Monday, September 13, 2021

Achievement Motivation: What We Know and Where We Are Going | Annual Review of Developmental Psychology

Achievement Motivation: What We Know and Where We Are Going | Annual Review of Developmental Psychology
https://www.annualreviews.org/doi/abs/10.1146/annurev-devpsych-050720-103500

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Kevin S. McGrew, PhD
Educational & School Psychologist
Director
Institute for Applied Psychometrics (IAP)
https://www.themindhub.com
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Monday, August 30, 2021

Déjà vu All Over Again: A Unitary Biological Mechanism for Intelligence Is (Probably) Untenable

https://www.mdpi.com/2079-3200/8/2/24

Abstract
Nearly a century ago, Spearman proposed that "specific factors can be regarded as the 'nuts and bolts' of cognitive performance…, while the general factor is the mental energy available to power the specific engines". Geary (2018; 2019) takes Spearman's analogy of "mental energy" quite literally and doubles-down on the notion by proposing that a unitary energy source, the mitochondria, explains variations in both cognitive function and health-related outcomes. This idea is reminiscent of many earlier attempts to describe a low-level biological determinant of general intelligence. While Geary does an admirable job developing an innovative theory with specific and testable predictions, this new theory suffers many of the shortcomings of previous attempts at similar goals. We argue that Geary's theory is generally implausible, and does not map well onto known psychological and genetic properties of intelligence or its relationship to health and fitness. While Geary's theory serves as an elegant model of "what could be", it is less successful as a description of "what is". View Full-Text
Keywords: intelligenceprocessing speedattentionworking memoryheritability

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Kevin S. McGrew, PhD
Educational & School Psychologist
Director
Institute for Applied Psychometrics (IAP)
https://www.themindhub.com
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Sunday, August 15, 2021

Frontiers | Neuropsychological Development of Cool and Hot Executive Functions Between 6 and 12 Years of Age: A Systematic Review | Psychology

 Frontiers | Neuropsychological Development of Cool and Hot Executive Functions Between 6 and 12 Years of Age: A Systematic Review | Psychology 
https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fpsyg.2021.687337/full

Neuropsychological Development of Cool and Hot Executive Functions Between 6 and 12 Years of Age: A Systematic Review
Previous studies on the development of executive functions (EFs) in middle childhood have traditionally focused on cognitive, or "cool," EFs: working memory, inhibitory control and cognitive flexibility. However, knowledge of the development of socio-emotional, or "hot," EFs, such as delay of gratification, decision-making and theory of mind, is more limited. The main aims of this systematic review were to characterize the typical development of both the primary cool and hot EFs in middle childhood, and to identify the main tools for evaluating EFs as a whole. We conducted a systematic search on studies of cognitive and socio-emotional EFs published in the last 5 years in Pubmed, PsycInfo, and WoS databases. Of 44 studies selected, we found a variety of tasks measuring cool EFs, while measures of hot EFs were limited. Nevertheless, the available data suggest that cool and hot components follow distinct, but related, developmental trajectories during middle childhood

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Kevin S. McGrew, PhD
Educational & School Psychologist
Director
Institute for Applied Psychometrics (IAP)
https://www.themindhub.com
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Saturday, August 14, 2021

Explaining the high working memory capacity of gifted children: Contributions of processing skills and executive control - ScienceDirect

 Explaining the high working memory capacity of gifted children: Contributions of processing skills and executive control - ScienceDirect 
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0001691821001086?via%3Dihub

Explaining the high working memory capacity of gifted children: Contributions of processing skills and executive control.
Intellectually gifted children tend to demonstrate especially high working memory capacity, an ability that holds a critical role in intellectual functioning. What could explain the differences in working memory performance between intellectually gifted and nongifted children? We investigated this issue by measuring working memory capacity with complex spans in a sample of 55 gifted and 55 nongifted children. Based on prior studies, we expected the higher working memory capacity of intellectually gifted children to be driven by more effective executive control, as measured using the Attention Network Test. The findings confirmed that intellectually gifted children had higher working memory capacity than typical children, as well as more effective executive attention. Surprisingly, however, working memory differences between groups were not mediated by differences in executive attention. Instead, it appears that gifted children resolve problems faster in the processing phase of the working memory task, which leaves them more time to refresh to-be-remembered items. This faster problem solving speed mediated their advantage in working memory capacity. Importantly, this effect was specific to speed on complex problems: low-level processing speed, as measured with the Attention Network Test, did not contribute to the higher working memory capacity of gifted children. 

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Kevin S. McGrew, PhD
Educational & School Psychologist
Director
Institute for Applied Psychometrics (IAP)
https://www.themindhub.com
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Friday, August 13, 2021

When academic achievement (also) reflects personality: Using the personality-achievement saturation hypothesis (PASH) to explain differential associations between achievement measures and personality traits. - PsycNET

 When academic achievement (also) reflects personality: Using the personality-achievement saturation hypothesis (PASH) to explain differential associations between achievement measures and personality traits. - PsycNET 
https://psycnet.apa.org/record/2021-74431-001

Citation
Hübner, N., Spengler, M., Nagengast, B., Borghans, L., Schils, T., & Trautwein, U. (2021). When academic achievement (also) reflects personality: Using the personality-achievement saturation hypothesis (PASH) to explain differential associations between achievement measures and personality traits. Journal of Educational Psychology. Advance online publication. https://doi.org/10.1037/edu0000571

Abstract
Students' academic achievement is a key predictor of various life outcomes and is commonly used for selection as well as for educational monitoring and accountability. With regard to achievement indicators, a differentiation has traditionally been drawn between grades and standardized tests. There is initial, albeit inconclusive, evidence that these indicators might differentially reflect students' personality as encapsulated in the Big Five personality traits as well as measures of cognitive abilities. In this article, we propose the personality-achievement saturation hypothesis (PASH) as an overarching model that describes the association between achievement indicators and personality. The PASH suggests that the differentiation between grades and tests is too simplistic and that associations between personality and achievement instead vary across five main features of the achievement measures that are used: level of standardization, relevance for the student, curricular validity, instructional sensitivity, and cognitive ability saturation. On the basis of findings from prior studies, we focused in particular on conscientiousness and openness to test the PASH. We used data from three large-scale studies (total N = 14,953) and aggregated our findings across these studies. In line with the PASH, the Big Five trait of conscientiousness was most strongly related to measures that were less standardized and less saturated with cognitive ability but higher on curriculum validity, relevance, and instructional sensitivity. In addition, openness was most strongly related to measures that were higher on standardization and cognitive ability saturation but lower on relevance, curriculum validity, and instructional sensitivity in English. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved)

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Kevin S. McGrew, PhD
Educational & School Psychologist
Director
Institute for Applied Psychometrics (IAP)
https://www.themindhub.com
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Connections between mathematics and reading development: Numerical cognition mediates relations between foundational competencies and later academic outcomes. - PsycNET

 Connections between mathematics and reading development: Numerical cognition mediates relations between foundational competencies and later academic outcomes. - PsycNET 
https://psycnet.apa.org/record/2021-74878-001

Citation
Spencer, M., Fuchs, L. S., Geary, D. C., & Fuchs, D. (2021). Connections between mathematics and reading development: Numerical cognition mediates relations between foundational competencies and later academic outcomes. Journal of Educational Psychology. Advance online publication. https://doi.org/10.1037/edu0000670

Abstract
We examined longitudinal relations between 1st-grade cognitive predictors (early nonverbal reasoning, processing speed, listening comprehension, working memory, calculation skill, word-problem solving, word-reading fluency, attentive behavior, and numerical cognition) and 2nd-grade academic outcomes (calculations, word-problem solving, and word reading) in 370 children (Mage = 6.55 years, SDage = 0.33 years at the start of the study) who were identified as at-risk or not-at-risk for mathematics disability. Path analysis mediation models revealed that numerical cognition, assessed at an intermediary timepoint, mediated the effects of processing speed, working memory, calculation skill, word-problem solving, and attentive behavior on all 3 outcomes. Findings indicate that multiple early domain-general cognitive abilities are related to later mathematics and reading outcomes and that numerical cognition processes, which may track ease of forming symbol-concept associations, predict later performance across both academic domains. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved)

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Kevin S. McGrew, PhD
Educational & School Psychologist
Director
Institute for Applied Psychometrics (IAP)
https://www.themindhub.com
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Tuesday, August 10, 2021

General intelligence and the dark triad: A meta-analysis. - PsycNET

 General intelligence and the dark triad: A meta-analysis. - PsycNET 
https://psycnet.apa.org/record/2021-71827-001

Citation
Michels, M. (2021). General intelligence and the dark triad: A meta-analysis. Journal of Individual Differences.Advance online publication. https://doi.org/10.1027/1614-0001/a000352

Abstract
The dark triad of personality (D3)—consisting of psychopathy, Machiavellianism, and narcissism—is a set of socially aversive personality traits. All three traits encompass disagreeable behavior and a particular disregard for the well-being of others, but also a tendency to strategic and deceptive manipulation of social environments in order to attain one′s goals. To exercise these complex manipulations effectively it seems beneficial to have high cognitive abilities. Therefore, a meta-analysis was conducted to examine possible relationships between intelligence and the dark triad. A total of 143 studies were identified to estimate the strength of relationships between the D3 and general, verbal, and nonverbal intelligence. The results indicate that none of the constructs of the dark triad are meaningfully related to intelligence. However, there was a small negative correlation between intelligence and Factor 2 psychopathy. The substantial heterogeneity regarding the observed effect sizes could not be explained with meta-regression for the most part. There was no evidence for a publication bias. In total, the results challenge the notion that the dark triad is an adaptive set of personality traits that enables individuals to effectively manipulate their social surroundings. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved)

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Kevin S. McGrew, PhD
Educational & School Psychologist
Director
Institute for Applied Psychometrics (IAP)
https://www.themindhub.com
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Saturday, August 07, 2021

Recent developments, current challenges, and future directions in electrophysiological approaches to studying intelligence - ScienceDirect

 Recent developments, current challenges, and future directions in electrophysiological approaches to studying intelligence - ScienceDirect 
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0160289621000532


Abstract

EEG studies represent an important sub-discipline in the field of intelligence research and have significant potential to advance the theoretical understanding and practical applications of the construct. This commentary reviews key themes and major developments in the field from the last several decades, and outlines open questions and future directions for the next phase of research. Two main areas of progress in recent years relate to (1) improvements in study design and psychometric approaches, and (2) increased integration with cognitive psychology and neuroscience. In turn, these advances have clarified several themes and pressing issues. These include: The need to establish the replicability and effect sizes of key effects, the need to explicitly attend to the distinction between trait- and task-related sources of variance in correlations between intelligence and EEG variables, the need to systematically identify and test moderators of those relationships, the need for greater use of formal modeling at the level of measurement and theory, and the need for continued integration of theoretical advances from related disciplines. We argue that an increased focus on these issues can yield rapid progress in this area over the coming years. The commentary concludes with suggestions for both immediate priorities and long-term directions in basic and applied EEG research on intelligence.



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Kevin S. McGrew, PhD
Educational & School Psychologist
Director
Institute for Applied Psychometrics (IAP)
https://www.themindhub.com
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Friday, August 06, 2021

Parsing information flow in speeded cognitive tasks: The role of g in perception and decision time. - PsycNET

Parsing information flow in speeded cognitive tasks: The role of g in perception and decision time. - PsycNET
https://psycnet.apa.org/record/2021-72829-001

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Kevin S. McGrew, PhD
Educational & School Psychologist
Director
Institute for Applied Psychometrics (IAP)
https://www.themindhub.com
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Thursday, August 05, 2021

Full artiThe relation between working memory, number sense, and mathematics throughout primary education in children with and without mathematical difficulties

Number sense and working memory contribute to mathematical development throughout primary school. However, it is still unclear how the contributions of each of these predictors may change across development and whether the cognitive contribution is the same for children with and without mathematical difficulties. The aim of the two studies in this paper was to shed light on these topics. In a cross-sectional design, a typically developing group of children (study 1; N = 459, Grades 1-4) and a group with mathematical difficulties (study 2; N = 61, Grades 4-6) completed a battery of number sense and working memory tests, as well as a measure of arithmetic competence. Results of study 1 indicated that number sense was important in first grade, while working memory gained importance in second grade, before predictive value of both predictors waned. Number sense and working memory supported mathematics development independently from one another from Grade 1. Analysis of task demands showed that typically developing children rely on comprehension and visualization of quantity-to-number associations in early development. Later in development, pupils rely on comparing larger numerals and working memory until automatization. Children with mathematical difficulties were less able to employ number sense during mathematical operations, and thus might remain dependent on their working memory resources during arithmetic tasks. This suggests that children with mathematical difficulties need aid to employ working memory for mathematics from an early age to be able to automatize mathematical abilities later in development.

 Full article: The relation between working memory, number sense, and mathematics throughout primary education in children with and without mathematical difficulties 
https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/09297049.2021.1959905

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Kevin S. McGrew, PhD
Educational & School Psychologist
Director
Institute for Applied Psychometrics (IAP)
https://www.themindhub.com
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Thursday, July 29, 2021

Myths and misconceptions about intelligence: A study of 35 myths - ScienceDirect

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0191886921003895 
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0191886921003895?via%3Dihub

Abstract This study is concerned with the extent to which people believe in, and endorse, various myths about intelligence and intelligence testing. It examined the prevalence of myths about intelligence as set out in a recent book (Warne, 2020). Participants (N = 275) completed a questionnaire in which they rated the extent to which they thought various statements/facts about intelligence were essentially true or false. In all, eighteen of these myths were rated as true (definitely or partly), two as definitely false and six probably false by the majority of the participants. There were no significant demographic or personality correlates of the total correct score (determined by rating the myth as false). The discussion considers why, in this important area of psychology, myths, misconceptions and ignorance seem so difficult to dispel. Limitations of this, and similar, studies are noted, and implications are discussed.

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Kevin S. McGrew,  PhD
Educational Psychologist
Director
Institute for Applied Psychometrics (IAP)
www.themindhub.com
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Monday, July 26, 2021

A new beginning of intelligence research. Designing the playground - ScienceDirect

 A new beginning of intelligence research. Designing the playground - ScienceDirect 
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S016028962100043X?via%3Dihub

Protzko, J., & Colom, R. (2021). A new beginning of intelligence research. Designing the playground. Intelligence87, 101559.

Abstract
Here we present several points for designing a probable playground concerning a new beginning of intelligence research within the XXI Century: the nature, definition, and measurement of the construct of interest, its development across the lifespan, its enhancement by varied means, and its place within the already identified human psychological traits. Predictions can go wrong when those who make them 1) assume that trends will be linear, 2) use script-writing assuming that they know what the responses to any trend will be, and 3) conflate primary facts with their interpretation. With these pitfalls in mind, we predict: 1) a proliferation of alternate models of the positive manifold; 2) The derailment of the field in the next decade or two with a new trendy research angle; 3) The gradual abandonment of classic IQ tests for intelligence research in favor of alternative measurements. We see a bright future for intelligence research, but dark spots cannot be discarded.

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Kevin S. McGrew, PhD
Educational & School Psychologist
Director
Institute for Applied Psychometrics (IAP)
https://www.themindhub.com
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Wednesday, July 21, 2021

Variability and Stability in Cognitive Abilities Are Largely Genetic Later in Life | Semantic Scholar

 Variability and Stability in Cognitive Abilities Are Largely Genetic Later in Life | Semantic Scholar 
https://www.semanticscholar.org/paper/Variability-and-Stability-in-Cognitive-Abilities-in-lomin/1e03a69d741d1b1f1bf2229b066cce818fe41961?utm_source=alert_email&utm_content=FeedPaper&utm_campaign=AlertEmails_DAILY&utm_term=FeedPaper&email_index=0-0-0&utm_medium=2363016

The powerful quantitative genetic design of identical and fraternal twins reared apart (112 pairs) and matched twins reared together (111 pairs) was employed to assess the extent of genetic influence on individual differences in cognitive abilities during the last half of the life span. General cognitive ability yielded a heritability estimate of about .80 in two assessments 3 years apart as part of the Swedish Adoption/Twin Study of Aging. This is one of the highest heritabilities reported for a behavioral trait. Across the two ages, average heritabilities are about .60 for verbal tests, .50 for spatial and speedof-processing tests, and .40 for memory tests. For general cognitive ability, the phenotypic stability across the 3 years is .92 and stable genetic factors account for nearly 90% this stability. These findings suggest that general cognitive ability is a reasonable target for research that aims to identify specific genes for complex traits.

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Kevin S. McGrew, PhD
Educational & School Psychologist
Director
Institute for Applied Psychometrics (IAP)
https://www.themindhub.com
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Sunday, July 18, 2021

The Big Five Personality Traits and Academic Performance: A Meta-Analysis. | Semantic Scholar

 The Big Five Personality Traits and Academic Performance: A Meta-Analysis. | Semantic Scholar 
https://www.semanticscholar.org/paper/The-Big-Five-Personality-Traits-and-Academic-A-Mammadov/a3402eeb709a39e23f8dcee1dad5663e08afab33?utm_source=alert_email&utm_content=FeedPaper&utm_campaign=AlertEmails_DAILY&utm_term=FeedPaper&email_index=0-2-2&utm_medium=2352302

This meta-analysis reports the most comprehensive assessment to date of the strength of the relationships between the Big Five personality traits and academic performance by synthesizing 267 independent samples (N = 413,074) in 228 unique studies. It also examined the incremental validity of personality traits above and beyond cognitive ability in predicting academic performance. Operational validities of the most popular six personality measures were compared and reported. The combined effect of cognitive ability and personality traits explained 27.8% of the variance in academic performance. Cognitive ability was the most important predictor with a relative importance of 64%. Conscientiousness emerged as a strong and robust predictor of performance, even when controlling for cognitive ability, and accounted for 28% of the explained variance in academic performance. A significant moderating effect of education level was observed. The relationship of academic performance with openness, extraversion, and agreeableness demonstrated significantly larger effect sizes at the elementary/middle school level compared to the subsequent levels. Openness, despite its weak overall relative importance, was found to be an important determinant of student performance in the early years of school

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Kevin S. McGrew, PhD
Educational & School Psychologist
Director
Institute for Applied Psychometrics (IAP)
https://www.themindhub.com
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The Role of Cognitive Self-Report Measure Type in Predicting Cognitive Decline Among Older Adults: A Systematic Review. | Semantic Scholar

 The Role of Cognitive Self-Report Measure Type in Predicting Cognitive Decline Among Older Adults: A Systematic Review. | Semantic Scholar 
https://www.semanticscholar.org/paper/The-Role-of-Cognitive-Self-Report-Measure-Type-in-A-Wion-Hill/4b4bf38d963ef145b6126074c8860f1915afcbe5?utm_source=alert_email&utm_content=FeedPaper&utm_campaign=AlertEmails_DAILY&utm_term=FeedPaper&email_index=0-1-1&utm_medium=2352302
  • Journal of geriatric psychiatry and neurology
Many types of items are used to measure self-reported cognition, resulting in heterogeneity across studies. Certain cognitive self-report measure types may be more predictive of future decline. Therefore, the purpose of this systematic review was to compare whether specific types of cognitive self-report measures better predict risk for cognitive decline over time when measures are directly compared within the same study. The PRISMA criteria guided the review. Eligibility criteria included: longitudinal studies, outcome of cognitive decline, at least 2 different cognitive self-report measures, and no cognitive impairment at baseline. Nineteen studies were included in the final review. A narrative synthesis of results was completed, resulting in 3 thematic groups of comparisons across self-reported measure types. Self-reported memory decline with worry and peer perceptions of memory were associated with the highest risk for cognitive decline. Future longitudinal investigations of self-reported cognitive problems should focus on using measures that may be most sensitive to predicting cognitive decline 


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Kevin S. McGrew, PhD
Educational & School Psychologist
Director
Institute for Applied Psychometrics (IAP)
https://www.themindhub.com
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Wednesday, June 23, 2021

EmoSocio: An open access sociometry-enriched Emotional Intelligence model | Semantic Scholar

  • Significant efforts have been allocated over the last thirty years towards the definition and measurement of the Emotional Intelligence (EI) construct. Several EI theories and models have been produced to support psychological assessment processes. However, barriers are identified for their wide adoption and exploitation by social scientists. The absence of a common structured format to represent concepts in EI models has resulted in lack of clarity and consistency, while hindering comparison, validation and extensive evaluation processes. Provision of open access to such models and measurement instruments has not been promoted so far, however, considered crucial for their wide adoption. Furthermore, the inclusion of indexes from the sociometry domain can facilitate participatory modeling by multidisciplinary scientists during the development of social and emotional training programs. To address these challenges, we propose EmoSocio, an open access Emotional Intelligence Model, built upon a detailed comparison and synthesis of the main constructs represented in widely accepted EI models and enriched with sociometric indexes at an individual and group level. Upon detailing the methodological approach followed for the development of the EmoSocio model, we present the EI and social constructs of the model, followed by an assessment of the EI part in terms of reliability and validity. EmoSocio is also represented in a semantically-enriched format in the form of an ontology. Our ambition is to provide an open access EI model that can be used by multidisciplinary scientists to evaluate psychological assessment processes and develop interventions, aiming to strengthen interpersonal and intrapersonal competencies.


 EmoSocio: An open access sociometry-enriched Emotional Intelligence model | Semantic Scholar 
https://www.semanticscholar.org/paper/EmoSocio%3A-An-open-access-sociometry-enriched-model-Fotopoulou-Zafeiropoulos/b28fd20f5060f61952287c343bb6a5771bbf601c?utm_source=alert_email&utm_content=FeedPaper&utm_campaign=AlertEmails_DAILY&utm_term=FeedPaper&email_index=0-5-5&utm_medium=2273866


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Kevin S. McGrew, PhD
Educational & School Psychologist
Director
Institute for Applied Psychometrics (IAP)
https://www.themindhub.com
******************************************

Friday, June 18, 2021

Full article: Considering the boundaries of intellectual disability: Using philosophy of science to make sense of borderline cases

 Considering the boundaries of intellectual disability: Using philosophy of science to make sense of borderline cases 
https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/09515089.2021.1914832

ABSTRACT 

Who should be diagnosed with intellectual disability and who should not? For borderline cases, the answer to this question may be as difficult to decide on as determining the borderline between being bald or not. While going bald may be upsetting to some, it is also an inevitable and relatively undramatic course of nature. In contrast, getting a diagnosis of intellectual disability is likely to have more far- reaching consequences. This makes the question of where the cutoff point for intellectual disability lies more imperative. Philosophy of science may help psychologists to understand the nature of this dilemma in a more profound manner. This article builds on the sorites paradox to explore the vagueness that surrounds the concept of intellectual disability and the consequences of this vagueness for the diagnostic process. While epistemicists argue that vagueness is a consequence of our limited knowledge of the world that we live in, semantic theorists claim that there is nothing that we do not know, but that our language allows for indecisiveness. What these different lines of understanding mean for psychologists who are diagnosing intellectual disability, is described in this article. Furthermore, the article discusses practical implications of these philosophical underpinnings.

J. Intell. | Free Full-Text | How Multidimensional Is Emotional Intelligence? Bifactor Modeling of Global and Broad Emotional Abilities of the Geneva Emotional Competence Test

File under Gei in CHC taxonomy

 J. Intell. | Free Full-Text | How Multidimensional Is Emotional Intelligence? Bifactor Modeling of Global and Broad Emotional Abilities of the Geneva Emotional Competence Test 
https://www.mdpi.com/2079-3200/9/1/14

Abstract
Drawing upon multidimensional theories of intelligence, the current paper evaluates if the Geneva Emotional Competence Test (GECo) fits within a higher-order intelligence space and if emotional intelligence (EI) branches predict distinct criteria related to adjustment and motivation. Using a combination of classical and S-1 bifactor models, we find that (a) a first-order oblique and bifactor model provide excellent and comparably fitting representation of an EI structure with self-regulatory skills operating independent of general ability, (b) residualized EI abilities uniquely predict criteria over general cognitive ability as referenced by fluid intelligence, and (c) emotion recognition and regulation incrementally predict grade point average (GPA) and affective engagement in opposing directions, after controlling for fluid general ability and the Big Five personality traits. Results are qualified by psychometric analyses suggesting only emotion regulation has enough determinacy and reliable variance beyond a general ability factor to be treated as a manifest score in analyses and interpretation. Findings call for renewed, albeit tempered, research on EI as a multidimensional intelligence and highlight the need for refined assessment of emotional perception, understanding, and management to allow focused analyses of different EI abilities. View Full-Text
Keywords: emotional intelligenceGeneva Emotional Competence Test (GECo)Cattell-Horn-Carroll (CHC) theorymultidimensionalityS-1 Bifactor Modeling

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Kevin S. McGrew, PhD
Educational & School Psychologist
Director
Institute for Applied Psychometrics (IAP)
https://www.themindhub.com
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Saturday, June 05, 2021

Overlapping and dissociable brain activations for fluid intelligence and executive functions

https://doi.org/10.3758/s13415-021-00870-4

Abstract

Cognitive enhancement interventions aimed at boosting human fluid intelligence (gf) have targeted executive functions (EFs), such as updating, inhibition, and switching, in the context of transfer-inducing cognitive training. However, even though the link between EFs and gf has been demonstrated at the psychometric level, their neurofunctional overlap has not been quantitatively investigated. Identifying whether and how EFs and gf might share neural activation patterns could provide important insights into the overall hierarchical organization of human higher-order cognition, as well as suggest specific targets for interventions aimed at maximizing cognitive transfer. We present the results of a quantitative meta-analysis of the available fMRI and PET literature on EFs and gf in humans, showing the similarity between gf and (i) the overall global EF network, as well as (ii) specific maps for updating, switching, and inhibition. Results highlight a higher degree of similarity between gf and updating (80% overlap) compared with gf and inhibition (34%), and gf and switching (17%). Moreover, three brain regions activated for both gf and each of the three EFs also were identified, located in the left middle frontal gyrus, left inferior parietal lobule, and anterior cingulate cortex. Finally, resting-state functional connectivity analysis on two independent fMRI datasets showed the preferential behavioural correlation and anatomical overlap between updating and gf. These findings confirm a close link between gf and EFs, with implications for brain stimulation and cognitive training interventions.


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Kevin S. McGrew, PhD
Educational & School Psychologist
Director
Institute for Applied Psychometrics (IAP)
https://www.themindhub.com
******************************************

Monday, May 24, 2021

J. Intell. | Free Full-Text | Intelligence and the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act

J. Intell. | Free Full-Text | Intelligence and the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act
https://www.mdpi.com/2079-3200/7/4/24

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Kevin S. McGrew, PhD
Educational & School Psychologist
Director
Institute for Applied Psychometrics (IAP)
https://www.themindhub.com
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Saturday, May 22, 2021

A Review of Key Likert Scale Development Advances: 1995–2019

A Review of Key Likert Scale Development Advances: 1995–2019
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8129175/

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Kevin S. McGrew, PhD
Educational & School Psychologist
Director
Institute for Applied Psychometrics (IAP)
https://www.themindhub.com
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Friday, May 21, 2021

Eiko Fried - Measurement, modeling, and ontology of mental illness

My new favorite bkogger

https://eiko-fried.com/

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Kevin S. McGrew, PhD
Educational & School Psychologist
Director
Institute for Applied Psychometrics (IAP)
https://www.themindhub.com
******************************************

Systematic review on the precursors of initial mathematical performance | Semantic Scholar


Systematic review on the precursors of initial mathematical performance
Abstract This study carried out a systematic review to identify which cognitive skills of general and specific domain are most frequently indicated as predictors of mathematical achievement of primary school students. For that, 62 studies were included from the EMBASE, American Psychological Association, PubMED/MEDLINE, and Educational Resources Information Center/ERIC databases. Results indicated that working memory and early numerical skills are the cognitive abilities most often reported as predictors of later mathematical achievement, regardless of the school grade and the type of mathematical performance considered. The findings gather evidence that contributes to the understanding of which cognitive skills are fundamental for long-term mathematics learning and that such skills can be inserted in school education as a resource to prevent later mathematical difficulties


 Systematic review on the precursors of initial mathematical performance | Semantic Scholar 
https://www.semanticscholar.org/paper/Systematic-review-on-the-precursors-of-initial-Nogues-Dorneles/b0e8c5f334c345d1812059e66d896b11eeaef65e?utm_source=alert_email&utm_content=FeedPaper&utm_campaign=AlertEmails_DAILY&utm_term=FeedPaper&email_index=0-0-0&utm_medium=2155650

******************************************
Kevin S. McGrew, PhD
Educational & School Psychologist
Director
Institute for Applied Psychometrics (IAP)
https://www.themindhub.com
******************************************

Friday, May 07, 2021

J. Intell. | Free Full-Text | Intelligence and Cognitive Development: Three Sides of the Same Coin

 J. Intell. | Free Full-Text | Intelligence and Cognitive Development: Three Sides of the Same Coin 
https://www.mdpi.com/2079-3200/5/2/14

Abstract
Research on intelligence, mainly based on correlational and factor-analytical work, research on cognitive development, and research in cognitive psychology are not to be opposed as has traditionally been the case, but are pursuing the same goal, that is, understand how the human being adapts to his/her own, complex environment. Each tradition of research has been focusing on one source of variation, namely situational differences for cognitive psychology, individual differences for psychometrics, and age differences for developmental psychology, while usually neglecting the two other sources of variation. The present paper compares those trends of research with respect to the constructs of fluid intelligence, working memory, processing speed, inhibition, and executive schemes. Two studies are very briefly presented to support the suggestion that tasks issued from these three traditions are very similar, if not identical, and that theoretical issues are also similar. We conclude in arguing that a unified vision is possible, provided one is (a) interested in the underlying processes and not only in the experimental variations of conditions; (b) willing to adopt a multidimensional view according to which few general mechanisms are at work, such as working memory or processing capacity, inhibition, and executive schemes; and (c) granting a fundamental role to individual differences.View Full-Text
Keywords: intelligencecognitive developmentindividual differencesworking memoryprocessing capacityattentional controlinhibition

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Kevin S. McGrew, PhD
Educational & School Psychologist
Director
Institute for Applied Psychometrics (IAP)
https://www.themindhub.com
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Thursday, May 06, 2021

The relation between science achievement and general cognitive abilities in large-scale assessments - ScienceDirect

 The relation between science achievement and general cognitive abilities in large-scale assessments - ScienceDirect 
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0160289621000131?via%3Dihub

Abstract Although large-scale assessments (LSA) of school achievement claim to measure domain-specific achievement, they have been criticized for primarily measuring domain-general abilities. Numerous studies provide evidence that LSA of mathematical achievement as well as verbal achievement cover both general cognitive abilities (GCA) and domain-specific achievement dimensions. We extend previous research by analyzing a standards-oriented and literacy-oriented LSA in the domain of science to determine the relation of these two assessment types with domain-general abilities. While literacy-oriented assessments focus on the knowledge and skills students need to meet the demands of modern societies, standards-oriented assessments focus on national educational standards and curricula. A sample of 1722 students worked on three assessments: (a) the PISA scientific literacy assessment; (b) a standards-oriented assessment based on the German National Educational Standards in biology, chemistry, and physics developed by the Institute for Educational Quality Improvement (IQB); and (c) a GCA test. Comparisons of competing structural models showed that models differentiating between domain-specific achievement and GCA best represented the structure of the assessments. Furthermore, standards-oriented and literacy-oriented LSAs in science shared common variance with GCA but also comprised specific variance. In addition to a factor representing students' GCA, we identified a science literacy-oriented and two standards-oriented factors. Relations with school grades in various STEM and non-STEM subjects were mixed and only partly provided evidence for the specificity of science LSAs. Our findings are important for understanding and interpreting results of LSAs in the contexts of GCA and science. We discuss our outcomes with respect to educational monitoring practices.

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Kevin S. McGrew, PhD
Educational & School Psychologist
Director
Institute for Applied Psychometrics (IAP)
https://www.themindhub.com
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Keeping Creativity under Control: Contributions of Attention Control and Fluid Intelligence to Divergent Thinking: Creativity Research Journal: Vol 0, No 0

 More on the importance of attentional control (AC)....which is AC under Gwm in CHC taxonomy

Keeping Creativity under Control: Contributions of Attention Control and Fluid Intelligence to Divergent Thinking: Creativity Research Journal: Vol 0, No 0 
https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/10400419.2020.1855906

Increasing research efforts are focused on explaining the cognitive bases of creativity. However, it remains unclear when and how cognitive factors such as intelligence and executive function uniquely contribute to performance on creative thinking tasks. Although a relationship between fluid intelligence (Gf) and creative cognition has been well-documented, the underlying mechanism of this relation is unknown. Here, we test one possible mechanism of the Gf–creativity association – attention control (AC) – given AC's strong association with Gf and its theoretical relevance to creative cognition. We also examine the role of mind wandering (i.e., task-unrelated thought), a failure of AC that is potentially beneficial to creativity. Using latent variable and bifactor models, we investigated the unique contributions of AC to divergent thinking – above the influence of Gf – evaluating the specific and general contributions of AC, Gf, and mind wandering to divergent thinking. We found that a general executive factor (i.e., of the common variance to AC, mind wandering, and Gf indicators) significantly predicted divergent thinking originality (β =.40, p <.001) above and beyond specific Gf and mind wandering factors. Importantly, in the bifactor model, mind wandering was a nonsignificant, negative predictor of divergent thinking performance, and the residual effects of Gf were no longer significant, indicating that the relationship between Gf and divergent thinking is explained by shared variance with a common executive attention factor. This study provides novel evidence suggesting that the relationship between Gf and divergent thinking may be largely driven by the topdown control of attention. 

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Kevin S. McGrew, PhD
Educational & School Psychologist
Director
Institute for Applied Psychometrics (IAP)
https://www.themindhub.com
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Tuesday, April 27, 2021

Developmental change in the influence of domain-general abilities and domain-specific knowledge on math




Citation

Geary, D. C., Nicholas, A., Li, Y., & Sun, J. (2017). Developmental change in the influence of domain-general abilities and domain-specific knowledge on mathematics achievement: An eight-year longitudinal study. Journal of Educational Psychology, 109(5), 680–693. https://doi.org/10.1037/edu0000159

Abstract

The contributions of domain-general abilities and domain-specific knowledge to subsequent mathematics achievement were longitudinally assessed (n = 167) through 8th grade. First grade intelligence and working memory and prior grade reading achievement indexed domain-general effects, and domain-specific effects were indexed by prior grade mathematics achievement and mathematical cognition measures of prior grade number knowledge, addition skills, and fraction knowledge. Use of functional data analysis enabled grade-by-grade estimation of overall domain-general and domain-specific effects on subsequent mathematics achievement, the relative importance of individual domain-general and domain-specific variables on this achievement, and linear and nonlinear across-grade estimates of these effects. The overall importance of domain-general abilities for subsequent achievement was stable across grades, with working memory emerging as the most important domain-general ability in later grades. The importance of prior mathematical competencies on subsequent mathematics achievement increased across grades, with number knowledge and arithmetic skills critical in all grades and fraction knowledge in later grades. Overall, domain-general abilities were more important than domain-specific knowledge for mathematics learning in early grades but general abilities and domain-specific knowledge were equally important in later grades. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)






Sunday, April 25, 2021

Gv-IM: Has the time finally come for Gv visual imagery tests?





In our 2018 CHC chapter  Joel Schneider and I made our long standing affection for visual imagery (Gv-IM per CHC taxonomy) very clear.  See text excerpt below. (double click on images to enlarge)






Today I ran across a potential free PDF book (via Research Gate) that may make IM tests viable.  There is hope.









Saturday, April 24, 2021

The evolution of the Woodcock-Johnson (WJ--WJ IV) global IQ or g scores - The WJ is the Elon Musk of IQ testing

 Across the various editions of the WJ Tests of Cognitive Abilities (WJ, WJ-R, WJ III, WJ IV), the authors continually have sought to improve the measurement of intelligence via following contemporary research and theory.  As a result, in contrast to many other IQ tests, the WJ has been known for global IQ scores (original called Broad Cognitive Ability, later changed to General Intellectual Ability) that changed rather dramatically from one revision to the next.  We the WJ authors might be considered to be the Elon Musk of IQ test development.

I was recently asked to explain the changing nature of the BAC/GIA scores.  The result is the table inserted below (double click to enlarge).  I believe the table is self-explanatory.  A nice PDF copy can be downloaded here.  Enjoy.




Can You Ever Be Too Smart for Your Own Good? Comparing Linear and Nonlinear Effects of Cognitive Ability on Life Outcomes

https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/full/10.1177/1745691620964122

Abstract
Despite a long-standing expert consensus about the importance of cognitive ability for life outcomes, contrary views continue to proliferate in scholarly and popular literature. This divergence of beliefs presents an obstacle for evidence-based policymaking and decision-making in a variety of settings. One commonly held idea is that greater cognitive ability does not matter or is actually harmful beyond a certain point (sometimes stated as > 100 or 120 IQ points). We empirically tested these notions using data from four longitudinal, representative cohort studies comprising 48,558 participants in the United States and United Kingdom from 1957 to the present. We found that ability measured in youth has a positive association with most occupational, educational, health, and social outcomes later in life. Most effects were characterized by a moderate to strong linear trend or a practically null effect (mean R2 range = .002–.256). Nearly all nonlinear effects were practically insignificant in magnitude (mean incremental R2 = .001) or were not replicated across cohorts or survey waves. We found no support for any downside to higher ability and no evidence for a threshold beyond which greater scores cease to be beneficial. Thus, greater cognitive ability is generally advantageous—and virtually never detrimental.

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Kevin S. McGrew, PhD
Educational & School Psychologist
Director
Institute for Applied Psychometrics (IAP)
https://www.themindhub.com
******************************************

Friday, April 23, 2021

The Relationship between Intelligence and Divergent Thinking—A Meta-Analytic Update

Abstract
This paper provides a meta-analytic update on the relationship between intelligence and divergent thinking (DT), as research on this topic has increased, and methods have diversified since Kim's meta-analysis in 2005. A three-level meta-analysis was used to analyze 849 correlation coefficients from 112 studies with an overall N = 34,610. The overall effect showed a significant positive correlation of r = .25. This increase of the correlation as compared to Kim's prior meta-analytic findings could be attributed to the correction of attenuation because a difference between effect sizes prior-Kim vs. post-Kim was non-significant. Different moderators such as scoring methods, instructional settings, intelligence facets, and task modality were tested together with theoretically relevant interactions between some of these factors. These moderation analyses showed that the intelligence–DT relationship can be higher (up to r = .31–.37) when employing test-like assessments coupled with be-creative instructions, and considering DT originality scores. The facet of intelligence (g vs. gf vs. gc) did not affect the correlation between intelligence and DT. Furthermore, we found two significant sample characteristics: (a) average sample age was positively associated with the intelligence–DT correlation, and (b) the intelligence–DT correlation decreased for samples with increasing percentages of females in the samples. Finally, inter-moderator correlations were checked to take potential confounding into account, and also publication bias was assessed. This meta-analysis provides a comprehensive picture of current research and possible research gaps. Theoretical implications, as well as recommendations for future research, are discussed. View Full-Text
Keywords: divergent thinkingintelligencefluid intelligencecrystallized intelligencemeta-analysis


https://www.mdpi.com/2079-3200/9/2/23

******************************************
Kevin S. McGrew, PhD
Educational & School Psychologist
Director
Institute for Applied Psychometrics (IAP)
https://www.themindhub.com
******************************************

Tuesday, April 06, 2021

The Relationship between Theory of Mind and Intelligence: A Formative g Approach

The Relationship between Theory of Mind and Intelligence: A Formative g Approach

https://doi.org/10.3390/jintelligence9010011
Theory of Mind (ToM) is the ability understand that other people's mental states may be different from one's own. Psychometric models have shown that individual differences in ToM can largely be attributed to general intelligence (g) (Coyle et al. 2018). Most psychometric models specify g as a reflective latent variable, which is interpreted as a general ability that plays a causal role in a broad range of cognitive tasks, including ToM tasks. However, an alternative approach is to specify g as a formative latent variable, that is, an overall index of cognitive ability that does not represent a psychological attribute (Kovacs and Conway 2016). Here we consider a formative g approach to the relationship between ToM and intelligence. First, we conducted an SEM with reflective g to test the hypothesis that ToM is largely accounted for by a general ability. Next, we conducted a model with formative g to determine whether the relationship between ToM and intelligence is influenced by domain-specific tasks. Finally, we conducted a redundancy analysis to examine the contribution of each g variable. Results suggest that the relationship between ToM and intelligence in this study was influenced by language-based tasks, rather than solely a general ability.



******************************************
Kevin S. McGrew, PhD
Educational & School Psychologist
Director
Institute for Applied Psychometrics (IAP)
https://www.themindhub.com
******************************************

Nice followup and extension of Floyd et al (2018) IQ exchangeability study

Limited Internal Comparability of General Intelligence Composites: Impact on External Validity, Possible Predictors, and Practical Remedies


https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/pdf/10.1177/10731911211005171

Silvia Grieder1 , Anette Bünger1 , Salome D. Odermatt1 , Florine Schweizer1, and Alexander Grob1

Abstract

Research on comparability of general intelligence composites (GICs) is scarce and has focused exclusively on comparing GICs from different test batteries, revealing limited individual-level comparability. We add to these findings, investigating the group- and individual-level comparability of different GICs within test batteries (i.e., internal score comparability), thereby minimizing transient error and ruling out between-battery variance completely. We (a) determined the magnitude of intraindividual IQ differences, (b) investigated their impact on external validity, (c) explored possible predictors for these differences, and (d) examined ways to deal with incomparability. Results are based on the standardization samples of three intelligence test batteries, spanning from early childhood to late adulthood. Despite high group-level comparability, individual-level comparability was often unsatisfactory, especially toward the tails of the IQ distribution. This limited comparability has consequences for external validity, as GICs were differentially related to and often less predictive for school grades for individuals with high IQ differences. Of several predictors, only IQ level and age were systematically related to comparability. Consequently, findings challenge the use of overall internal consistencies for confidence intervals and suggest using confidence intervals based on test–retest reliabilities or age- and IQ-specific internal consistencies for clinical interpretation. Implications for test construction and application are discussed.

Keywords.  general intelligence, IQ, screening, individual level, reliability, validity