and Conway 2016). Here we consider a formative g approach to the relationship between ToM and intelligence. First, we conducted an SEM with reflective g to test the hypothesis that ToM is largely accounted for by a general ability. Next, we conducted a model with formative g to determine whether the relationship between ToM and intelligence is influenced by domain-specific tasks. Finally, we conducted a redundancy analysis to examine the contribution of each g variable. Results suggest that the relationship between ToM and intelligence in this study was influenced by language-based tasks, rather than solely a general ability.



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Kevin S. McGrew, PhD
Educational & School Psychologist
Director
Institute for Applied Psychometrics (IAP)
https://www.themindhub.com
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Nice followup and extension of Floyd et al (2018) IQ exchangeability study

Limited Internal Comparability of General Intelligence Composites: Impact on External Validity, Possible Predictors, and Practical Remedies


https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/pdf/10.1177/10731911211005171

Silvia Grieder1 , Anette Bünger1 , Salome D. Odermatt1 , Florine Schweizer1, and Alexander Grob1

Abstract

Research on comparability of general intelligence composites (GICs) is scarce and has focused exclusively on comparing GICs from different test batteries, revealing limited individual-level comparability. We add to these findings, investigating the group- and individual-level comparability of different GICs within test batteries (i.e., internal score comparability), thereby minimizing transient error and ruling out between-battery variance completely. We (a) determined the magnitude of intraindividual IQ differences, (b) investigated their impact on external validity, (c) explored possible predictors for these differences, and (d) examined ways to deal with incomparability. Results are based on the standardization samples of three intelligence test batteries, spanning from early childhood to late adulthood. Despite high group-level comparability, individual-level comparability was often unsatisfactory, especially toward the tails of the IQ distribution. This limited comparability has consequences for external validity, as GICs were differentially related to and often less predictive for school grades for individuals with high IQ differences. Of several predictors, only IQ level and age were systematically related to comparability. Consequently, findings challenge the use of overall internal consistencies for confidence intervals and suggest using confidence intervals based on test–retest reliabilities or age- and IQ-specific internal consistencies for clinical interpretation. Implications for test construction and application are discussed.

Keywords.  general intelligence, IQ, screening, individual level, reliability, validity

Friday, April 02, 2021

Theories and measurement of intelligence. - PsycNET

https://psycnet.apa.org/record/2020-80416-015

Citation
Floyd, R. G., Farmer, R. L., Schneider, W. J., & McGrew, K. S. (2021). Theories and measurement of intelligence. In L. M. Glidden, L. Abbeduto, L. L. McIntyre, & M. J. Tassé (Eds.), APA handbooks in psychology®. APA handbook of intellectual and developmental disabilities: Foundations (p. 385–424). American Psychological Association. https://doi.org/10.1037/0000194-015

Abstract
Advancements in the measurement of intellectual functioning via individually administered intelligence tests during the early 1900s led to reliance on IQs to represent the deficits in intellectual functioning during the past century. Concurrent development of models of intelligence also advanced understanding and measurement of intellectual functioning, and the current consensus is that intellectual functioning is best represented by a latent ability referred to as general intelligence (or psychometric g), as well as numerous broad and narrow abilities. As a result of these developments, the practice of identification of persons with intellectual disability (ID) is now based on a stronger scientific foundation. This chapter discusses three models of intelligence and reviews the genetic and environmental influences on intellectual functioning across the population, and persons with ID in particular. It culminates with a description of best practices and emerging methods in the assessment of intellectual functioning. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved)

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Kevin S. McGrew,  PhD
Educational Psychologist
Director
Institute for Applied Psychometrics (IAP)
www.themindhub.com
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Monday, March 29, 2021

Is there a “g-neuron”? Establishing a systematic link between general intelligence (g) and the von Economo neuron - ScienceDirect

 Is there a "g-neuron"? Establishing a systematic link between general intelligence (g) and the von Economo neuron - ScienceDirect 
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0160289621000246?via%3Dihub

Abstract
The construct of general intelligence (g) is one of psychology's most replicated and predictively useful constructs. Although research indicates that g is a highly heritable trait, deeply rooted in brain physiology, to date neither a strong biological correlate nor a comprehensive explanatory model involving neuronal mechanisms have been established. In this article I aim to do so by hypothesising that the von Economo neuron (VEN), a unique nerve cell thus far implicated in social cognitionand interoception, may in fact represent a central biological constituent of g. After presenting supportive evidence from neuroscience, psychiatry/neurology, clinical gerontology, and comparative psychology, an integrated reductionist framework is outlined, which reaches from the level of cognitive theory to the level of single neurons. Based thereon, it is concluded that the VENs might contribute to individual differences in g by rapidly inducing the coherence of neuronal oscillations within a functionally invariant parieto-frontal network underlying higher-order cognition, thereby facilitating mental efficiency.

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Kevin S. McGrew, PhD
Educational & School Psychologist
Director
Institute for Applied Psychometrics (IAP)
https://www.themindhub.com
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Friday, March 26, 2021

[PDF] Changing Patterns of Growth in Oral Reading Fluency During the COVID- 19 Pandemic | Semantic Scholar

 [PDF] Changing Patterns of Growth in Oral Reading Fluency During the COVID- 19 Pandemic | Semantic Scholar 
https://www.semanticscholar.org/paper/Changing-Patterns-of-Growth-in-Oral-Reading-Fluency-Domingue-Hough/9590ebbfad4364eb53a6dd40b76fe417df40200a?utm_source=alert_email&utm_content=FeedPaper&utm_campaign=AlertEmails_DAILY&utm_term=FeedPaper&email_index=1-0-1&utm_medium=1864857

Michael S. Christian VERSION: March 2021 Education has faced unprecedented disruption during the COVID-19 pandemic; evidence about the subsequent effect on children is of crucial importance. We use data from an oral reading fluency (ORF) assessment—a rapid assessment taking only a few minutes that measures a fundamental reading skill—to examine COVID's effects on children's reading ability during the pandemic in more than 100 U.S. school districts. Effects were pronounced, especially for Grades 2–3, but distinct across spring and fall 2020. While many students were not assessed in spring 2020, those who were seemed to have experienced relatively limited or no growth in ORF relative to gains observed in other years. In fall 2020, a far more representative set of students was observed. For those students, growth was more pronounced and seemed to approach levels observed in previous years. Worryingly, there were also signs of stratification such that students in lower-achieving districts may be falling further behind. However, at the level of individual students, those who were struggling with reading prior to the pandemic were not disproportionately impacted in terms of ORF growth. This data offers an important window onto how a foundational skill is being affected by COVID-19 and this approach can be used in the future to examine how student abilities recover as education enters a post-COVID paradigm.

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Kevin S. McGrew, PhD
Educational & School Psychologist
Director
Institute for Applied Psychometrics (IAP)
https://www.themindhub.com
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Thursday, March 25, 2021

Journal of Intelligence Special Issue on Psycho-Educational Assessments

https://www.mdpi.com/journal/jintelligence/special_issue_flyer_pdf/Psycho-Educational_Assessments_Theory_Practice/web


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Kevin McGrew, PhD
Educational Psychologist
Director, Institute for Applied Psychometrics
IAP
www.themindhub.com
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Saturday, March 20, 2021

Muddled Measurement: A Historical Perspective on Questionable Practices in School Psychology’s Assessment of Learning Disabilities - Eric Elias, 2021

 Muddled Measurement: A Historical Perspective on Questionable Practices in School Psychology's Assessment of Learning Disabilities - Eric Elias, 2021 
https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/0829573521999946

Abstract

As school psychologists we are well trained with using and interpreting a variety of psychometric instruments, yet there are several studies that indicate that school psychologist's interpretive practices veer off the intended path. The application of assessment to the process of identification of specific learning disabilities (SLD) has been noted as one of the more problematic areas in psychoeducational assessment for myriad reasons. While the medical field has begun to focus on de-implementing ineffective practices, the field of psychology has not followed as readily. This article considers the costs of poor decision making in the context of SLD evaluation and seeks to identify evidence-based assessment practices for SLD identification and decision making. After considering historical perspectives, approaches and practices for assessing SLD, actuarial interpretation, and treatment validity will be discussed.

Estimates of brain age for gray matter and white matter in younger and older adults: insights into human intelligence - ScienceDirect

 Estimates of brain age for gray matter and white matter in younger and older adults: insights into human intelligence - ScienceDirect 
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0006899321002882

Abstract

Aging entails a multifaceted complex of changes in macro- and micro-structural properties of human brain gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) tissues, as well as in intellectual abilities. To better capture tissue-specific brain aging, we combined volumetric and diffusivity properties to derive subject-specific age scores for each tissue. We compared age-related variance between WM and GM age scores in younger and older adults and tested whether tissue-specific age scores could explain different effects of aging on fluid (Gf) and crystalized (Gc) intelligence in younger and older adults. Chronological age was strongly associated with GM (R2 = 0.73) and WM (R2 = 0.57) age scores. The GM age score accounted for significantly more variance in chronological age in younger relative to older adults (p < 0.001), whereas the WM age score accounted for significantly more variance in chronological age in older compared to younger adults (p < 0.025). Consistent with existing literature, younger adults outperformed older adults in Gf while older adults outperformed younger adults in Gc. The GM age score was negatively associated with Gf in younger adults (p < 0.02), whereas the WM age score was negatively associated with Gc in older adults (p< 0.02). Our results provide evidence for differences in the effects of age on GM and WM in younger versus older adults that may contribute to age-related differences in Gf and Gc.

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Kevin S. McGrew, PhD
Educational & School Psychologist
Director
Institute for Applied Psychometrics (IAP)
https://www.themindhub.com
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Does reasoning training improve fluid reasoning and academic achievement for children and adolescents? A systematic review - ScienceDirect

 Does reasoning training improve fluid reasoning and academic achievement for children and adolescents? A systematic review - ScienceDirect 
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S2211949321000053

Abstract

BACKGROUND
Studies of children and adolescents suggest that reasoning training may improve both reasoning and academic achievement, but evidence and systematic evaluation of this research is limited. Accordingly, this paper provides a systematic review of the literature on reasoning training in order to describe current methods and evaluate their efficacy.

METHOD
A systematic search identified eleven articles—published between 1996 and 2016—that reported findings from thirteen separate studies of reasoning training effects on fluid reasoning (Gf) and academic achievement in children and adolescents. Specific Gf outcomes examined were analogical, deductive, inductive, nonverbal, and/or relational reasoning ability. Specific academic achievement outcomes examined were math and reading achievement. This paper reviewed studies utilizing both computerized and non-computerized methods of Gftraining.

FINDINGS
Findings from the review show that reasoning training improves Gf (near transfer effects). Although less conclusive, when considered on balance, evidence suggests that reasoning training also improves academic achievement (far transfer effects).

CONCLUSIONS
Research is needed to parameterize the effects of Gftraining on academic achievement, and in particular to identify moderators of training efficacy on academic outcomes. Limitations and directions for future research are discussed.

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Kevin S. McGrew, PhD
Educational & School Psychologist
Director
Institute for Applied Psychometrics (IAP)
https://www.themindhub.com
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Tuesday, March 16, 2021

Student Motivation and Associated Outcomes: A Meta-Analysis From Self-Determination Theory

 APS Journals Access – Association for Psychological Science – APS 
https://www.psychologicalscience.org/sage?ru=https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/full/10.1177/1745691620966789

Student Motivation and Associated Outcomes: A Meta-Analysis From Self-Determination Theory
Joshua L. Howard, Julien Bureau, Frédéric Guay, Jane X. Y. Chong, and Richard M. Ryan
Perspectives on Psychological ScienceIntrinsic motivation and behaving on the basis of perceived personal value and meaning appear to be key for school adjustment and student success. In this meta-analysis, Howard and colleagues examined how different types of motivation relate to 26 student outcomes, including performance and well-being. The researchers analyzed 344 samples of students and found that (a) intrinsic motivation was related to students' success and well-being, and (b) personal value (identified regulation) was related with persistence. Ego-involved motivation (introjected regulation) was related with persistence and performance but also with ill-being. Motivation to obtain rewards or avoid punishment was associated only with decreased well-being.

Theory Construction Methodology: A Practical Framework for Building Theories in Psychology

 APS Journals Access – Association for Psychological Science – APS 
https://www.psychologicalscience.org/sage?ru=https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/full/10.1177/1745691620969647

Theory Construction Methodology: A Practical Framework for Building Theories in Psychology
Denny Borsboom, Han L. J. van der Maas, Jonas Dalege, Rogier A. Kievit, and Brian D. Haig
Perspectives on Psychological ScienceBorsboom and colleagues propose a five-step methodology for constructing explanatory theories: The theorist (a) identifies the empirical phenomena that become the target of explanation, (b) constructs a prototheory that putatively explains the target phenomena, (c) uses the prototheory to construct a formal model (a set of equations that encode explanatory principles), (d) assesses the explanatory adequacy of the model, and (e) studies the overall adequacy of the theory by evaluating whether the phenomena are reproducible and the explanatory principles are parsimonious and plausible. The authors explain this theory construction methodology using the mutualism model of intelligence.

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Kevin S. McGrew, PhD
Educational & School Psychologist
Director
Institute for Applied Psychometrics (IAP)
https://www.themindhub.com
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What We Know, Are Still Getting Wrong, and Have Yet to Learn about the Relationships among the SAT, Intelligence and Achievement

https://www.mdpi.com/2079-3200/7/4/26/htm

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Kevin S. McGrew, PhD
Educational & School Psychologist
Director
Institute for Applied Psychometrics (IAP)
https://www.themindhub.com
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Navigating the link between processing speed and network communication in the human brain | SpringerLink

 Navigating the link between processing speed and network communication in the human brain | SpringerLink 
https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s00429-021-02241-8

Abstract
Processing speed on cognitive tasks relies upon efficient communication between widespread regions of the brain. Recently, novel methods of quantifying network communication like 'navigation efficiency' have emerged, which aim to be more biologically plausible compared to traditional shortest path length-based measures. However, it is still unclear whether there is a direct link between these communication measures and processing speed. We tested this relationship in forty-five healthy adults (27 females), where processing speed was defined as decision-making time and measured using drift rate from the hierarchical drift diffusion model. Communication measures were calculated from a graph theoretical analysis of the whole-brain structural connectome and of a task-relevant fronto-parietal structural subnetwork, using the large-scale Desikan–Killiany atlas. We found that faster processing speed on trials that require greater cognitive control are correlated with higher navigation efficiency (of both the whole-brain and the task-relevant subnetwork). In contrast, faster processing speed on trials that require more automatic processing are correlated with shorter path length within the task-relevant subnetwork. Our findings reveal that differences in the way communication is modelled between shortest path length and navigation may be sensitive to processing of automatic and controlled responses, respectively. Further, our findings suggest that there is a relationship between the speed of cognitive processing and the structural constraints of the human brain network.

Wednesday, March 10, 2021

Twice-Exceptional Students: Review of Implications for Special and Inclusive Education - ProQuest

Twice-Exceptional Students: Review of Implications for Special and Inclusive Education - ProQuest
https://search.proquest.com/openview/d0866e35149e71cf9484c9e2cc0f35b9/1?pq-origsite=gscholar&cbl=2032405

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Kevin S. McGrew, PhD
Educational & School Psychologist
Director
Institute for Applied Psychometrics (IAP)
https://www.themindhub.com
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Tuesday, March 09, 2021

Rationale and Design of the National Neuropsychology Network | Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society | Cambridge Core

Rationale and Design of the National Neuropsychology Network | Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society | Cambridge Core
https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/journal-of-the-international-neuropsychological-society/article/abs/rationale-and-design-of-the-national-neuropsychology-network/FC3E4709E208CA3FA52E08D8FD05D799

Testing (quizzing) boosts classroom learning: A systematic and meta-analytic review. - PsycNET

 Testing (quizzing) boosts classroom learning: A systematic and meta-analytic review. - PsycNET 
https://psycnet.apa.org/record/2021-24563-001

Abstract
Over the last century hundreds of studies have demonstrated that testing is an effective intervention to enhance long-term retention of studied knowledge and facilitate mastery of new information, compared with restudying and many other learning strategies (e.g., concept mapping), a phenomenon termed the testing effect. How robust is this effect in applied settings beyond the laboratory? The current review integrated 48,478 students' data, extracted from 222 independent studies, to investigate the magnitude, boundary conditions, and psychological underpinnings of test-enhanced learning in the classroom. The results show that overall testing (quizzing) raises student academic achievement to a medium extent (g = 0.499). The magnitude of the effect is modulated by a variety of factors, including learning strategy in the control condition, test format consistency, material matching, provision of corrective feedback, number of test repetitions, test administration location and timepoint, treatment duration, and experimental design. The documented findings support 3 theories to account for the classroom testing effect: additional exposure, transfer-appropriate processing, and motivation. In addition to their implications for theory development, these results have practical significance for enhancing teaching practice and guiding education policy and highlight important directions for future research. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved)

Monday, March 01, 2021

Open Access Files - THE STANDARDS FOR EDUCATIONAL AND PSYCHOLOGICAL TESTING

https://www.testingstandards.net/open-access-files.html

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Kevin S. McGrew,  PhD
Educational Psychologist
Director
Institute for Applied Psychometrics (IAP)
www.themindhub.com
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Saturday, February 27, 2021

Executive function-related functional connectomes predict intellectual abilities - ScienceDirect

 Executive function-related functional connectomes predict intellectual abilities - ScienceDirect 
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0160289621000118

Abstract
Executive functions (EFs) refer to a range of cognitive control and regulation processes that coordinate thoughts and actions in a goal-directed way and are regarded as a hallmark of intellectual abilities. However, most studies have used a single measurement to explore the relationship between EFs and intelligence, and there is a lack of robust evidence to demonstrate the link between EF-related neural substrates and intelligence under an integrative framework. To address this issue, we employed a large sample (primary dataset, n = 881; hold-out dataset, n = 181) from the Human Connectome Project, which included high-quality MRI data and multiple EF and intelligence measurements. Based on a machine learning framework, we examined the predictive effect of EF-related functional connectivity(FC) on fluid intelligence (Gf) and crystallized intelligence (Gc) using a connectome-based predictive model. The results showed that all types of EF-related FCs (i.e., EF-common, updating-, shifting-, and inhibition-specific FCs) predicted novel subjects' Gf and Gc in the primary dataset and successfully generalized to the hold-out dataset. Additionally, EF-related FCs appeared to demonstrate better performance in predicting Gc. Identified predictive FCs revealed the domain-general and domain-specific connectivity patterns of EFs, and the network hubs were mainly located in the default mode, cognitive control, salience, and visual networks. These findings facilitate our understanding of the relation between multiple EF domains and intelligence from the perspective of network neuroscience, suggesting that different intellectual abilities and EFs share similar neural bases to some extent, which allows the link between EFs and intelligence to be revisited.

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Kevin S. McGrew, PhD
Educational & School Psychologist
Director
Institute for Applied Psychometrics (IAP)
https://www.themindhub.com
******************************************

Tuesday, February 23, 2021

The structure of working memory during childhood: a systematic review: Journal of Cognitive Psychology: Vol 0, No 0

https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/20445911.2021.1887199

ABSTRACT
There are many working memory (WM) models, generally formulated and developed in adults. Controversies arise as to whether such models are adequate conceptualizations of WM in children. The aim of the present study is to perform a systematic review of studies that evaluate the structure of WM during childhood. Databases (PubMed, Scopus) and article reference lists were reviewed, identifying 264 studies and including 14 in the review. These include participants between 4 and 15 years of age, with typical development, and they evaluated the structure of WM using confirmatory factor analysis. Results show that from 4 to 6 years onwards a structure composed of a domain-general executive component together with two domain-specific storage components (verbal, visuospatial) is identified, generally being the best fitting model. Limitations and potential contributions of the reported results are discussed.

Monday, February 22, 2021

Dr. Farmers CPA remote assessment slides



******************************************************
Kevin McGrew, PhD
Educational Psychologist
Director, Institute for Applied Psychometrics
IAP
www.themindhub.com
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Friday, February 12, 2021

Long-term stability of Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children–fifth edition scores in a clinical sample: Applied Neuropsychology: Child: Vol 0, No 0

 Long-term stability of Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children–fifth edition scores in a clinical sample: Applied Neuropsychology: Child: Vol 0, No 0 
https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/21622965.2021.1875827

Abstract
This study investigated the stability of Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children–Fifth Edition (WISC-V) scores for 225 children and adolescents from an outpatient neuropsychological clinic across, on average, a 2.6 year test-retest interval. WISC-V mean scores were relatively constant but subtest stability score coefficients were all below 0.80 (M = 0.66) and only the Verbal Comprehension Index (VCI), Visual Spatial Index (VSI), and omnibus Full Scale IQ (FSIQ) stability coefficients exceeded 0.80. Neither intraindividual subtest difference scores nor intraindividual composite difference scores were stable across time (M = 0.26 and 0.36, respectively). Rare and unusual subtest and composite score differences as well as subtest and index scatter at initial testing were unlikely to be repeated at retest (kappa = 0.03 to 0.49). It was concluded that VCI, VSI, and FSIQ scores might be sufficiently stable to support normative comparisons but that none of the intraindividual (i.e. idiographic, ipsative, or person-relative) measures were stable enough for confident clinical decision making.

Thursday, February 11, 2021

Valuing Educational Measurement - Sireci - - Educational Measurement: Issues and Practice - Wiley Online Library

 Valuing Educational Measurement - Sireci - - Educational Measurement: Issues and Practice - Wiley Online Library 
https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/emip.12415

Abstract

 The community  of educational measurement researchers and practitioners has made many positive contributions to education, but has also become complacent and lost the public trust. In this article, reasons for the lack of public trust in educational testing are described, and core values for educational measurement are proposed. Reasons for distrust of educational measurement include hypocritical practices that conflict with our professional standards, a biased and selected presentation of the history of testing, and inattention to social problems associated with educational measurement. The five core values proposed to help educational measurement serve education are: (a) everyone is capable of learning; (b) there are no differences in the capacity to learn across groups defined by race, ethnicity, or sex; (c) all educational tests are fallible to some degree; (d) educational tests can provide valuable information to improve student learning and certify competence; and (e) all uses of educational test scores must be sufficiently justified by validity evidence. The importance of these core values for improving the science and practice of educational measurement to benefit society is discussed.

Wednesday, February 10, 2021

Age-related nuances in knowledge assessment - ScienceDirect

 Age-related nuances in knowledge assessment - ScienceDirect 

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0160289621000106?dgcid=author

Interesting hierarchy of knowledge (Gc)https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0160289621000106?dgcid=author

Monday, February 08, 2021

Age and ability differentiation in children: A review and empirical investigation. - PsycNET

 Age and ability differentiation in children: A review and empirical investigation. - PsycNET 
https://psycnet.apa.org/record/2021-14006-001

Abstract
Differentiation hypotheses concern changes in the structural organization of cognitive abilities that depend on the level of general intelligence (ability differentiation) or age (developmental differentiation). Part 1 of this article presents a review of the literature on ability and developmental differentiation effects in children, revealing the need for studies that examine both effects simultaneously in this age group with appropriate statistical methods. Part 2 presents an empirical study in which nonlinear factor analytic models were applied to the standardization sample (N= 2,619 German elementary schoolchildren; 48% female; age: M = 8.8 years, SD = 1.2, range 6–12 years) of the THINK 1–4 intelligence test to investigate ability differentiation, developmental differentiation, and their interaction. The sample was nationally representative regarding age, gender, urbanization, and geographic location of residence but not regarding parents' education and migration background (overrepresentation of children with more educated parents, underrepresentation of children with migration background). The results showed no consistent evidence for the presence of differentiation effects or their interaction. Instead, different patterns were observed for figural, numerical, and verbal reasoning. Implications for the construction of intelligence tests, the assessment of intelligence in children, and for theories of cognitive development are discussed. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved)

Saturday, February 06, 2021

Retest Reliability of Integrated Speed–Accuracy Measures - Tamar Bakun Emesh, Dror Garbi, Alon Kaplan, Hila Zelicha, Anat Yaskolka Meir, Gal Tsaban, Ehud Rinott, Nachshon Meiran, 2021

Retest Reliability of Integrated Speed–Accuracy Measures - Tamar Bakun Emesh, Dror Garbi, Alon Kaplan, Hila Zelicha, Anat Yaskolka Meir, Gal Tsaban, Ehud Rinott, Nachshon Meiran, 2021
https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/1073191120985609

Wednesday, February 03, 2021

Education and training guidelines for psychological assessment in health service psychology. - PsycNET

https://psycnet-apa-org.ezp2.lib.umn.edu/record/2020-85072-001

Abstract 

While recent survey findings suggest graduate programs in health service psychology (HSP) are allocating the same or increased time to education and training in psychological assessment over the last two decades, there is a lack of clear guidance for programs to implement practices associated with quality education and training. These Guidelines (found in full at https://www .apa.org/about/policy/guidelines-assessment-health-service.pdf) were developed to address this critical need. Developed by a task force of the American Psychological Association Board of Educational Affairs in 2018 and 2019, the Guidelines serve to inform faculty/supervisors, students, and the public as to quality practices associated with graduate education and training in psychological assessment. They are organized around seven domains: theory; psychological assessment process; psychometrics; tests and methods; ethics, legal issues, and professionalism; diversity; and supervision. These domains are drawn from a review of the scholarly literature on psychological assessment, as well as graduate psychology education and training. The domains and their associated Guidelines are interdependent, and, while some overlap exists among them, they should be considered in their entirety. While a summary of each section is provided in the present article, the full explanation of each domain is presented in the actual Guidelines document.

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Kevin S. McGrew, PhD
Educational & School Psychologist
Director
Institute for Applied Psychometrics (IAP)
https://www.themindhub.com
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Sunday, January 31, 2021

J. Intell. | Free Full-Text | Disentangling the Effects of Processing Speed on the Association between Age Differences and Fluid Intelligence

https://www.mdpi.com/2079-3200/8/1/1


Abstract
Several studies have demonstrated that individual differences in processing speed fully mediate the association between age and intelligence, whereas the association between processing speed and intelligence cannot be explained by age differences. Because measures of processing speed reflect a plethora of cognitive and motivational processes, it cannot be determined which specific processes give rise to this mediation effect. This makes it hard to decide whether these processes should be conceived of as a cause or an indicator of cognitive aging. In the present study, we addressed this question by using a neurocognitive psychometrics approach to decompose the association between age differences and fluid intelligence. Reanalyzing data from two previously published datasets containing 223 participants between 18 and 61 years, we investigated whether individual differences in diffusion model parameters and in ERP latencies associated with higher-order attentional processing explained the association between age differences and fluid intelligence. We demonstrate that individual differences in the speed of non-decisional processes such as encoding, response preparation, and response execution, and individual differences in latencies of ERP components associated with higher-order cognitive processes explained the negative association between age differences and fluid intelligence. Because both parameters jointly accounted for the association between age differences and fluid intelligence, age-related differences in both parameters may reflect age-related differences in anterior brain regions associated with response planning that are prone to be affected by age-related changes. Conversely, age differences did not account for the association between processing speed and fluid intelligence. Our results suggest that the relationship between age differences and fluid intelligence is multifactorially determined. View Full-Text

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Kevin S. McGrew, PhD
Educational & School Psychologist
Director
Institute for Applied Psychometrics (IAP)
https://www.themindhub.com
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Thursday, January 28, 2021

Intelligence – International Society For Intelligence Research

The best professional organization for research on intelligence. I would urge my fellow school psychology colleagues interested in serious cutting edge intelligence  research to consider joining, if for no other reason than access to articles from the journal of Intelligence.


 Intelligence – International Society For Intelligence Research 
https://isironline.org/

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Kevin S. McGrew,  PhD
Educational Psychologist
Director
Institute for Applied Psychometrics (IAP)
www.themindhub.com
************************************************

New open access journal Psychological Test Adaptation and Development (PTAD) launched – Intelligence

New open access journal Psychological Test Adaptation and Development (PTAD) launched – Intelligence
https://isironline.org/2020/07/new-open-access-journal-psychological-test-adaptation-and-development-ptad-launched/

Tweet by Kevin McGrew on Twitter


Link for those that don't do  Twitter

https://www.mdpi.com/journal/jintelligence/editors

******************************************************
Kevin McGrew, PhD
Educational Psychologist
Director, Institute for Applied Psychometrics
IAP
www.themindhub.com
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Wednesday, January 27, 2021

Integrated Intelligence from Distributed Brain Activity: Trends in Cognitive Sciences

More on the central role of central control (AC-Gsm) in general intelligence.

"Earlier we noted positive manifold, the finding of ubiquitous positive correlations between different cognitive tests, and Spearman's original proposal that some general or g factor contributes to success in any cognitive activity [11,12]. One simple interpretation is that g reflects the attentional integration functions of the MD system and, in agreement with Spearman's hypothesis, we suggest that MD functions contribute very broadly to effective cognition. At the same time, it seems likely that the full explanation for positive manifold is more nuanced, with multiple contributory factors [39,58]."


Integrated Intelligence from Distributed Brain Activity: Trends in Cognitive Sciences 

tinyurl.com/ykbwklk5

Tuesday, January 26, 2021

No evidence for general intelligence in a fish | bioRxiv

 No evidence for general intelligence in a fish | bioRxiv 
https://www.biorxiv.org/content/10.1101/2021.01.08.425841v1.abstract

Really.  Research on the g question in fish 🤔

******************************************
Kevin S. McGrew, PhD
Educational & School Psychologist
Director
Institute for Applied Psychometrics (IAP)
https://www.themindhub.com
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J. Intell. | Free Full-Text | How to Compare Psychometric Factor and Network Models

 J. Intell. | Free Full-Text | How to Compare Psychometric Factor and Network Models 
https://www.mdpi.com/2079-3200/8/4/35

Important method info for those doing research related to the "g or not to g" question in intelligence.

******************************************
Kevin S. McGrew, PhD
Educational & School Psychologist
Director
Institute for Applied Psychometrics (IAP)
https://www.themindhub.com
******************************************

Are individual differences in attention control related to working memory capacity? A latent variable mega-analysis. - PsycNET

 Are individual differences in attention control related to working memory capacity? A latent variable mega-analysis. - PsycNET 
https://psycnet.apa.org/record/2020-86314-001

More on the importance of attentional control as central to intrlligence.

Monday, January 25, 2021

James R. Flynn, Who Found We Are Getting Smarter, Dies at 86

James R. Flynn, Who Found We Are Getting Smarter, Dies at 86
https://flip.it/HQ6wrM

******************************************
Kevin S. McGrew, PhD
Educational & School Psychologist
Director
Institute for Applied Psychometrics (IAP)
https://www.themindhub.com
******************************************

The secular trend of intelligence test scores in the present century: The Danish experience - ScienceDirect

 The secular trend of intelligence test scores in the present century: The Danish experience - ScienceDirect 
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S016028962100009X

Highlights


Changes in mean intelligence test scores were minimal in Denmark in 2006–2019.

A change in the format of the intelligence test resulted in a sudden drop in scores.

Neither changes in parental age, dysgenics, or immigration can explain the findings.

Changes in sample composition may conceal a true decline in intelligence test scores.

Abstract
The present register-based study investigated the secular trend of intelligence test scores during the period from 2006 through 2019 in a Danish population-representative sample, as well as whether the observed trend could be explained by changes in parental age, dysgenics, and immigration or changes in the format of the intelligence test and sample characteristics. The study population consisted of all Danish men appearing before a draft board during the study period (N = 400,288). Intelligence test scores were obtained by the use of Børge Priens Prøve, typically at age 19. For each of the included draft board cohorts, the intelligence test score mean and standard deviation were estimated. The results showed that changes in mean intelligence test scores were minimal during the study period. A slight decline was observed from 2006 to 2010. Furthermore, there was a drop of 1.5 IQ points from 2010 to 2011, which coincided with the change in the format of the intelligence test from paper-and-pencil to computer-based, but there was essentially no change after 2011. Neither changes in parental age, dysgenics, or immigration seem to have influenced the observations. However, changes in sample composition may conceal a true decline in intelligence test scores given that a larger proportion of individuals with low intelligence seems to be exempted from testing. In conclusion, the study findings suggest no systematic change in intelligence test scores during the last decade, but due to changes in sample composition, it cannot be excluded that there has been a negative secular trend.

Thursday, January 21, 2021

Webinar on new AAIDD classification manual

https://www.aaidd.org/education/event-details/2021/01/28/default-calendar/intellectual-disability-definition-diagnosis-classification-and-systems-of-supports-12th-edition



******************************************************
Kevin McGrew, PhD
Educational Psychologist
Director, Institute for Applied Psychometrics
IAP
www.themindhub.com
******************************************************

Tuesday, January 19, 2021

AAIDD Announces the Publication of the 12th Edition of its Manual

https://www.aaidd.org/news-policy/news/article/2021/01/15/aaidd-announces-the-publication-of-the-12th-edition-of-its-manual

Friday, January 15, 2021

The McGrew Model of Achievement Competence Model (MACM)--Standing on the shoulders of giants: CJSP article supplementary materials

The Model of Achievement Competence Motivation (MACM) has been  under development since the early 2000's by Dr. Kevin S. McGrew.   The work is (has) been formally presented in an invited article--"The Model of Achievement Competence Motivation (MACM)--Standing on the shoulders of giants" (McGrew, in press, 2021), for a forthcoming special issue on motivation in the Canadian Journal of School Psychology). 

Due to the page length constraints of the journal, significant background and explanatory information could not be presented in the article.  Thus, I have "off-loaded" this material for supplementary viewing via on-line PPT slide shows and downloadable PDF files.

Five MACM PPT modules have been posted at SlideShare and can be viewed and downloaded from that site.  For those who would prefer to directly download PDF versions of the PPT modules from one page...here it is.  Below are the titles of the five modules and associated download links.  In addition, the paper includes, in a table footnote, definitions for 16 self-regulatory constructs from a recent article by Sitzman and Ely (2011).  That PDF file is also available from download below.

Enjoy.



The Model of Achievement Competence Motivation (MACM)

The Model of Achievement Competence Motivation (MACM) Part E: Crossing the Rubicon Commitment Pathway Model to Learning

 

The Model of Achievement Competence Motivation (MACM) is a series of slide modules.  By clicking on the link you can view the slides at SlideShare.  This is the fifth and final (Part E) in the series.  This one is brief...only 11 slides.  Crossing the Rubicon Commitment Pathway Model to Learning.  There will be a total of five modules.  The modules will serve as supplemental materials to "The Model of Achievement Competence Motivation (MACM)--Standing on the shoulders of giants" (McGrew, in press, 2021 - in a forthcoming special issue on motivation in the Canadian Journal of School Psychology)



You should be able to access the prior modules (A-C) from the link above.

Click here for prior "beyond IQ" labeled posts at this blog.

12th Edition of the AAIDD Manual Now Available!



 

 

Intellectual Disability: Definition, Diagnosis, Classification, and Systems of Supports, 12th Edition, has just been published and can be purchased from our bookstore.

All professionals in the field need this important reference book, which integrates the findings and developments of the last 10 years in a systematic approach to diagnosis, optional subgroup classification, and planning of systems of supports for people with ID.

In addition, the 12th edition examines the construct of age of onset as a criterion in diagnosis and presents the operational definition in a way that will be critically important to professionals in the field.

Buy your copy now in the AAIDD Bookstore!

 

To explore our other titles, visit our online bookstore by clicking here.

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and Developmental Disabilities (AAIDD)
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