Wednesday, February 27, 2013

James Flynn March 2012 APA Monitor Interview o the Flynn Effect

Interview of Dr. Flynn on the Flynn Effect can be read here.


IQs Corner Recent Literature of Interest: 2-27-13

This weeks edition of articles, along with abstracts, is now available at this link.


Research Byte/ The Psychometric Properties of the Vanderbilt Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Diagnostic Pa

Title: The Psychometric Properties of the Vanderbilt Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Diagnostic Parent Rating Scale in a Community Population
Author(s): Bard, David E.; Wolraich, Mark L.; Neas, Barbara; et al.
IDS#: 085RE. ISSN: 0196-206X

Tuesday, February 26, 2013

Research Byte: Early Predictors of High School Mathematics Achievement

Title: Early Predictors of High School Mathematics Achievement
Author(s): Siegler, Robert S.; Duncan, Greg J.; Davis-Kean, Pamela E.; et al.
Source: PSYCHOLOGICAL SCIENCE, 23 (7): 691-697 JUL 2012
IDS#: 083LT. ISSN: 0956-7976

Article: InBrief: The Science of Early Childhood Development

Article: Webinar: 2013 State of the States in Developmental Disabilities

Webinar: 2013 State of the States in Developmental Disabilities

Journal Alert: Psychology and Aging - Online First Publications

APA Journal alert for:
Psychology and Aging

The following articles have been published online this week before they appear in a final print and online issue of Psychology and Aging:

Demographic Predictors of Cognitive Change in Ethnically Diverse Older Persons.
Early, Dawnté R.; Widaman, Keith F.; Harvey, Danielle; Beckett, Laurel; Quitania Park, Lovingly; Tomaszewski Farias, Sarah; Reed, Bruce R.; DeCarli, Charles; Mungas, Dan

Preferences for Choice Across Adulthood: Age Trajectories and Potential Mechanisms.
Reed, Andrew E.; Mikels, Joseph A.; Löckenhoff, Corinna E.

Sunday, February 24, 2013

The MACM Commitment to Pathway Learning Model

[Click on images to enlarge]

I pleased to make available the first MindHub (TM) Pub.  This material first appeared as a blog post.  I received a number of requests for printed or electronic copies of the post, so I decided to make if available as a PDF...a MindHub Pub.  The title, which is also the download link, is "The Motivation and Academic Competence (MACM) Pathway to Commitment to Learning Model:  Crossing the Rubicon to Learning Action." It can also be accessed at the MindHub (TM).

Friday, February 22, 2013

Research Byte: Need for cognition is related to higher general intelligence, fluid intelligence, and crystallized i

Title: Need for cognition is related to higher general intelligence, fluid intelligence, and crystallized intelligence, but not working memory
Author(s): Hill, Benjamin D.; Foster, Joshua D.; Elliott, Emily M.; et al.
IDS#: 081MS. ISSN: 0092-6566

Research Byte: Exploring gains in reading and mathematics achievement among regular and exceptional students using

Title: Exploring gains in reading and mathematics achievement among regular and exceptional students using growth curve modeling
Author(s): Shin, Tacksoo; Davison, Mark L.; Long, Jeffrey D.; et al.
IDS#: 080QL. ISSN: 1041-6080

Research byte: The role of lexical representations and phonological overlap in rhyme judgments of beginning, interm

Title: The role of lexical representations and phonological overlap in rhyme judgments of beginning, intermediate and advanced readers
Author(s): Wagensveld, Barbara; Segers, Eliane; van Alphen, Petra; et al.
IDS#: 080QL. ISSN: 1041-6080

Article: Three Radical New Brain-Mapping Tools Scientists Want Obama to Deliver

Kevin McGrew, Phd.
Educational Psychologist
Institute for Applied Psychometrics
Director IAP

Article: Computing for Psychologists links

Kevin McGrew, Phd.
Educational Psychologist
Institute for Applied Psychometrics
Director IAP

Article: Free Psychology Books

Thursday, February 21, 2013

Research Byte: IQ score differences in forensic settings--WAIS-III v WRIT

Click on image to enlarge



> Issue: Vol. 66 No. 2, 2013
> Title:
> A look into the ballot box: Gaze following conveys information about implicit attitudes toward politicians
> Authors:
> Liuzza, MT; Vecchione, M; Dentale, F; Crostella, F; Barbaranelli, C;
> Caprara, GV; Aglioti, SM
> Source:
> Abstract:
> Although considered a predominantly automatic social behaviour, gaze
> following (GF) is sensitive to complex social factors like political
> affiliation and ideology. The present study aimed to determine whether
> the differential proneness to in-group leaders' gaze is related to
> attitudes towards politicians as measured by other implicit procedures.
> A GF paradigm was used to test the extent to which electors were prone
> to gaze following when attending to two female candidates who competed
> for the position of governor in an Italian election campaign. Results
> showed that GF significantly predicts voting intentions. Also, it was
> found that GF is significantly and positively correlated with the
> Implicit Association Test (IAT). Hierarchical multiple regression models
> illustrated that GF and IAT uniquely predict voting intentions,
> accounting for a substantial proportion of variance. Thus GF and IAT,
> even though significantly related, seem to account for different aspects
> of the attitudes towards candidates. A multivariate regression model
> showed that, while IAT scores are predicted by explicit emotions toward
> the candidate, GF is predicted by the candidates' perceived influence
> within their political coalition.
> ========================================================================
> *Pages: 217-228 (Article)
> *View Full Record:;KeyUT=CCC:000314157800002
> *Order Full Text [ ]
> Title:
> Learned predictiveness influences automatic evaluations in human contingency learning
> Authors:
> Le Pelley, ME; Calvini, G; Spears, R
> Source:
> Abstract:
> Experiments used an affective priming procedure to investigate whether
> evaluative conditioning in humans is subject to bias as a consequence of
> differences in the learned predictiveness of the cues involved.
> Experiment 1, using brief prime presentation, demonstrated stronger
> affective priming for cues that had been predictive of a neutral
> attribute prior to evaluative conditioning than for those that had been
> nonpredictive. Experiment 2, using longer prime presentation, found a
> reversed priming effect for previously predictive cues but not for
> previously nonpredictive cues. The implication is that the effect
> observed with brief prime presentation reflects the operation of
> fast-acting, automatic evaluation mechanisms and hence that evaluative
> conditioning can be biased by our previous learning about the
> predictiveness of cues.
> ========================================================================
> *Pages: 229-244 (Article)
> *View Full Record:;KeyUT=CCC:000314157800003
> *Order Full Text [ ]
> Title:
> Kinematics matters: A new eye-tracking investigation of animated triangles
> Authors:
> Roux, P; Passerieux, C; Ramus, F
> Source:
> Abstract:
> Eye movements have been recently recorded in participants watching
> animated triangles in short movies that normally evoke mentalizing
> (FrithHappe animations). Authors have found systematic differences in
> oculomotor behaviour according to the degree of mental state attribution
> to these triangles: Participants made longer fixations and looked longer
> at intentional triangles than at triangles moving randomly. However, no
> study has yet explored kinematic characteristics of FrithHappe
> animations and their influence on eye movements. In a first experiment,
> we have run a quantitative kinematic analysis of FrithHappe animations
> and found that the time triangles spent moving and the distance between
> them decreased with the mentalistic complexity of their movements. In a
> second experiment, we have recorded eye movements in 17 participants
> watching FrithHappe animations and found that some differences in
> fixation durations and in the proportion of gaze allocated to triangles
> between the different kinds of animations were entirely explained by
> low-level kinematic confounds. We finally present a new eye-tracking
> measure of visual attention, triangle pursuit duration, which does
> differentiate the different types of animations even after taking into
> account kinematic cofounds. However, some idiosyncratic kinematic
> properties of the FrithHappe animations prevent an entirely satisfactory
> interpretation of these results. The different eye-tracking measures are
> interpreted as implicit and line measures of the processing of animate
> movements.
> ========================================================================
> *Pages: 245-260 (Article)
> *View Full Record:;KeyUT=CCC:000314157800004
> *Order Full Text [ ]
> Title:
> The role of visual spatial attention in adult developmental dyslexia
> Authors:
> Collis, NL; Kohnen, S; Kinoshita, S
> Source:
> Abstract:
> The present study investigated the nature of visual spatial attention
> deficits in adults with developmental dyslexia, using a partial report
> task with five-letter, digit, and symbol strings. Participants responded
> by a manual key press to one of nine alternatives, which included other
> characters in the string, allowing an assessment of position errors as
> well as intrusion errors. The results showed that the dyslexic adults
> performed significantly worse than age-matched controls with letter and
> digit strings but not with symbol strings. Both groups produced W-shaped
> serial position functions with letter and digit strings. The dyslexics'
> deficits with letter string stimuli were limited to position errors,
> specifically at the string-interior positions 2 and 4. These errors
> correlated with letter transposition reading errors (e.g., reading slat
> as salt), but not with the Rapid Automatized Naming (RAN) task. Overall,
> these results suggest that the dyslexic adults have a visual spatial
> attention deficit; however, the deficit does not reflect a reduced span
> in visualspatial attention, but a deficit in processing a string of
> letters in parallel, probably due to difficulty in the coding of letter
> position.
> ========================================================================
> *Pages: 261-276 (Article)
> *View Full Record:;KeyUT=CCC:000314157800005
> *Order Full Text [ ]
> Title:
> The mechanism underlying lexical selection: Evidence from the picture-picture interference paradigm
> Authors:
> Geng, JY; Kirchgessner, M; Schnur, T
> Source:
> Abstract:
> In two experiments using the picturepicture and pictureword interference
> paradigms, we compared predictions from the swinging lexical network and
> the response exclusion hypothesis to determine whether the process of
> word selection is competitive. Further, we suggest that previous
> categorical effects in the picturepicture interference paradigm were due
> to stimuli confounds, thus readdressing the debate concerning
> categorical effects in the paradigm. Consistent with both hypotheses, in
> Experiment 1 we found faster picture naming times when distractor
> pictures were associatively related than when they were unrelated,
> explained as a result of a spread of activation at the conceptual level
> with little (swinging lexical network) or no (response exclusion
> hypothesis) contribution from lexical competition. In Experiment 2, we
> found a significant categorical interference effect in the pictureword
> interference paradigm, and this effect significantly decreased but was
> not facilitatory when distractors were pictures. We discuss how these
> results are consistent with the swinging lexical network and conclude
> that the process to select a word is a competitive one.
> ========================================================================
> *Pages: 277-298 (Article)
> *View Full Record:;KeyUT=CCC:000314157800006
> *Order Full Text [ ]
> Title:
> Trade-offs in visual attention and the enhancement of memory specificity for positive and negative emotional stimuli
> Authors:
> Chipchase, SY; Chapman, P
> Source:
> Abstract:
> Emotional influences on memory can lead to trade-offs in memory for gist
> or detail and trade-offs in memory for central or peripheral aspects of
> an event. Attentional narrowing has often been proposed as a theoretical
> explanation for this pattern of findings with negative emotion. These
> trade-offs have been less extensively investigated with positive
> emotion. In three experiments, we investigate memory for specific visual
> details of positive and negative stimuli, examine centralperipheral
> trade-offs in memory, and assess the hypothesis that attentional
> narrowing contributes to emotional enhancement of memory specificity. We
> found that memory for details was enhanced by negative and positive
> emotion. Centralperipheral trade-offs were found in memory for negative
> emotional stimuli but not in memory for positive emotional stimuli.
> These trade-offs with negative emotion were associated with attentional
> narrowing at the time of encoding, as measured by eye movements. There
> were no attentional effects at the time of encoding found with positive
> emotional stimuli. Evidence was found for the attentional narrowing
> hypothesis of memory specificity and centralperipheral trade-offs in
> memory for negative emotional events. Alternative explanations for the
> positive emotional enhancement of memory specificity are required.
> ========================================================================
> *Pages: 299-318 (Article)
> *View Full Record:;KeyUT=CCC:000314157800007
> *Order Full Text [ ]
> Title:
> Is overall similarity classification less effortful than single-dimension classification?
> Authors:
> Wills, AJ; Milton, F; Longmore, CA; Hester, S; Robinson, J
> Source:
> Abstract:
> It is sometimes argued that the implementation of an overall similarity
> classification is less effortful than the implementation of a
> single-dimension classification. In the current article, we argue that
> the evidence securely in support of this view is limited, and report
> additional evidence in support of the opposite propositionoverall
> similarity classification is more effortful than single-dimension
> classification. Using a match-to-standards procedure, Experiments 1A, 1B
> and 2 demonstrate that concurrent load reduces the prevalence of overall
> similarity classification, and that this effect is robust to changes in
> the concurrent load task employed, the level of time pressure
> experienced, and the short-term memory requirements of the
> classification task. Experiment 3 demonstrates that participants who
> produced overall similarity classifications from the outset have larger
> working memory capacities than those who produced single-dimension
> classifications initially, and Experiment 4 demonstrates that
> instructions to respond meticulously increase the prevalence of overall
> similarity classification.
> ========================================================================
> *Pages: 319-337 (Article)
> *View Full Record:;KeyUT=CCC:000314157800008
> *Order Full Text [ ]
> Title:
> Shifts of the psychometric function: Distinguishing bias from perceptual effects
> Authors:
> Garcia-Perez, MA; Alcala-Quintana, R
> Source:
> Abstract:
> Morgan, Dillenburger, Raphael, and Solomon have shown that observers can
> use different response strategies when unsure of their answer, and,
> thus, they can voluntarily shift the location of the psychometric
> function estimated with the method of single stimuli (MSS; sometimes
> also referred to as the single-interval, two-alternative method). They
> wondered whether MSS could distinguish response bias from a true
> perceptual effect that would also shift the location of the psychometric
> function. We demonstrate theoretically that the inability to distinguish
> response bias from perceptual effects is an inherent shortcoming of MSS,
> although a three-response format including also an undecided response
> option may solve the problem under restrictive assumptions whose
> validity cannot be tested with MSS data. We also show that a proper
> two-alternative forced-choice (2AFC) task with the three-response format
> is free of all these problems so that bias and perceptual effects can
> easily be separated out. The use of a three-response 2AFC format is
> essential to eliminate a confound (response bias) in studies of
> perceptual effects and, hence, to eliminate a threat to the internal
> validity of research in this area.
> ========================================================================
> *Pages: 338-346 (Article)
> *View Full Record:;KeyUT=CCC:000314157800009
> *Order Full Text [ ]
> Title:
> Phonological decoding or direct access? Regularity effects in lexical decisions of Grade 3 and 4 children
> Authors:
> Schmalz, X; Marinus, E; Castles, A
> Source:
> Abstract:
> Learning to read fluently involves moving from an effortful phonological
> decoding strategy to automatic recognition of familiar words. However,
> little is known about the timing of this transition, or the extent to
> which children continue to be influenced by phonological factors when
> recognizing words even as they progress in reading. We explored this
> question by examining regularity effects in a lexical decision task, as
> opposed to the more traditionally used reading-aloud task. Children in
> Grades 3 and 4 made go/no-go lexical decisions on high- and
> low-frequency regular and irregular words that had been matched for
> consistency. The children showed regularity effects in their accuracy
> for low-frequency words, indicating that they were using phonological
> decoding strategies to recognize unfamiliar words. The size of this
> effect was correlated with measures of reading ability. However, we
> found no regularity effects on accuracy for high-frequency words or on
> response times for either word type, suggesting that even 8-year-old
> children are already relying predominantly on a direct lexical strategy
> in their silent reading of familiar words.
> ========================================================================
> *Pages: 347-359 (Article)
> *View Full Record:;KeyUT=CCC:000314157800010
> *Order Full Text [ ]
> Title:
> Is "Inhibition of Return" due to the inhibition of the return of attention?
> Authors:
> Martin-Arevalo, E; Kingstone, A; Lupianez, J
> Source:
> Abstract:
> Inhibition of Return (IOR) is usually explained in terms of
> orientingreorienting of attention, emphasizing an underlying mechanism
> that inhibits the return of attention to previously selected locations.
> Recent data challenge this explanation to the extent that the IOR effect
> is observed at the location where attention is oriented to, where no
> reorienting of attention is needed. To date, these studies have involved
> endogenous attentional selection of attention and thus indicate a
> dissociation between the voluntary attention of spatial attention and
> the IOR effect. The present work demonstrates a dissociation between the
> involuntary orienting of spatial attention and the IOR effect. We
> combined nonpredictive peripheral cues with nonpredictive central
> orienting cues (either arrows or gaze). The IOR effect was observed to
> operate independent of involuntary spatial orienting. These data speak
> against the reorienting hypothesis of IOR. We suggest an alternative
> explanation whereby the IOR effect reflects a cost in detecting a new
> event (the target) at the location where another event (a cue) was coded
> before.
> ========================================================================
> *Pages: 360-380 (Article)
> *View Full Record:;KeyUT=CCC:000314157800011
> *Order Full Text [ ]
> Title:
> The implicit learning of metrical and nonmetrical temporal patterns
> Authors:
> Schultz, BG; Stevens, CJ; Keller, PE; Tillmann, B
> Source:
> Abstract:
> Implicit learning (IL) occurs unintentionally. IL of temporal patterns
> has received minimal attention, and results are mixed regarding whether
> IL of temporal patterns occurs in the absence of a concurrent ordinal
> pattern. Two experiments examined the IL of temporal patterns and the
> conditions under which IL is exhibited. Experiment 1 examined whether
> uncertainty of the upcoming stimulus identity obscures learning. Based
> on probabilistic uncertainty, it was hypothesized that
> stimulus-detection tasks are more sensitive to temporal learning than
> multiple-alternative forced-choice tasks because of response uncertainty
> in the latter. Results demonstrated IL of metrical patterns in the
> stimulus-detection but not the multiple-alternative task. Experiment 2
> investigated whether properties of rhythm (i.e., meter) benefit IL using
> the stimulus-detection task. The metric binding hypothesis states that
> metrical frameworks guide attention to periodic points in time. Based on
> the metric binding hypothesis, it was hypothesized that metrical
> patterns are learned faster than nonmetrical patterns. Results
> demonstrated learning of metrical and nonmetrical patterns but metrical
> patterns were not learned more readily than nonmetrical patterns.
> However, abstraction of a metrical framework was still evident in the
> metrical condition. The present study shows IL of auditory temporal
> patterns in the absence of an ordinal pattern.
> ========================================================================
> *Pages: 381-388 (Article)
> *View Full Record:;KeyUT=CCC:000314157800012
> *Order Full Text [ ]
> Title:
> The gut chooses faster than the mind: A latency advantage of affective over cognitive decisions
> Authors:
> Saunders, TS; Buehner, MJ
> Source:
> Abstract:
> Dual-process theories often cite that affective processing occurs more
> rapidly than cognitive processing. A wide range of evidence seems to
> support this notion; however, little research exists in the context of
> decision making. We tested the hypothesis that affective decisions would
> be performed faster than cognitive decisions. Forty-nine students
> completed a series of forced-choice tasks involving well-known consumer
> brands, focusing on either emotionally or cognitively relevant aspects
> of the products. The results revealed a significant latency advantage
> for affective processing compared to cognitive processing.
> ========================================================================
> *Pages: 389-402 (Article)
> *View Full Record:;KeyUT=CCC:000314157800013
> *Order Full Text [ ]
> Title:
> How are number words mapped to approximate magnitudes?
> Authors:
> Sullivan, J; Barner, D
> Source:
> Abstract:
> How do we map number words to the magnitudes they represent? While much
> is known about the developmental trajectory of number word learning, the
> acquisition of the counting routine, and the academic correlates of
> estimation ability, previous studies have yet to describe the mechanisms
> that link number words to nonverbal representations of number. We
> investigated two mechanisms: associative mapping and structure mapping.
> Four dot array estimation tasks found that adults' ability to match a
> number word to one of two discriminably different sets declined as a
> function of set size and that participants' estimates of relatively
> large, but not small, set sizes were influenced by misleading feedback
> during an estimation task. We propose that subjects employ structure
> mappings for linking relatively large number words to set sizes, but
> rely chiefly on item-by-item associative mappings for smaller sets.
> These results indicate that both inference and association play
> important roles in mapping number words to approximate magnitudes.
> ========================================================================
> *Pages: 403-416 (Article)
> *View Full Record:;KeyUT=CCC:000314157800014
> *Order Full Text [ ]
> Title:
> Parafoveal processing across different lexical constituents in Chinese reading
> Authors:
> Cui, L; Drieghe, D; Yan, GL; Bai, XJ; Chi, H; Liversedge, SP
> Source:
> Abstract:
> We report a boundary paradigm eye movement experiment to investigate
> whether the linguistic category of a two-character Chinese string
> affects how the second character of that string is processed in the
> parafovea during reading. We obtained clear preview effects in all
> conditions but, more importantly, found parafoveal-on-foveal effects
> whereby a nonsense preview of the second character influenced fixations
> on the first character. This effect occurred for monomorphemic words,
> but not for compound words or phrases. Also, in a word boundary
> demarcation experiment, we demonstrate that Chinese readers are not
> always consistent in their judgements of which characters in a sentence
> constitute words. We conclude that information regarding the
> combinatorial properties of characters in Chinese is used online to
> moderate the extent to which parafoveal characters are processed.

Research Byte: Intro to Rasch analysis

> Title:
> An introduction to Rasch analysis for Psychiatric practice and research
> Authors:
> da Rocha, NS; Chachamovich, E; Fleck, MPD; Tennant, A
> Source:
> Abstract:
> This article aims to present the main characteristics of Rasch analysis
> in the context of patient reported outcomes in Psychiatry. We present an
> overview of the main features of the Rasch analysis, using as an example
> the latent variable of depressive symptoms, with illustrations using the
> Beck Depression Inventory. We will show that with fitting data to the
> Rasch model, we can confirm the structural validity of the scale,
> including key attributes such as invariance, local dependency and
> unidimensionality. We also illustrate how the approach can inform on the
> meaning of the numbers attributed to scales, the amount of the latent
> traits that such numbers represent, and the consequent adequacy of
> statistical operations used to analyse them. We would argue that fitting
> data to the Rasch model has become the measurement standard for patient
> reported outcomes in general and, as a consequence will facilitate a
> quality improvement of outcome instruments in psychiatry. Recent
> advances in measurement technologies built upon the calibration of items
> derived from Rasch analysis in the form of computerized adaptive tests
> (CAT) open up further opportunities for reducing the burden of testing,
> and/or expanding the range of information that can be collected during a
> single session. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

CHC Theory: Auditory Processing (Ga) definition

Auditory Processing (Ga):. The ability to detect and process meaningful nonverbal information in sound. This definition may cause confusion because we do not have a well developed vocabulary for talking about sound unless we are talking about speech sounds or music. Ga encompasses both of these domains but also much more. There are two common misperceptions about Ga. First, although Ga depends on sensory input, it is not sensory input itself. Ga is what the brain does with sensory information from the ear, sometimes long after a sound has been heard.. The second extremely common misconception is that Ga is oral language comprehension. It is true that one aspect of Ga (parsing speech sounds or Phonetic Coding) is related to oral language comprehension but this is simply a precursor to comprehension, not comprehension itself.
  • Phonetic Coding (PC). Ability to hear phonemes distinctly. This ability is also referred to as phonological processing and phonological awareness. People with poor phonetic coding have difficulty hearing the internal structure of sound in words.
  • Speech Sound Discrimination (US): Ability to detect and discriminate differences in speech sounds (other than phonemes) under conditions of little or no distraction or distortion.  Poor speech sound discrimination can produce difficulty in the ability to distinguish variations in tone, timbre, and pitch in speech.
  •  Resistance to Auditory Stimulus Distortion (UR). Ability to hear words correctly even under conditions of distortion or loud background noise.
  • Memory for Sound Patterns (UM). Ability to retain (on a short-term basis) auditory events such as tones, tonal patterns, and voices.
  • Maintaining and Judging Rhythm (U8). Ability to recognize and maintain a musical beat. This may be an aspect of Memory for Sound Patterns as short-term memory is clearly involved. However, it is likely that there is something distinct about rhythm that warrants a distinction.
  • Musical Discrimination and Judgment (U1 U9). Ability to discriminate and judge tonal patterns in music with respect to melodic, harmonic, and expressive aspects (phrasing, tempo, harmonic complexity, intensity variations).
  • Absolute Pitch (UP). Ability to perfectly identify the pitch of tones.  As a historical tidbit, John Carroll had perfect pitch.
  • Sound Localization (UL). Ability to localize heard sounds in space.

The above definitions were abstracted from Schneider and McGrew's (2012) contemporary CHC theory chapter in the form of a special CHC v2.0 publication. See the chapter for more in depth information regarding this ability domain and contemporary CHC theory.

Prior definitions in this series can be found here.

Thanks to Dr. Scott Barry Kaufman for permission to to use the above graphic depiction of this CHC ability. These CHC icons are part of Dr. Kaufman's book, Ungifted: Intelligence Redefined, and are the creative work of George Doutsiopoulos.

IQs Corner Recent Literature of Interest: 02-21-13

> PT J
> AU Choe, KS
> AF Choe, Katherine S.
> TI Children's Representation of Long Duration: When Memory and Attention
> Meet in Processing Time
> AB The concepts of the memory and attentional models were examined in
> children's and adults time perception in a long duration. One hundred
> twenty-one children in preschool through Grade 2 and 29 adults for Study
> 1 and 93 second-, fourth-, and sixth-grade students and 40 adults for
> Study 2 judged durations of tasks that varied in interest levels and
> cognitive demands. In Study 1, children overestimated but adults
> underestimated the movie that they found to be interesting. However, in
> Study 2, both children and adults consistently overestimated the
> duration of puzzles they found to be interesting. In a long duration,
> the findings were more in line with the memory model than with the
> attention model. A qualitative change also emerged in middle childhood
> in the way children kept track of time; this difference may influence
> the developing perception of long duration in children's representation.
> Implications of the findings are further discussed in examining the
> perception of long duration.
> PY 2013
> VL 174
> IS 2
> BP 117
> EP 136
> ER
> PT J
> AU Labelle, V
> Bosquet, L
> Mekary, S
> Bherer, L
> AF Labelle, Veronique
> Bosquet, Laurent
> Mekary, Said
> Bherer, Louis
> TI Decline in executive control during acute bouts of exercise as a
> function of exercise intensity and fitness level
> AB Studies on the effects of acute bouts of cardiovascular exercise on
> cognitive performances show contradictory findings due to methodological
> differences (e.g., exercise intensity, cognitive function assessed,
> participants' aerobic fitness level, etc.). The present study assessed
> the acute effect of exercise intensity on cognition while controlling
> for key methodological confounds. Thirty-seven participants (M(age) =
> 23. 8 years; SD = 2.6) completed a computerized modified-Stroop task
> (involving denomination, inhibition and switching conditions) while
> pedalling at 40%, 60% and 80% of their peak power output (PPO). Results
> showed that in the switching condition of the task, error rates
> increased as a function of exercise intensity (from 60% to 80% of PPO)
> in all participants and that lower fit individuals showed increased
> reaction time variability. This suggests that acute bouts of
> cardiovascular exercise can momentarily alter executive control and
> increase performance instability in lower fit individuals. (C) 2012
> Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
> PY 2013
> VL 81
> IS 1
> BP 10
> EP 17
> ER
> PT J
> AU Wostmann, NM
> Aichert, DS
> Costa, A
> Rubia, K
> Moller, HJ
> Ettinger, U
> AF Woestmann, Nicola M.
> Aichert, Desiree S.
> Costa, Anna
> Rubia, Katya
> Moeller, Hans-Juergen
> Ettinger, Ulrich
> TI Reliability and plasticity of response inhibition and interference
> control
> AB This study investigated the internal reliability, temporal stability and
> plasticity of commonly used measures of inhibition-related functions.
> Stop-signal, go/no-go, antisaccade, Simon, Eriksen flanker, Stroop and
> Continuous Performance tasks were administered twice to 23 healthy
> participants over a period of approximately 11 weeks in order to assess
> test-retest correlations, internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha), and
> systematic between as well as within session performance changes. Most
> of the inhibition-related measures showed good test-retest reliabilities
> and internal consistencies, with the exception of the stop-signal
> reaction time measure, which showed poor reliability. Generally no
> systematic performance changes were observed across the two assessments
> with the exception of four variables of the Eriksen flanker, Simon and
> Stroop task which showed reduced variability of reaction time and an
> improvement in the response time for incongruent trials at second
> assessment. Predominantly stable performance within one test session was
> shown for most measures. Overall, these results are informative for
> studies with designs requiring temporally stable parameters e.g. genetic
> or longitudinal treatment studies. (C) 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights
> reserved.
> PY 2013
> VL 81
> IS 1
> BP 82
> EP 94
> ER
> PT J
> AU Moldavsky, M
> Groenewald, C
> Owen, V
> Sayal, K
> AF Moldavsky, Maria
> Groenewald, Carla
> Owen, Victoria
> Sayal, Kapil
> TI Teachers' recognition of children with ADHD: role of subtype and gender
> AB Background This study investigates the ability of primary school
> teachers to recognise Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD),
> and the impact of subtype and child gender on recognition and proposed
> management. Method Primary school teachers read one of four types of
> vignette describing the behaviour of a 9-year-old child: either a boy or
> a girl with inattentive or combined subtype of ADHD. Teachers were asked
> about their conceptualisation of the child's difficulties and their
> thoughts about need for specialist referral and other interventions.
> Results Of 496 teachers, 99% identified the presence of a problem.
> Subtype (combined) of ADHD influenced teachers recognition of ADHD and
> agreement that medication might be helpful. Only 13% of teachers thought
> that medication might be helpful. Conclusions Results suggest a need for
> better teacher awareness about inattentive subtype of ADHD.
> PY 2013
> VL 18
> IS 1
> BP 18
> EP 23
> ER
> PT J
> AU Seli, P
> Cheyne, JA
> Smilek, D
> AF Seli, Paul
> Cheyne, James Allan
> Smilek, Daniel
> TI Wandering Minds and Wavering Rhythms: Linking Mind Wandering and
> Behavioral Variability
> AB Mind wandering is a pervasive feature of human cognition often
> associated with the withdrawal of task-related executive control
> processes. Here, we explore the possibility that, in tasks requiring
> executive control to sustain consistent responding, moments of mind
> wandering could be associated with moments of increased behavioral
> variability. To test this possibility, we developed and administered a
> novel task (the metronome response task) in which participants were
> instructed to respond synchronously (via button presses) with the
> continuous rhythmic presentation of tones. We provide evidence
> (replicated across 2 independent samples) that response variability
> during the 5 trials preceding probe-caught reports of mind wandering
> (tuned-out and zoned-out mind wandering) is significantly greater than
> during the 5 trials preceding reports of on-task performance. These
> results suggest that, at least in some tasks, behavioral variability is
> an online marker of mind wandering.
> PY 2013
> VL 39
> IS 1
> BP 1
> EP 5
> ER
> PT J
> AU Sio, UN
> Monaghan, P
> Ormerod, T
> AF Sio, Ut Na
> Monaghan, Padraic
> Ormerod, Tom
> TI Sleep on it, but only if it is difficult: Effects of sleep on problem
> solving
> AB Previous research has shown that performance on problem solving improves
> over a period of sleep, as compared with wakefulness. However, these
> studies have not determined whether sleep is beneficial for problem
> solving or whether sleep merely mitigates against interference due to an
> interruption to solution attempts. Sleep-dependent improvements have
> been described in terms of spreading activation, which raises the
> prediction that an effect of sleep should be greater for problems
> requiring a broader solution search. We presented participants with a
> set of remote-associate tasks that varied in difficulty as a function of
> the strength of the stimuli-answer associations. After a period of
> sleep, wake, or no delay, participants reattempted previously unsolved
> problems. The sleep group solved a greater number of difficult problems
> than did the other groups, but no difference was found for easy
> problems. We conclude that sleep facilitates problem solving, most
> likely via spreading activation, but this has its primary effect for
> harder problems.
> PY 2013
> VL 41
> IS 2
> BP 159
> EP 166
> ER
> PT J
> AU Unsworth, N
> Brewer, GA
> Spillers, GJ
> AF Unsworth, Nash
> Brewer, Gene A.
> Spillers, Gregory J.
> TI Working memory capacity and retrieval from long-term memory: the role of
> controlled search
> AB In two experiments, the role of working memory capacity (WMC) in the
> controlled search of long-term memory was examined. Participants
> performed a prolonged category fluency task that required them to
> retrieve as many animals as possible in 5 min. The results suggested
> that WMC differences arose in the numbers of animals retrieved, the
> numbers of clusters retrieved, and the rates of the retrieval (Exp. 1).
> However, no differences were found in terms of how participants
> initiated retrieval or in the nature of the clusters generated.
> Furthermore, an examination of differences in retrieval strategies
> suggested that high-WMC individuals were more strategic than low-WMC
> individuals and that these differences in retrieval strategies accounted
> for the overall differences in the numbers of animals retrieved.
> Additionally, presenting participants with retrieval cues eliminated WMC
> differences in the numbers of animals retrieved (Exp. 2). These results
> suggest that low-WMC individuals are less able than high-WMC individuals
> to select and utilize appropriate retrieval strategies to self-generate
> cues to access information in long-term memory. Collectively, the
> results are consistent with research suggesting that WMC is important
> for controlled search from long-term memory.
> PY 2013
> VL 41
> IS 2
> BP 242
> EP 254
> ER
> PT J
> AU Archibald, LMD
> Joanisse, MF
> AF Archibald, Lisa M. D.
> Joanisse, Marc F.
> TI Domain-specific and domain-general constraints on word and sequence
> learning
> AB The relative influences of language-related and memory-related
> constraints on the learning of novel words and sequences were examined
> by comparing individual differences in performance of children with and
> without specific deficits in either language or working memory. Children
> recalled lists of words in a Hebbian learning protocol in which
> occasional lists repeated, yielding improved recall over the course of
> the task on the repeated lists. The task involved presentation of
> pictures of common nouns followed immediately by equivalent
> presentations of the spoken names. The same participants also completed
> a paired-associate learning task involving word-picture and
> nonword-picture pairs. Hebbian learning was observed for all groups.
> Domain-general working memory constrained immediate recall, whereas
> language abilities impacted recall in the auditory modality only. In
> addition, working memory constrained paired-associate learning
> generally, whereas language abilities disproportionately impacted novel
> word learning. Overall, all of the learning tasks were highly correlated
> with domain-general working memory. The learning of nonwords was
> additionally related to general intelligence, phonological short-term
> memory, language abilities, and implicit learning. The results suggest
> that distinct associations between language- and memory-related
> mechanisms support learning of familiar and unfamiliar phonological
> forms and sequences.
> PY 2013
> VL 41
> IS 2
> BP 268
> EP 280
> ER
> PT J
> AU Brooks, PJ
> Kempe, V
> AF Brooks, Patricia J.
> Kempe, Vera
> TI Individual differences in adult foreign language learning: The mediating
> effect of metalinguistic awareness
> AB In this study, we sought to identify cognitive predictors of individual
> differences in adult foreign-language learning and to test whether
> metalinguistic awareness mediated the observed relationships. Using a
> miniature language-learning paradigm, adults (N = 77) learned Russian
> vocabulary and grammar (gender agreement and case marking) over six 1-h
> sessions, completing tasks that encouraged attention to phrases without
> explicitly teaching grammatical rules. The participants' ability to
> describe the Russian gender and case-marking patterns mediated the
> effects of nonverbal intelligence and auditory sequence learning on
> grammar learning and generalization. Hence, even under implicit-learning
> conditions, individual differences stemmed from explicit metalinguistic
> awareness of the underlying grammar, which, in turn, was linked to
> nonverbal intelligence and auditory sequence learning. Prior knowledge
> of languages with grammatical gender (predominantly Spanish) predicted
> learning of gender agreement. Transfer of knowledge of gender from other
> languages to Russian was not mediated by awareness, which suggests that
> transfer operates through an implicit process akin to structural
> priming.
> PY 2013
> VL 41
> IS 2
> BP 281
> EP 296
> ER
> PT J
> AU Davies, R
> Barbon, A
> Cuetos, F
> AF Davies, Robert
> Barbon, Analia
> Cuetos, Fernando
> TI Lexical and semantic age-of-acquisition effects on word naming in
> Spanish
> AB We report a study of the factors that affect reading in Spanish, a
> language with a transparent orthography. Our focus was on the influence
> of lexical semantic knowledge in phonological coding. This effect would
> be predicted to be minimal in Spanish, according to some accounts of
> semantic effects in reading. We asked 25 healthy adults to name 2,764
> mono- and multisyllabic words. As is typical for psycholinguistics,
> variables capturing critical word attributes were highly
> intercorrelated. Therefore, we used principal components analysis (PCA)
> to derive orthogonalized predictors from raw variables. The PCA
> distinguished components relating to (1) word frequency, age of
> acquisition (AoA), and familiarity; (2) word AoA, imageability, and
> familiarity; (3) word length and orthographic neighborhood size; and (4)
> bigram type and token frequency. Linear mixed-effects analyses indicated
> significant effects on reading due to each PCA component. Our
> observations confirm that oral reading in Spanish proceeds through
> spelling-sound mappings involving lexical and sublexical units.
> Importantly, our observations distinguish between the effect of lexical
> frequency (the impact of the component relating to frequency, AoA, and
> familiarity) and the effect of semantic knowledge (the impact of the
> component relating to AoA, imageability, and familiarity). Semantic
> knowledge influences word naming even when all the words being read have
> regular spelling-sound mappings.
> PY 2013
> VL 41
> IS 2
> BP 297
> EP 311
> ER
> PT J
> AU Thomson, JM
> Leong, V
> Goswami, U
> AF Thomson, Jennifer M.
> Leong, Victoria
> Goswami, Usha
> TI Auditory processing interventions and developmental dyslexia: a
> comparison of phonemic and rhythmic approaches
> AB The purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy of two auditory
> processing interventions for developmental dyslexia, one based on rhythm
> and one based on phonetic training. Thirty-three children with dyslexia
> participated and were assigned to one of three groups (a) a novel
> rhythmic processing intervention designed to highlight auditory rhythmic
> information in non-speech and speech stimuli; (b) a
> commercially-available phoneme discrimination intervention; and (c) a
> no-intervention control. The intervention lasted for 6 weeks. Both
> interventions yielded equivalent and significant gains on measures of
> phonological awareness (at both rhyme and phoneme levels), with large
> effect sizes at the phoneme level. Both programs had medium effect sizes
> on literacy outcome measures, although gains were non-significant when
> compared to the controls. The data suggest that rhythmic training has an
> important role to play in developing the phonological skills that are
> critical for efficient literacy acquisition. It is suggested that
> combining both prosodic/rhythmic and phonemic cues in auditory training
> programs may offer advantages for children with developmental dyslexia.
> This may be especially true for those who appear resistant to
> conventional phonics training methods.
> PY 2013
> VL 26
> IS 2
> BP 139
> EP 161
> ER
> PT J
> AU Kendeou, P
> Papadopoulos, TC
> Kotzapoulou, M
> AF Kendeou, Panayiota
> Papadopoulos, Timothy C.
> Kotzapoulou, Marianna
> TI Evidence for the early emergence of the simple view of reading in a
> transparent orthography
> AB The main aim of the present study was to empirically test the emergence
> of the Simple View of Reading (SVR) in a transparent orthography, and
> specifically in Greek. To do so, we examined whether the constituent
> components of the SVR could be identified in young, Greek-speaking
> children even before the beginning of formal reading instruction. Our
> investigation focused on Kindergarten children and examined the
> dissociation of decoding-related and language comprehension skills using
> Exploratory Factor Analysis. All children were administered a battery of
> decoding-related and comprehension measures. The analysis demonstrated
> that comprehension and decoding-related measures loaded as distinct
> factors in young Greek-speaking children and that the two factors were
> weakly correlated. The present findings provide important support for
> the validity of the SVR framework as a model of reading skills
> acquisition in a language with a transparent orthography, such as Greek.
> PY 2013
> VL 26
> IS 2
> BP 189
> EP 204
> ER
> PT J
> AU Perret, C
> Laganaro, M
> AF Perret, Cyril
> Laganaro, Marina
> TI Why are written picture naming latencies (not) longer than spoken
> naming?
> AB The comparison between spoken and handwritten production in picture
> naming tasks represents an important source of information for building
> models of cognitive processes involved in writing. Studies using this
> methodology systematically reported longer latencies for handwritten
> than for spoken production. To uncover the origin of this difference
> across modalities, we compared the latencies of spoken picture naming
> and two written picture naming conditions: one in which the participants
> could see and monitor their handwriting (visible-condition), and one in
> which they could not monitor their production (masked-condition).
> Previously reported differences between spoken and handwritten naming
> latencies were replicated in the standard visible-condition. By
> contrast, production latencies were faster in the written
> masked-condition than in the visible-condition and did not differ from
> spoken production latencies. These results suggest that longer
> handwriting latencies, in comparison with speaking latencies, are due to
> the delayed onset in handwriting in conditions where the sheet is
> visible. The implications of these results on both written production
> models and experimental methods are discussed.
> PY 2013
> VL 26
> IS 2
> BP 225
> EP 239
> ER
> PT J
> AU Gabriel, RE
> Dostal, HM
> AF Gabriel, Rachael E.
> Dostal, Hannah M.
> TI "Reading and deafness": a review
> PY 2013
> VL 26
> IS 2
> BP 317
> EP 320
> ER
> PT J
> AU Hanchon, TA
> Allen, RA
> AF Hanchon, Timothy A.
> Allen, Ryan A.
> AB From its inception as a disability category in the Education for All
> Handicapped Children Act, serving students under the special education
> category Emotional Disturbance (ED) has been a challenging task for
> school psychologists. In particular, the vague and ambiguous federal
> definition has created an environment in which inconsistent assessment
> practices and decision making are almost inevitable. In this study, we
> examined school psychologists (N = 214) assessment practices when
> determining initial eligibility for ED, as well as their perceptions
> regarding the language contained within the federal ED definition.
> Findings indicated that although school psychologists recognize the need
> for a multimethod, multisource assessment model when ED is a
> classification consideration, in many instances, their actual
> assessments are missing commonly recommended sources of data for making
> eligibility decisions, including classroom observations; parent,
> teacher, and student interviews; and behavior rating scales. The results
> from the study provide a useful overview of school psychologists
> assessment practices and are couched within the questions and confusion
> that have surrounded the federal ED definition since its codification
> into law.
> PY 2013
> VL 50
> IS 2
> BP 193
> EP 208
> ER
> PT J
> AU Eklund, KM
> Torppa, M
> Lyytinen, H
> AF Eklund, Kenneth Mikael
> Torppa, Minna
> Lyytinen, Heikki
> TI Predicting Reading Disability: Early Cognitive Risk and Protective
> Factors
> AB This longitudinal study examined early cognitive risk and protective
> factors for Grade 2 reading disability (RD). We first examined the
> reading outcome of 198 children in four developmental cognitive
> subgroups that were identified in our previous analysis: dysfluent
> trajectory, declining trajectory, unexpected trajectory and typical
> trajectory. We found that RD was unevenly distributed among the
> subgroups, although children with RD were found in all subgroups. A
> majority of the children with RD had familial risk for dyslexia. Second,
> we examined in what respect children with similar early cognitive
> development but different RD outcome differ from each other in cognitive
> skills, task-focused behaviour and print exposure. The comparison of the
> groups with high cognitive risk but different RD outcome showed
> significant differences in phonological skills, in the amount of shared
> reading and in task-focused behaviour. Children who ended up with RD
> despite low early cognitive risk had poorer cognitive skills, more task
> avoidance and they were reading less than children without RD and low
> cognitive risk. In summary, lack of task avoidance seemed to act as a
> protective factor, which underlines the importance of keeping children
> interested in school work and reading. Copyright (c) 2013 John Wiley &
> Sons, Ltd.
> PY 2013
> VL 19
> IS 1
> BP 1
> EP 10
> ER
> PT J
> AU Chung, KKH
> Ho, CSH
> Chan, DW
> Tsang, SM
> Lee, SH
> AF Chung, Kevin K. H.
> Ho, Connie S-H
> Chan, David W.
> Tsang, Suk-Man
> Lee, Suk-Han
> TI Contributions of Syntactic Awareness to Reading in Chinese-speaking
> Adolescent Readers with and without Dyslexia
> AB This study investigated the relative contribution of syntactic awareness
> to Chinese reading among Chinese-speaking adolescent readers with and
> without dyslexia. A total of 78 junior high school students in Hong
> Kong, 26 dyslexic adolescent readers, 26 average adolescent readers of
> the same age (chronological age control group) and 26 younger readers
> matched with the same reading level (reading-level group) participated
> and were administered measures of IQ, syntactic awareness, morphological
> awareness, vocabulary knowledge, working memory, word reading, and
> reading comprehension. Results showed that dyslexic readers scored
> significantly lower than chronological age but similarly to reading
> level control groups in most measures, especially in the areas of
> syntactic skills. Analyses of individual data also revealed that over
> half of the dyslexic readers exhibited certain aspects of deficits in
> syntactic skills. In regression analyses, syntactic skills were the
> strongest predictors of ability in word reading and reading
> comprehension measures. This study highlights the uniquely important
> correlates of syntactic skills in Chinese reading acquisition and
> impairment. Copyright (c) 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
> PY 2013
> VL 19
> IS 1
> BP 11
> EP 36
> ER
> PT J
> AU Falth, L
> Gustafson, S
> Tjus, T
> Heimann, M
> Svensson, I
> AF Falth, Linda
> Gustafson, Stefan
> Tjus, Tomas
> Heimann, Mikael
> Svensson, Idor
> TI Computer-assisted Interventions Targeting Reading Skills of Children
> with Reading Disabilities - A Longitudinal Study
> AB The purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of three
> computerized interventions on the reading skills of children with
> reading disabilities in Grade 2. This longitudinal intervention study
> included five test sessions over 1?year. Two test points occur before
> the intervention, and three afterwards. The last follow-up was conducted
> 1?year after the first measurement. One hundred thirty children in Grade
> 2 participated in the study. Three groups of children with reading
> difficulties received computerized training programmes: one aimed at
> improving word decoding skills and phonological abilities, the second
> focused on word and sentence levels and the third was a combination of
> these two training programmes. A fourth group received ordinary special
> instruction. In addition, there was one comparison group with
> age-matched typical readers. All groups improved their reading skills.
> The group that received combined training showed greater improvement
> than the one with ordinary special instruction and the group of typical
> readers at two follow-ups. The longitudinal results indicate additional
> positive results for the group that received the combined training, the
> majority of students from that group being no longer judged to be
> needing special education 1?year after the intervention. Copyright (c)
> 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
> PY 2013
> VL 19
> IS 1
> BP 37
> EP 53
> ER
> PT J
> AU Gellert, AS
> Elbro, C
> AF Gellert, Anna S.
> Elbro, Carsten
> TI Cloze Tests May be Quick, But Are They Dirty? Development and
> Preliminary Validation of a Cloze Test of Reading Comprehension
> AB A commonly held view is that cloze tests may well provide a quick
> measure of something reading related, but that they are not suitable for
> assessments of understanding of ideas beyond the sentence boundary. The
> present article presents challenges to this view. It is argued that word
> gaps can be carefully selected so that filling them in requires proper
> understanding of the ideas of the text. The reliability and validity of
> such a comprehension-focused cloze test was demonstrated in a study of
> 204 Danish adults attending reading courses or general education. The
> quick (10 min) cloze comprehension test correlated strongly (r = .84)
> with a standard (30 min) question-answering comprehension test. Only a
> small part of this correlation was accounted for by decoding ability or
> vocabulary. The cloze test was somewhat more sensitive to decoding
> ability than the question-answering comprehension test was, and it
> provided a better fit to the participants' self-reported reading
> difficulties.
> PY 2013
> VL 31
> IS 1
> BP 16
> EP 28
> ER
> PT J
> AU Lewandowski, L
> Gathje, RA
> Lovett, BJ
> Gordon, M
> AF Lewandowski, Lawrence
> Gathje, Rebecca A.
> Lovett, Benjamin J.
> Gordon, Michael
> TI Test-Taking Skills in College Students With and Without ADHD
> AB College students with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)
> often request and receive extended time to complete high-stakes exams
> and classroom tests. This study examined the performances and behaviors
> of college students on computerized simulations of high-stakes exams.
> Thirty-five college students with ADHD were compared to 185 typical
> peers on measures of reading decoding, speed, vocabulary, comprehension,
> test strategies, time management, and test anxiety. Results indicated no
> differences between students with and without ADHD on various reading
> (decoding, speed, vocabulary, and comprehension) and test-taking
> variables (time utilization, navigation style, or strategy use), yet
> significant differences were present regarding their perceptions of, and
> anxiety during, test taking. It appears that students with ADHD perform
> similarly to peers on timed reading tests, although they think they
> perform less well and worry more about their performance.
> PY 2013
> VL 31
> IS 1
> BP 41
> EP 52
> ER
> PT J
> AU Chin, JK
> Dowdy, E
> Quirk, MP
> AF Chin, Jenna K.
> Dowdy, Erin
> Quirk, Matthew P.
> TI Universal Screening in Middle School: Examining the Behavioral and
> Emotional Screening System
> AB Universal screening is a promising approach for identifying students at
> risk for behavioral and emotional problems. Due to the frequent
> adolescent onset of behavioral and emotional problems, middle school is
> an important time for early identification. This study explored the
> ability of the Behavioral and Emotional Screening System (BESS) to
> predict behavioral outcomes (i.e., behavioral grades, suspensions, and
> office disciplinary referrals) in a sample of 694 middle-school
> students. Both the teacher and student rated BESS forms were able to
> significantly predict behavioral outcomes. Findings suggest that the
> BESS can be an effective tool for identifying students at risk of
> experiencing behavior problems.
> PY 2013
> VL 31
> IS 1
> BP 53
> EP 60
> ER
> PT J
> AU Allee-Smith, PJ
> Winters, RR
> Drake, A
> Joslin, AK
> AF Allee-Smith, Paula J.
> Winters, Rebecca R.
> Drake, Amanda
> Joslin, Amanda K.
> TI Barkley deficits in executive functioning scale (BDEFS)
> PY 2013
> VL 31
> IS 1
> BP 80
> EP 83
> ER
> PT J
> AU Maulik, PK
> Mascarenhas, MN
> Mathers, CD
> Dua, T
> Saxena, S
> AF Maulik, Pallab K.
> Mascarenhas, Maya N.
> Mathers, Colin D.
> Dua, Tarun
> Saxena, Shekhar
> TI Prevalence of intellectual disability: A meta-analysis of
> population-based studies (vol 32, pg 419, 2011)
> PY 2013
> VL 34
> IS 2
> BP 729
> EP 729
> ER
> PT J
> AU Toll, SWM
> Van Luit, JEH
> AF Toll, Sylke W. M.
> Van Luit, Johannes E. H.
> TI Accelerating the early numeracy development of kindergartners with
> limited working memory skills through remedial education
> AB Background: Young children with limited working memory skills are a
> special interest group among all children that score below average on
> early numeracy tests. This study examines the effect of accelerating the
> early numeracy development of these children through remedial education,
> by comparing them with children with typically working memory skills and
> early numeracy abilities below average.
> Method: Selected from a sample of 933 children, children with early
> numeracy ability below average are assigned into four groups: two
> intervention groups with limited working memory skills (IL-group) or
> typical working memory skills (IT-group), and two control groups with
> limited working memory skills (CL-group) or typical working memory
> skills (CT-group). All four groups were followed for a period of 1.5
> years. Four measurements were carried out.
> Conclusion: The remedial program proved to be similarly effective for
> the IL-group and the IT-group. The findings are discussed in the light
> of several limitations and implications. Crown Copyright (C) 2012
> Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
> PY 2013
> VL 34
> IS 2
> BP 745
> EP 755
> ER
> PT J
> AU Flapper, BCT
> Schoemaker, MM
> AF Flapper, Boudien C. T.
> Schoemaker, Marina M.
> TI Developmental Coordination Disorder in children with specific language
> impairment: Co-morbidity and impact on quality of life
> AB Co-morbidity of Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) in children
> with specific language impairment (SLI) and the impact of DCD on
> quality-of-life (QOL) was investigated in 65 5-8 year old children with
> SLI (43 boys, age 6.8 +/- 0.8; 22 girls, age 6.6 +/- 0.8). The
> prevalence of DCD was assessed using DSM-IV-TR criteria (American
> Psychiatric Association (APA), 2000) operationally defined in the
> clinical practice guideline (CPG): movement ABC scores below 15th
> percentile, scores on DCDQ and/or MOQ-T below 15th percentile, absence
> of medical condition according to paediatric-neurological exam. Quality
> of life (QOL) was measured with the TNO-AZL-Child-Quality-Of-Life
> (TACQOL) Questionnaire filled out by parents for the SLI group with and
> without DCD, and compared to a reference group (N=572; age 6.9 +/- 0.9).
> The TACQOL covers 7 QOL domains: physical, motor, cognitive and social
> functioning, autonomy, positive and negative moods. Prevalence of DCD in
> children with SLI was 323%. In children with SLI, mean QOL scores were
> significantly lower in the autonomy, cognitive, social and positive
> moods domains compared to the reference group. Children with SLI and DCD
> differed from children with SLI without DCD by significantly lower mean
> overall-, motor-, autonomy-, and cognitive domain-QOL scores. Clinicians
> should be aware that about one third of children with SLI can also be
> diagnosed with DCD. Assessment of QOL is warranted in order to assess
> which domains are affected in children with SLI with or without DCD. (C)
> 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
> PY 2013
> VL 34
> IS 2
> BP 756
> EP 763
> ER
> PT J
> AU Gonzalez-Gadea, ML
> Baez, S
> Torralva, T
> Castellanos, FX
> Rattazzi, A
> Bein, V
> Rogg, K
> Manes, F
> Ibanez, A
> AF Luz Gonzalez-Gadea, Maria
> Baez, Sandra
> Torralva, Teresa
> Castellanos, Francisco Xavier
> Rattazzi, Alexia
> Bein, Victoria
> Rogg, Katharina
> Manes, Facundo
> Ibanez, Agustin
> TI Cognitive variability in adults with ADHD and AS: Disentangling the
> roles of executive functions and social cognition
> AB Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and Asperger's Syndrome
> (AS) share a heterogeneous cognitive profile. Studies assessing
> executive functions (EF) and social cognition in both groups have found
> preserved and impaired performances. These inconsistent findings would
> be partially explained by the cognitive variability reported in these
> disorders. First, the present study explored the inter-individual
> variability in EF and social cognition in both patient groups. Second,
> we compared differential characteristics and commonalities in the
> cognitive profiles of EF and social cognition between ADHD, AS and
> control adults. We assessed 22 patients with ADHD, 23 adults with AS and
> 21 matched typically developing subjects using different measures of EF
> (working memory, cognitive flexibility and multitasking) and social
> cognition (theory of mind and decision-making). Group comparisons and
> multiple case series analyses (MCSA) were conducted. The between-group
> comparisons showed an EF deficit in working memory in ADHD and a theory
> of mind (ToM) impairment in AS. The MCSA evidenced that, compared to
> controls, ADHD patients had a higher inter-individual variability in EF,
> while individuals with AS had a more heterogeneous profile in social
> cognition tasks compared to both groups. Finally, the AS and ADHD groups
> presented higher task-related variability compared to controls and
> shared a common heterogeneous profile in EF. This is the first study to
> compare variability in EF and social cognition profiles of ADHD and AS.
> We propose that heterogeneity in EF performance is a link between ADHD
> and AS which may explain the overlap of symptomatology between both
> diagnoses. In addition, patients with AS seem to show a unique
> heterogeneous profile in ToM which may explain the low probability of
> finding AS symptoms in patients with ADHD. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All
> rights reserved.
> PY 2013
> VL 34
> IS 2
> BP 817
> EP 830
> ER
> PT J
> AU Witt, A
> Vinter, A
> AF Witt, Arnaud
> Vinter, Annie
> TI Children with intellectual disabilities may be impaired in encoding and
> recollecting incidental information
> AB Children with intellectual disabilities (ID) and controls were exposed
> to an incidental learning phase, where half of the participants received
> highly implicit instructions at test while the other half received
> explicit instructions. When learning was assessed for simple chunks of
> information, children with ID performed better with implicit
> instructions than with explicit ones, while the typically developing
> (TD) children performed equally well in the two test conditions. When
> more complex chunks were considered, performance was degraded for all
> children in the implicit instructions condition, while the TD children
> took advantage of receiving explicit instructions at test. Additionally,
> only TD children succeeded in a subsequent recognition test. These
> results suggest that intentional retrieval of complex information, even
> when learned implicitly, is deficient in children with ID. This argues
> towards the well-foundedness of educational methods preventing the
> recourse to intentional and effortful retrieval processes and complex
> material. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
> PY 2013
> VL 34
> IS 2
> BP 864
> EP 871
> ER
> PT J
> AU Ronfeldt, M
> Loeb, S
> Wyckoff, J
> AF Ronfeldt, Matthew
> Loeb, Susanna
> Wyckoff, James
> TI How Teacher Turnover Harms Student Achievement
> AB Researchers and policymakers often assume that teacher turnover harms
> student achievement, though recent studies suggest this may not be the
> case. Using a unique identification strategy that employs
> school-by-grade level turnover and two classes of fixed-effects models,
> this study estimates the effects of teacher turnover on over 850,000 New
> York City fourth- and fifth-grade student observations over 8 years. The
> results indicate that students in grade levels with higher turnover
> score lower in both English language arts (ELA) and math and that these
> effects are particularly strong in schools with more low-performing and
> Black students. Moreover, the results suggest that there is a disruptive
> effect of turnover beyond changing the distribution in teacher quality.
> PY 2013
> VL 50
> IS 1
> BP 4
> EP 36
> ER
> PT J
> AU Cuesta-Vargas, AI
> Solera-Martinez, M
> Ortega, FB
> Martinez-Vizcaino, V
> AF Ignacio Cuesta-Vargas, Antonio
> Solera-Martinez, Montserrat
> Ortega, Francisco B.
> Martinez-Vizcaino, Vicente
> TI A confirmatory factor analysis of the fitness of adults with
> intellectual disabilities
> AB Purpose: To test whether a new model including nine variables can be
> used to test the fitness of adults with intellectual disabilities.
> Methods: This is a cross-sectional study involving 445 adults aged 18-42
> recruited during the Spanish Special Olympics. Confirmatory factor
> analysis (CFA) was used to test the goodness-of-fit of four latent
> variables: flexibility, strength, balance and cardiorespiratory
> endurance. The standardized scores of the nine variables in the model
> were used to develop a fitness index for adults with intellectual
> disabilities. Simultaneous multigroup analyses were also conducted in
> order to test the stability of the proposed model across gender and
> across active and sedentary participants. Results: The findings
> demonstrated that the proposed structure was well supported (comparative
> fit index = 0.97, standardized root mean square error of approximation =
> 0.05) and stable across subgroups. Conclusions: A model with four
> underlying factors has been shown to have acceptable validity to
> represent the fitness of adults with intellectual disabilities.
> PY 2013
> VL 35
> IS 5
> BP 375
> EP 381
> ER
> PT J
> AU Thordardottir, E
> Brandeker, M
> AF Thordardottir, Elin
> Brandeker, Myrto
> TI The effect of bilingual exposure versus language impairment on nonword
> repetition and sentence imitation scores
> AB Purpose: Nonword repetition (NWR) and sentence imitation (SI) are
> increasingly used as diagnostic tools for the identification of Primary
> Language Impairment (PLI). They may be particularly promising diagnostic
> tools for bilingual children if performance on them is not highly
> affected by bilingual exposure. Two studies were conducted which
> examined (1) the effect of amount of bilingual exposure on performance
> on French and English nonword repetition and sentence imitation in
> 5-year-old French-English bilingual children and (2) the diagnostic
> accuracy of the French versions of these measures and of receptive
> vocabulary in 5-year-old monolingual French-speakers and bilingual
> speakers with and without PLI, carefully matched on language exposure.
> Method: Study 1 included 84 5-year-olds acquiring French and English
> simultaneously, differing in their amount of exposure to the two
> languages but equated on age, nonverbal cognition and socio-economic
> status. Children were administered French and English tests of NWR and
> SI. In Study 2, monolingual and bilingual children with and without PLI
> (four groups, n = 14 per group) were assessed for NWR, SI, and receptive
> vocabulary in French to determine diagnostic accuracy.
> Results: Study 1: Both processing measures, but in particular NWR, were
> less affected by previous exposure than vocabulary measures. Bilingual
> children with varying levels of exposure were unaffected by the length
> of nonwords. Study 2: In contrast to receptive vocabulary, NWR and SI
> correctly distinguished children with PLI from children with typical
> development (TD) regardless of bilingualism. Sensitivity levels were
> acceptable, but specificity was lower.
> Conclusions: Bilingual children perform differently than children with
> PLI on NWR and SI. In contrast to children with PLI, bilingual children
> with a large range of previous exposure levels achieve high NWR scores
> and are unaffected by the length of the nonwords.
> Learning outcomes: Readers will recognize the effect of language input
> on the rate of language development, focusing specifically on how
> bilingual exposure affects the language learning of each language of
> bilingual children. (c) 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
> PY 2013
> VL 46
> IS 1
> BP 1
> EP 16
> ER
> PT J
> AU Classon, E
> Rudner, M
> Ronnberg, J
> AF Classon, Elisabet
> Rudner, Mary
> Ronnberg, Jerker
> TI Working memory compensates for hearing related phonological processing
> deficit
> AB Acquired hearing impairment is associated with gradually declining
> phonological representations. According to the Ease of Language
> Understanding (ELU) model, poorly defined representations lead to
> mismatch in phonologically challenging tasks. To resolve the mismatch,
> reliance on working memory capacity (WMC) increases. This study
> investigated whether WMC modulated performance in a phonological task in
> individuals with hearing impairment. A visual rhyme judgment task with
> congruous or incongruous orthography, followed by an incidental episodic
> recognition memory task, was used. In participants with hearing
> impairment, WMC modulated both rhyme judgment performance and
> recognition memory in the orthographically similar non-rhyming
> condition; those with high WMC performed exceptionally well in the
> judgment task, but later recognized few of the words. For participants
> with hearing impairment and low WMC the pattern was reversed; they
> performed poorly in the judgment task but later recognized a
> surprisingly large proportion of the words. Results indicate that good
> WMC can compensate for the negative impact of auditory deprivation on
> phonological processing abilities by allowing for efficient use of
> phonological processing skills. They also suggest that individuals with
> hearing impairment and low WMC may use a non-phonological approach to
> written words, which can have the beneficial side effect of improving
> memory encoding.
> Learning outcomes: Readers will be able to: (1) describe cognitive
> processes involved in rhyme judgment, (2) explain how acquired hearing
> impairment affects phonological processing and (3) discuss how reading
> strategies at encoding impact memory performance. (c) 2012 Elsevier Inc.
> All rights reserved.
> PY 2013
> VL 46
> IS 1
> BP 17
> EP 29
> ER
> PT J
> AU Caddell, LS
> Clare, L
> AF Caddell, Lisa S.
> Clare, Linda
> TI How does identity relate to cognition and functional abilities in
> early-stage dementia?
> AB Objectives: The aim of the study was to investigate the relationships
> between identity and cognitive and functional abilities in people with
> early-stage dementia. Method: Fifty people in the early stages of
> dementia completed measures of identity and cognitive and functional
> abilities, including autobiographical memory. Multiple regression
> analyzes were used to determine whether it was possible to predict any
> of the variance in identity from cognitive and functional abilities, or
> from autobiographical memory alone. Results: It was possible to predict
> approximately a quarter of the variance in two out of three aspects of
> identity from cognitive and functional abilities. The relationships
> between aspects of identity and autobiographical memory functioning were
> very weak. Discussion: The relationship between identity and cognitive
> and functional abilities is not straightforward. There is no evidence to
> suggest a linear relationship between an overall decline in cognitive
> functioning and a deterioration in identity.
> PY 2013
> VL 20
> IS 1
> BP 1
> EP 21
> ER
> PT J
> AU Stokholm, J
> Jorgensen, K
> Vogel, A
> AF Stokholm, Jette
> Jorgensen, Kasper
> Vogel, Asmus
> TI Performances on five verbal fluency tests in a healthy, elderly Danish
> sample
> AB Verbal fluency tests are widely used as measures of language and
> executive functions. This study presents data for five tests; semantic
> fluency (animals, supermarket items and alternating between cities and
> professions), lexical fluency (s-words), and action fluency (verbs)
> based on a sample of 100 cognitively intact elderly Danish subjects aged
> 6087 years. We found mean scores similar to what has been reported from
> other countries. There was little influence of background variables: in
> four out of fives tests less than 20% of the variance could be explained
> by age, education, and estimated intelligence. Age had a greater impact
> than education on category based performance, while the opposite was the
> case for lexical- and action-based fluency. Overall, intelligence was of
> little importance. There was a positive and significant correlation
> between all tests, but with only low to moderate strength of
> association, indicating that various fluency tasks draw on different
> cognitive abilities and are not interchangeable.
> PY 2013
> VL 20
> IS 1
> BP 22
> EP 33
> ER
> PT J
> AU Kelly, AJ
> Hertzog, C
> Hayes, MG
> Smith, AD
> AF Kelly, Andrew J.
> Hertzog, Christopher
> Hayes, Melissa G.
> Smith, Anderson D.
> TI The effects of age and focality on delay-execute prospective memory
> AB In everyday prospective remembering, individuals must often delay the
> execution of a retrieved intention until they are in the appropriate
> setting. These so-called delay-execute tasks are particularly
> troublesome for older adults, who consistently demonstrate impaired
> performance in this kind of laboratory task. To better understand this
> effect, we investigated delay-execute prospective memory performance in
> younger and older adults. Specifically, we examined the strategies
> individuals used to maintain intentions over a delay period by analyzing
> response times to the ongoing task, both before and after the cue event.
> The results suggest that younger and older individuals perform the task
> similarly by rehearsing or reformulating the intention. Despite
> performing the task in a similar manner, older adults showed greater
> impairments in delay-execute prospective remembering.
> PY 2013
> VL 20
> IS 1
> BP 101
> EP 124
> ER
> PT J
> AU Aschersleben, G
> Henning, A
> Daum, MM
> AF Aschersleben, Gisa
> Henning, Anne
> Daum, Moritz M.
> TI Discontinuities in early development of the understanding of physical
> causality
> AB Research on early physical reasoning has shown surprising
> discontinuities in developmental trajectories. Infants possess some
> skills that seem to disappear and then re-emerge in childhood. It has
> been suggested that prediction skills required in search tasks might
> cause these discontinuities (Keen, 2003). We tested 3.5- to 5-year-olds'
> understanding of collision events using a forced-choice paradigm with
> reduced prediction demands. Although the group as a whole performed at
> chance level, when the preschoolers were subdivided into three age
> groups, the oldest group performed above chance level. These findings
> suggest that it is unlikely to be prediction skills that affect young
> preschoolers' performance on physical reasoning tasks. The findings lend
> support to a task-demand hypothesis, which proposes that discontinuities
> in developmental trajectories can be explained by differences in the
> extent to which cognitive processes are required by the different tasks.
> (C) 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
> PY 2013
> VL 28
> IS 1
> BP 31
> EP 40
> ER
> PT J
> AU Jansen, P
> Schmelter, A
> Quaiser-Pohl, C
> Neuburger, S
> Heil, M
> AF Jansen, P.
> Schmelter, A.
> Quaiser-Pohl, C.
> Neuburger, S.
> Heil, M.
> TI Mental rotation performance in primary school age children: Are there
> gender differences in chronometric tests?
> AB In contrast to the well documented male advantage in psychometric mental
> rotation tests, gender differences in chronometric experimental designs
> are still under dispute. Therefore, a systematic investigation of gender
> differences in mental rotation performance in primary-school children is
> presented in this paper. A chronometric mental rotation task was used to
> test 449 second and fourth graders. The children were tested in three
> separate groups each with different stimulus material (animal drawings,
> letters, or cube figures). The results show that chronometric mental
> rotation tasks with cube figures - even rotated in picture plane only -
> were too difficult for children in both age groups. Further analyses
> with animal drawings and letters as stimuli revealed an overall gender
> difference in response time (RT) favoring males, an increasing RT with
> increasing angular disparity for all children, and faster RTs for fourth
> graders compared to second graders. This is the first study which has
> shown consistent gender differences in chronometric mental rotation with
> primary school aged children regarding reaction time and accuracy while
> considering appropriate stimuli. (C) 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights
> reserved.
> PY 2013
> VL 28
> IS 1
> BP 51
> EP 62
> ER
> PT J
> AU Badets, A
> Koch, I
> Toussaint, L
> AF Badets, Arnaud
> Koch, Iring
> Toussaint, Lucette
> TI Role of an Ideomotor Mechanism in Number Processing
> AB The ideomotor principle predicts that the anticipation of expected
> sensory consequences precedes and controls voluntary goal-directed
> movements. Recent studies have revealed that an ideomotor mechanism
> could also support the link between finger movements and number
> processing. However, it is unknown whether such a mechanism is devoted
> to number processing per se, that is, without associated movement. In
> three experiments, we tested whether the ideomotor mechanism was also
> involved in a verbal number production task without associated
> goal-directed and motor dimensions. We tested this hypothesis in a
> response-effect ( R-E) paradigm generally used to assess the ideomotor
> mechanisms. The results of Experiment 1 revealed a compatibility effect
> both in a stimulus-response task and an R-E task, suggesting the
> involvement of an ideomotor mechanism during number processing. More
> importantly, Experiment 2 revealed that performance in a motor imagery
> task correlated with the R-E compatibility effect, whereas performance
> in a visual imagery task did not, suggesting a distinct motor imagery
> contribution to R-E compatibility. Finally, Experiment 3 showed a strong
> R-E compatibility effect in a verbal word production task, but the
> correlations with motor or visual imagery tasks were not observed.
> Altogether, these findings suggest that ideomotor mechanisms play a
> specific and functional role in number processing.
> PY 2013
> VL 60
> IS 1
> BP 34
> EP 43
> ER
> PT J
> AU Soveri, A
> Tallus, J
> Laine, M
> Nyberg, L
> Backman, L
> Hugdahl, K
> Tuomainen, J
> Westerhausen, R
> Hamalainen, H
> AF Soveri, Anna
> Tallus, Jussi
> Laine, Matti
> Nyberg, Lars
> Backman, Lars
> Hugdahl, Kenneth
> Tuomainen, Jyrki
> Westerhausen, Rene
> Hamalainen, Heikki
> TI Modulation of Auditory Attention by Training Evidence From Dichotic
> Listening
> AB We studied the effects of training on auditory attention in healthy
> adults with a speech perception task involving dichotically presented
> syllables. Training involved bottom-up manipulation (facilitating
> responses from the harder-to-report left ear through a decrease of
> right-ear stimulus intensity), top-down manipulation (focusing attention
> on the left-ear stimuli through instruction), or their combination. The
> results showed significant training-related effects for top-down
> training. These effects were evident as higher overall accuracy rates in
> the forced-left dichotic listening (DL) condition that sets demands on
> attentional control, as well as a response shift toward left-sided
> reports in the standard DL task. Moreover, a transfer effect was
> observed in an untrained auditory-spatial attention task involving
> bilateral stimulation where top-down training led to a relatively
> stronger focus on left-sided stimuli. Our results indicate that training
> of attentional control can modulate the allocation of attention in the
> auditory space in adults. Malleability of auditory attention in healthy
> adults raises the issue of potential training gains in individuals with
> attentional deficits.
> PY 2013
> VL 60
> IS 1
> BP 44
> EP 52
> ER
> PT J
> AU Kruk, RS
> Bergman, K
> AF Kruk, Richard S.
> Bergman, Krista
> TI The reciprocal relations between morphological processes and reading
> AB Reciprocal relations between emerging morphological processes and
> reading skills were examined in a longitudinal study tracking children
> from Grade 1 through Grade 3. The aim was to examine predictive
> relationships between productive morphological processing involving
> composing and decomposing of inflections and derivations, reading
> ability for pseudoword and word decoding, and word and passage reading
> comprehension after controlling for initial abilities in reading,
> morphological processing, phonological awareness, and vocabulary.
> Reciprocal influences were indicated by predictive relations among
> initial morphological processes and later reading abilities co-occurring
> with relationships between initial reading abilities and later
> morphological processes. Using multilevel modeling, decomposing and
> composing were found to predict emerging word decoding and word and
> passage comprehension but not pseudoword decoding. Reading comprehension
> predicted growth in decomposing. Subsequent regression analyses of
> model-estimated early linear growth in predictors and later linear
> growth in outcomes showed that early growth in morphological processes
> predicted later growth in word decoding and passage comprehension.
> Although reciprocal relations between emerging morphological processes
> and reading skills were observed, the different patterns on each side of
> the reciprocal "coin" indicated that the mechanisms underlying
> predictive influences are likely different but related to quality of
> lexical representations. (C) 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
> PY 2013
> VL 114
> IS 1
> BP 10
> EP 34
> ER
> PT J
> AU Legare, CH
> Mills, CM
> Souza, AL
> Plummer, LE
> Yasskin, R
> AF Legare, Cristine H.
> Mills, Candice M.
> Souza, Andre L.
> Plummer, Leigh E.
> Yasskin, Rebecca
> TI The use of questions as problem-solving strategies during early
> childhood
> AB This study examined the strategic use of questions to solve problems
> across early childhood. Participants (N = 54, 4-, 5-, and 6-year-olds)
> engaged in two tasks: a novel problem-solving question task that
> required asking questions to an informant to determine which card in an
> array was located in a box and a cognitive flexibility task that
> required classifying stimuli by multiple dimensions. The results from
> the question task indicated that there were age differences in the types
> of questions asked, with 6-year-olds asking more constraint-seeking
> questions than 4- and 5-year-olds. The number of constraint-seeking
> questions asked was the only significant predictor of accuracy.
> Performance on the cognitive flexibility task correlated with both
> constraint-seeking strategy use and accuracy in the question task. In
> sum, our results provide evidence that the capacity to use questions to
> generate relevant information develops before the capacity to apply this
> information successfully and consistently to solve complex problems. We
> propose that the process of using questions as strategic tools is an
> ideal context for examining how children come to gain active and
> intentional control over problem solving. (C) 2012 Elsevier Inc. All
> rights reserved.
> PY 2013
> VL 114
> IS 1
> BP 63
> EP 76
> ER
> PT J
> AU Aretouli, E
> Tsilidis, KK
> Brandt, J
> AF Aretouli, Eleni
> Tsilidis, Konstantinos K.
> Brandt, Jason
> TI Four-Year Outcome of Mild Cognitive Impairment: The Contribution of
> Executive Dysfunction
> AB Objective: The contribution of executive cognition (EC) to the
> prediction of incident dementia remains unclear. This prospective study
> examined the predictive value of EC for subsequent cognitive decline in
> persons with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) over a 4-year period.
> Method: One hundred forty-one persons with MCI (amnestic and
> nonamnestic, single- and multiple-domain) received a baseline and two
> biennial follow-up assessments. Eighteen tests, assessing six different
> aspects of EC, were administered at baseline and at 2-year follow-up,
> together with screening cognitive and daily functioning measures.
> Longitudinal logistic regression models and generalized estimating
> equations (GEE) were used to examine whether EC could predict
> progression to a Clinical Dementia Rating Scale (CDR; C. P. Hughes, L.
> Berg, W. L. Danziger, L. A. Coben, & R. L. Martin, 1982, A new clinical
> scale for the staging of dementia, British Journal of Psychiatry, Vol.
> 140, pp. 566-572) score of 1 or more over the 4-year period, first at
> the univariate level and then in the context of demographic and clinical
> characteristics, daily functioning measures, and other neurocognitive
> factors. Results: Over the 4-year period, 56% of MCI patients remained
> stable, 35% progressed to CDR >= 1 and 8% reverted to normal (CDR = 0).
> Amnestic MCI subtypes were not associated with higher rates of
> progression to dementia, whereas subtypes with multiple impairments were
> so associated. Eight out of the 18 EC measures, including all three
> measures assessing inhibition of prepotent responses, predicted MCI
> outcome at the univariate level. However, the multivariate GEE model
> indicated that age, daily functioning, and overall cognitive functioning
> best predicted progression to dementia. Conclusion: Measures of EC
> (i.e., inhibitory control) are associated with MCI outcome. However, age
> and global measures of cognitive and functional impairment are better
> predictors of incident dementia.
> PY 2013
> VL 27
> IS 1
> BP 95
> EP 106
> ER
> PT J
> AU Nikolas, MA
> Nigg, JT
> AF Nikolas, Molly A.
> Nigg, Joel T.
> TI Neuropsychological Performance and Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity
> Disorder Subtypes and Symptom Dimensions
> AB Objective: Characterization of clinical heterogeneity in
> attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) remains controversial.
> Neuropsychological and cognitive studies provide one type of validation
> data, but too often have considered only a narrow range of functional
> domains. Method: The current study examined ADHD subtype and
> presentation differences across a broad range of neurocognitive domains
> in a large clinically characterized, community-recruited sample of 498
> youth (213 control, 107 ADHD-primarily inattentive [ADHD-PI], 137
> ADHD-combined [ADHD-C]), ages 6-17 years. Domains assessed included
> inhibition, working memory, arousal, processing speed, response
> variability, and temporal information processing. Results: Youth with
> ADHD-C performed worse than youth with ADHD-PI in all domains,
> consistent with a severity model. Performance among a subgroup with a
> "restrictive inattentive" presentation indicated potential deficits in
> processing speed relative to other ADHD-PI youth, but no other effects.
> When all measures were included in the same model, cognitive control
> (executive functions, working memory, and memory span), arousal, and
> response variability each provided uniquely incremental statistical
> prediction of specific symptom dimensions and of subtype/presentation,
> but temporal information processing and processing speed did not.
> Conclusion: Results suggest the potential to consolidate multiple
> neurocognitive theories of ADHD, and that such consolidation will apply
> across putative clinical subtypes or presentations.
> PY 2013
> VL 27
> IS 1
> BP 107
> EP 120
> ER
> PT J
> AU Przybylski, L
> Bedoin, N
> Krifi-Papoz, S
> Herbillon, V
> Roch, D
> Leculier, L
> Kotz, SA
> Tillmann, B
> AF Przybylski, Lauranne
> Bedoin, Nathalie
> Krifi-Papoz, Sonia
> Herbillon, Vania
> Roch, Didier
> Leculier, Laure
> Kotz, Sonja A.
> Tillmann, Barbara
> TI Rhythmic Auditory Stimulation Influences Syntactic Processing in
> Children With Developmental Language Disorders
> AB Objective: Children with developmental language disorders have been
> shown to be impaired not only in language processing (including syntax),
> but also in rhythm and meter perception. Our study tested the influence
> of external rhythmic auditory stimulation (i.e., musical rhythm) on
> syntax processing in children with specific language impairment (SLI;
> Experiment 1A) and dyslexia (Experiment 1B). Method: Children listened
> to either regular or irregular musical prime sequences followed by
> blocks of grammatically correct and incorrect sentences. They were
> required to perform grammaticality judgments for each auditorily
> presented sentence. Results: Performance of all children (SLI, dyslexia,
> and controls) in the grammaticality judgments was better after regular
> prime sequences than after irregular prime sequences, as shown by d'
> data. The benefit of the regular prime was stronger for SLI children
> (partial eta(2) = .34) than for dyslexic children (partial eta(2) =
> .14), who reached higher performance levels. Conclusion: Together with
> previous findings on deficits in temporal processing and sequencing, as
> well as with the recent proposition of a temporal sampling (oscillatory)
> framework for developmental language disorders (U. A. Goswami, 2011,
> Temporal sampling framework for developmental dyslexia, Trends in
> Cognitive Sciences, Vol. 15, pp. 3-10), our results point to potential
> avenues in using rhythmic structures (even in nonverbal materials) to
> boost linguistic structure processing.
> PY 2013
> VL 27
> IS 1
> BP 121
> EP 131
> ER
> PT J
> AU Capaldi, DM
> Pears, KC
> Kerr, DCR
> Owen, LD
> Kim, HK
> AF Capaldi, Deborah M.
> Pears, Katherine C.
> Kerr, David C. R.
> Owen, Lee D.
> Kim, Hyoun K.
> TI Growth in Externalizing and Internalizing Problems in Childhood: A
> Prospective Study of Psychopathology Across Three Generations
> AB Three generations of participants were assessed over approximately 27
> years, and intergenerational prediction models of growth in the third
> generation's (G3) externalizing and internalizing problems across ages
> 3-9 years were examined. The sample included 103 fathers and mothers
> (G2), at least 1 parent (G1) for all of the G2 fathers (99 mothers, 72
> fathers), and 185 G3 offspring (83 boys, 102 girls) of G2, with
> prospective data available on the G2 fathers beginning at age 9 years.
> Behavior of the G2 mother, along with father contact and mother age at
> birth were included in the models. Intergenerational associations in
> psychopathology were modest, and much of the transmission occurred via
> contextual risk within the family of procreation.
> PY 2012
> VL 83
> IS 6
> BP 1945
> EP 1959
> ER
> PT J
> AU Negen, J
> Sarnecka, BW
> AF Negen, James
> Sarnecka, Barbara W.
> TI Number-Concept Acquisition and General Vocabulary Development
> AB How is number-concept acquisition related to overall language
> development? Experiments 1 and 2 measured number-word knowledge and
> general vocabulary in a total of 59 children, ages 30-60 months. A
> strong correlation was found between number-word knowledge and
> vocabulary, independent of the child's age, contrary to previous results
> (D. Ansari et al., 2003). This result calls into question arguments that
> (a) the number-concept creation process is scaffolded mainly by
> visuo-spatial development and (b) that language only becomes integrated
> after the concepts are created (D. Ansari et al., 2003). Instead, this
> may suggest that having a larger nominal vocabulary helps children learn
> number words. Experiment 3 shows that the differences with previous
> results are likely due to changes in how the data were analyzed.
> PY 2012
> VL 83
> IS 6
> BP 2019
> EP 2027
> ER
> PT J
> AU Steele, A
> Karmiloff-Smith, A
> Cornish, K
> Scerif, G
> AF Steele, Ann
> Karmiloff-Smith, Annette
> Cornish, Kim
> Scerif, Gaia
> TI The Multiple Subfunctions of Attention: Differential Developmental
> Gateways to Literacy and Numeracy
> AB Attention is construed as multicomponential, but the roles of its
> distinct subfunctions in shaping the broader developing cognitive
> landscape are poorly understood. The current study assessed 3- to
> 6-year-olds (N = 83) to: (a) trace developmental trajectories of
> attentional processes and their structure in early childhood and (b)
> measure the impact of distinct attention subfunctions on concurrent and
> longitudinal abilities related to literacy and numeracy. Distinct
> trajectories across attention measures revealed the emergence of 2
> attentional factors, encompassing "executive" and "sustained-selective"
> processes. Executive attention predicted concurrent abilities across
> domains at Time 1, whereas sustained-selective attention predicted basic
> numeracy 1 year later. These concurrent and longitudinal constraints
> cast a broader light on the unfolding relations between domain-general
> and domain-specific processes over early childhood.
> PY 2012
> VL 83
> IS 6
> BP 2028
> EP 2041
> ER
> PT J
> AU Miller, DP
> Waldfogel, J
> Han, WJ
> AF Miller, Daniel P.
> Waldfogel, Jane
> Han, Wen-Jui
> TI Family Meals and Child Academic and Behavioral Outcomes
> AB This study investigates the link between the frequency of family
> breakfasts and dinners and child academic and behavioral outcomes in a
> panel sample of 21,400 children aged 5-15. It complements previous work
> by examining younger and older children separately and by using
> information on a large number of controls and rigorous analytic methods
> to discern whether there is causal relation between family meal
> frequency (FMF) and child outcomes. In child fixed-effects models, which
> controlled for unchanging aspects of children and their families, there
> were no significant (p < .05) relations between FMF and either academic
> or behavioral outcomes, a novel finding. These results were robust to
> various specifications of the FMF variables and did not differ by child
> age.
> PY 2012
> VL 83
> IS 6
> BP 2104
> EP 2120
> ER
> PT J
> AU Strange, D
> Takarangi, MKT
> AF Strange, Deryn
> Takarangi, Melanie K. T.
> TI False memories for missing aspects of traumatic events
> AB Can people come to remember an event as being more traumatic than they
> initially experienced? Participants watched a highly structured and
> emotionally disturbing film depicting a car accident in which five
> people, including a baby, are killed. We broke the film down into a
> series of short clips; some of which we removed. Later, we tested
> participants' memory for what they had and had not seen. While
> participants were highly accurate identifying what they had and
> definitely had not seen, they also falsely claimed to have seen 26% of
> the missing clips, clips that fitted with the film but were removed
> before screening. Moreover, participants were particularly likely to
> recall the missing clips that were considered to be the most critical
> and traumatic Importantly, they did so with high confidence. We discuss
> both intentional and unintentional recall mechanisms that may promote
> the observed memory distortion. (C) 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights
> reserved.
> PY 2012
> VL 141
> IS 3
> BP 322
> EP 326
> ER
> PT J
> AU Boyle, JR
> Rivera, TZ
> AF Boyle, Joseph R.
> Rivera, Tina Z.
> TI Note-Taking Techniques for Students With Disabilities: A Systematic
> Review of the Research
> AB This article provides a synthesis of note-taking research among students
> with learning disabilities or other high-incidence disabilities. A
> search of the professional literature between 1980 and 2010 yielded nine
> intervention studies, which were evaluated either in terms of effect
> size or percentage of nonoverlapping data. The studies examined three
> different note-taking techniques used by students during lectures and
> included 125 students of varying disabilities. Findings revealed that
> students who used note-taking techniques were effective at increasing
> scores on measures of achievement and the quality and quantity of notes
> recorded. Limitations and implications of note-taking techniques for
> content-area classrooms are discussed.
> PY 2012
> VL 35
> IS 3
> BP 131
> EP 143
> ER
> PT J
> AU Jerman, O
> Reynolds, C
> Swanson, HL
> AF Jerman, Olga
> Reynolds, Chandra
> Swanson, H. Lee
> TI Does Growth in Working Memory Span or Executive Processes Predict Growth
> in Reading and Math in Children With Reading Disabilities?
> AB The present study investigated whether (a) growth patterns related to
> cognitive processing (working memory, updating, inhibition) differed in
> subgroups of children with reading disabilities (RD) and (b) growth in
> working memory (executive processing) predicted growth in other
> cognitive areas, such as reading and math. Seventy-three children (ages
> 7-17) categorized as poor decoders, poor comprehenders, or average
> readers were administered a battery of achievement and cognitive
> measures for three consecutive years. Hierarchical linear modeling
> showed that growth in executive processing (inhibition) in children with
> RD constrained growth in reading and math. The results support the
> notion that development in the executive system underlies performance on
> reading and math measures.
> PY 2012
> VL 35
> IS 3
> BP 144
> EP 157
> ER
> PT J
> AU Lai, SA
> Berkeley, S
> AF Lai, Stephanie A.
> Berkeley, Sheri
> TI High-Stakes Test Accommodations: Research and Practice
> AB Because high stakes are now attached to standardized assessments of
> student progress, policy makers, administrators, practitioners, and
> parents must understand how to most effectively and accurately measure
> the performance of all students, including students with learning
> disabilities (LD). To accomplish this, test accommodations are provided
> on an individual basis that are intended to mediate the impact of a
> student's disability. The purpose of this article was to examine policy
> and guidelines related to accommodations among states and to review
> research related to the effectiveness of accommodations for students
> with LD. Findings showed that there continues to be large variability
> among states regarding allowed testing accommodations and that although
> there has been an increase in research conducted related to the
> effectiveness of accommodations for students with LD in the past decade,
> empirical evidence remains sparse and findings are often inconclusive.
> Implications are discussed.
> PY 2012
> VL 35
> IS 3
> BP 158
> EP 169
> ER
> PT J
> AU Oyler, JD
> Obrzut, JE
> Asbjornsen, AE
> AF Oyler, James D.
> Obrzut, John E.
> Asbjornsen, Arve E.
> TI Verbal Learning and Memory Functions in Adolescents With Reading
> Disabilities
> AB The authors of this current study compared the memory performance of
> adolescent students with specific reading disabilities (RD) with that of
> typical adolescent readers on a newly developed verbal learning test,
> the Bergen-Tucson Verbal Learning Test (BTVLT). This multiple trial test
> was designed to measure memory acquisition, retention, retrieval, and
> forgetting rates, as well as the ability to organize and retrieve the
> information from memory according to the phonological (surface) and
> semantic (lexical) features of words. A total of 20 participants with RD
> and 20 control participants (mean age = 15.2 years) were matched for
> age, gender, and ethnicity. Results indicated that the RD group learned
> significantly fewer list items and did so at a slower rate than the
> control group. Although the participants with RD were equally able to
> retain information once learned, they did demonstrate inefficient
> elaborative rehearsal strategies. They also recalled fewer words in both
> the semantic and phonetic cued-recall conditions, but the effect size
> was significantly greater in the latter. Taken together, the data
> suggest that students with RD have less efficient rehearsal and encoding
> mechanisms but typical retention. Retrieval also appears typical except
> under conditions that require information to be recalled based on
> phonetic codes.
> PY 2012
> VL 35
> IS 3
> BP 184
> EP 195
> ER
> EF