Friday, November 30, 2007

Random tidbits from the mind blogosphere 11-30-07

  • Check out the ever great Developing Intelligence blog for a interesting posts re: some somewhat surprising research results concerning working memory and using Google PageRank as a semantic memory model of the human brain.
  • Need a break? Check out the video of dart throwing elephants courtesy of Omni Brain.
  • PsycPort reports on a new study suggesting that children with autism may increased gray matter in the brain in areas that govern social processing and learning by observation.

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Thursday, November 29, 2007

WJ III measures of RAN?, speed of lexical access, executive functions?

When time permits, I've been carefully skimming the approx. 30 CHC/WJ III dissertations that I recently acquired and noted at this blog. When I've discovered something of potential importance, I've made DD (Dissertation Dish) posts (all DD-related posts can be found by clicking on the "dissertation" keyword in this blogs index--scroll down left-side of blog).

I just finished skimming a dissertation by one of Dawn Flanagan's students (Kyvelos, 2003). Kyvelos reanalyzed (via CFA) the speeded tests from the WJ III/CAS validity sample (155 elementary school-age subjecxts) which was the foundation of Keith et al.'s CHC-based WJ III/CAS SPR article (2001). At variance from the SPR publication was the inclusion of the WJ III Retrieval Fluency and Rapid Picture Naming Speed tests in the analysis. These tests were NOT included in the Keith et al. 2001 formal publication.

[Conflict of interest note - I'm a coauthor of the WJ III battery]

Although no support was found for the classification of the WJ III and/or CAS speeded tests at the narrow (stratum I) ability level, the analysis did support the validity of separate broad Gs and Glr factors, factors with a latent factor correlation of .74. What I find particularly interesting was the validity for a rate-based Glr factor, which was defined by the following significant loadings:
  • WJ III Retrieval Fluency = .69
  • WJ III Rapid Picture Naming = .56
  • CAS Expressive Attention = .30
In contrast, all other WJ III (Decision Speed, Cross Out, Visual Matching) and CAS speeded tests (Receptive Attention, Planned Connections, Planned Codes, Number Detection, Matching Numbers) all loaded on the broad Gs factor.

Why is this interesting?

First, the most robust post-WJ III publication structural finding I've discovered (in various unpublished analyses I've conducted with the WJ III data files) is the finding that the WJ III Rapid Picture Naming (measures the ability to rapidly identify and orally name pictures of common objects) and Retrieval Fluency (measures fluency in retrieving the names of objects.. the subject is asked to state as many items as they can of three different types) tests "hang together." These two tests seem to be tapping a rate retrieval (Glr) ability distinct from traditional Gs tests. As reported in the broad+narrow CFA in WJ III technical manual, we did specify these two tests to represent the narrow ability of "Naming Facility" under Glr.
  • NA- Ability to rapidly produce accepted names for concepts or things when presented with the thing itself or a picture of it (or cued in some other appropriate way). The naming responses must be in an individuals long-term memory store (i.e., objects or things to be named have names that are very familiar to the individual). In contemporary reading research is ability is called rapid automatic naming (RAN)
That is...evidence was presented in the WJ III TM that these two tests measure the rate aspect (versus the "level" aspect) of Glr. I've repeatedly found these tests grouping together in various exploratory factor analyses, multidimensional scaling analysis, cluster analysis, etc. The Kyvelos (2003) study supports this finding. I've speculated that the common ability is "speed of lexical access"....which I first ran across in Perfetti's reading research.

Second, the other test that loaded on this rate Glr factor was the CAS Expressive Attention test. This task is based on the classic Stroop task (1935) that is typically interpreted as a valid measure of interference, inhibition/disinhibition, and executive control. In this task a subject must name as fast as possible (when presented with printed words in different colored fonts) the color in which the words red, blue, yellow, and green, are printed instead of reading the words themselves. Clearly such a task requires response inhibition and rapid/fluent accessing of a person's lexicon (speed of lexical access).

Bottom line - I believe, based both on published and unpublished research, that the combination of the WJ III Retrieval Fluency and Rapid Picture Naming tests measure some sort of Glr fluency/rate ability, especially as it relates to speed of semantic processing or speed of accessing one's lexicon. The association of these two WJ III tests with a CAS Stroop-like task (Expressive Attention) also suggests that response inhibition is a potentially important component for successful performance on these two WJ III tests. In other words, these two WJ III tests may measure, aside from speed of lexical access or word retrieval fluency (possibly some shared abilities with RAN tasks?), aspects of executive functioning - namely, ability to deal with interference effects and response inhibition.

RE: possible WJ III measures of executive functioning, check out recent posts re: the WJ III Pair Cancellation test.

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IQ's Corner Mind Blogosphere Headlines 11-29-07

All the news thats fit for IQ's Corner readers:

This is the 43rd installment of IQs Corner Headlines from the Brain and Mind Blogsphere. If you like this little e-newsletter you can sign up to receive it daily (delivered to your email inbox by visiting the sign-up boxes at the bottom of this blog page).

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Wednesday, November 28, 2007

Beyond the CHC theory tipping point: Back to the future

I just posted a copy of the PPT slides that served as the first half of two presentations I recently made in Canada re: the CHC (Cattell-Horn-Carroll) theory of intelligence. The latest version is called "Beyond the CHC theory tipping point: Back to the future."

The slide show can be viewed by scrolling down the left-side of this blog page until you reach the "On-line PPT slide" section header. Click on the presentation title and enjoy.

Below is a brief description of the slide show:
  • An overview of the CHC (Cattell-Horn-Carroll) theory of intelligence within a historical and "waves of interpretation" context. Presents idea that CHC has reached the "tipping point" in school psychology..and...this is allowing assessment practitioners to realize past attempts to engage in individual strength and weakness interpretation of CHC based test profiles
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Tuesday, November 27, 2007

WJ III Pair Cancellation - Part 2

More on the WJ III Pair Cancellation test (click here for prior post). I just finished skimming Carper's (2003) dissertation (comparing relations between select NEPSY and WJ III tests). I thought Carper's task analysis description of abilities measured by the WJ III Pair Cancellation test was informative. Carper included the following under Pair Cancellation: Visual scanning, Response inhibition, Interference control, Sequencing, Speed and Fluency, Sustained Attention, Processing Speed, and Motoric Speed

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WJ III Pair Cancellation test as measure of vigilance (sustained attention)

As a result of my recent "harvesting" of various unpublished CHC/WJ III-related thesis/dissertations, my interest in the WJ III Pair Cancellation (PC) test has been rekindled. Since the WJ III was first published I've maintained that the Pair Cancellation test was a good measure of sustained attention or vigilance, an aspect of executive functioning. Unfortunately, we (the WJ III authors) did not report much in the way of special validity studies to support of this interpretation.

[Conflict of interest note - I am a coauthor of the WJ III]

The purpose of this post is to share my recent thinking re: the WJ III PC test. My bottom line conclusion - I still believe that the WJ III Pair Cancellation test is an under appreciated test in the WJ III battery. Because Pair Cancellation's administration is not required to obtain any of the primary cognitive clusters (General Intellectual Ability; CHC factor clusters) it is a test that is often ignored (not administered). I think practitioners need to pay closer attention to the potential of this test, particularly when issues of vigilance, ADHD and executive functions are prominent in a referral for assessment. On what basis do I make this recommendation?

First, lets start with a description of the task. In the WJ III Pair Cancellation task a subject is presented with rows that contain repeating pictures of a dog and a ball (in no particular sequence) and must circle all instances of when the “ball is followed by the dog”. The test has a three-minute time limit. Thus, a subject must locate and mark a repeated pattern of pictures while simultaneously controlling for interference of potentially distracting information (i.e., demonstate good inhibition).

Second, lets consider the CHC basics for Pair Cancellation. As per my most recent CHC classification of all WJ III tests, Pair Cancellation (based on the published CFA analysis in the WJ III Technical Manual) is clearly a speeded test (Gs). Original logical narrow ability content analysis suggested a classification as a measure of P (perceputal speed) and/or AC (sustained attention/concentration). Using Ackerman and colleagues recent fine-grained analysis of perceptual speed measures (which suggests that perceptual speed may be an intermediate stratum ability between narrow and broad abilities defined by four narrow sub-abilities), the Pair Cancellation test might better be consider a measure of "complex perceptual speed" (Pc), which is the "ability to perform visual pattern recognition tasks that impose additional cognitive demands such as spatial visualization, estimating and interpolating, and heightened memory span loads."

Third, in a study of 39 subjects (21 with ADHD; 18 controls) Poock (2005) reported that the Pair Cancellation test, along with the Concept Formation and Auditory Working Memory tests, reliably differentiated ADHD and non-ADHD subjects.

Fourth, there is a rich base of neuropsychological literature that has demonstrated that various "cancellation tasks" are good measures of sustained attention or vigilance. Borrowing from Brawn's (2007) review of the literature:

  • Cancellation Tasks (CTs) are the immediate antecedents to CPT's [continuous performance tests]. Indeed, some researchers refer to CTs as "paper-and-pencil" CPTs (e.g., Barkley, 1998). They assess "...visual selectivity at a fast speed on a repetitive motor response task" (Lezak, 1995, p. 548), by requiring that a subject rapidly scan printed rows of digits, letters, symbols, or pictures in order to mark pre-specified targets interspersed throughout the symbols, or pictures in order to mark pre-specified targets interspersed throught the array.
  • Cancellation Tasks have been demonstrated to be sensitive to response slowing and inattentiveness as a fundtion of diffuse cerebral damage or acute brain conditions, and, like CPTs, they are classified as basic vigilance tests (Lezak, 1995). However, of the two, CPTs may be the purer measure of vigilance. Cancellation tasks require the subject to use a pencil, as well as to quickly and accurately scan rows of printed stimuli; thus, performance relies substantially on motor processing, visual-motor integration, and subject driven visual scanning (Lezak, 1995; Wechsler, 1997b; Woodcock et al., 2001).

Interested readers may wish to check out the recent "meta-search" I completed (and posted) re: the cancellation task assessment paradigm.

Finally, in a previously reported "Carroll analysis" of the complete WJ III battery, Pair Cancellation was found to the strongest loading test on the broad "cognitive" processing speed (Gsc) factor [this analysis also produced a broad "achievement" processing speed factor-Gsa]. In my opinion, this is consistent with the Ackerman-based classification of Pair Cancellation as a measure of complex perceptual speed (Pc).

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Monday, November 26, 2007

Vigilance tasks/tests meta-search

I've added my 3rd IQ's Corner web meta-search link to the appropriate section of this blog (scroll down left side of blog to the "Meta-web searches" section). The topic is cancellation tasks/tests....a test format used primarily in neuropsychology settings to assess vigilance (a component of executive function).

This is another DD (dissertation dish - technically this one is a thesis dish for a specialist degree)

This thesis was completed by Carrie Adkins (2006 - click here to find complete reference citation). The title of this thesis was "The The Correlation between Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale III and Woodcock-Johnson III Cognitive Abilities and WJ III Achievement for College Students: Which is a better predictor of reading achievement?"

  • The present study is intended to examine whether the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale III or Woodcock-Johnson III Cognitive Abilities would better predict reading achievement on the WJ III Achievement in the college student population. Participants included 29 college students attending a university in the Midwest, being evaluated for a learning disability or academic accommodations. Data were analyzed using Pearson r correlation, Fisher z, and t-test for each intelligence test in comparison to achievement subtests. Results from this study indicated that both IQ scores obtained from the WAISIII and the WJ-III COG correlated with reading significantly, but not highly enough to be construed as achievement tests due to only moderate correlations. Considering the results of this study an examiner may choose either instrument to use when assessing intelligence. Limitations to this study are presented.
Brief blogmaster comments:
  • The thesis author appropriately points out the significant limitation in terms of small sample size and the need for replication in larger samples.
  • The WAIS-III FS IQ correlated .56, .66, and .24 with the WJ III Ach. tests of Letter-Word Identification, Passage Comprehension, and Reading Fluency. The WJ III GIA correlations with the same reading measures were .62, .65, and .34. Statistical tests revealed no significant differences between the respective WAIS-III and WJ III cognitive-reading correlations.
  • A limitation that should be noted is the significant restriction of range of talent/ability. The WAIS III FS IQ had an SD of 14.7 (almost normal), while the WJ III GIA SD was 10.1. The SD's for the respective WJ III achievement tests ranged from 9.8 to 11.7. Clearly there was significant restriction of range on the WJ III measures (due to the referral nature of the sample), a finding that suggests that the WJ III cognitive/achievement correlations are under-estimates of the population correlations. It would have been nice if the author would have presented "corrected" correlations (for range restriciton). Most likely the WJ III GIA correlations with achievement would have been higher.
  • Finally, I would like to have seen the correlations between the respective WAIS-III composite and WJ III CHC composite/cluster scores and reading achievement. Unfortunately, these are not reported.
Conflict of interest note - I'm a coauthor of the WJ III

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XMAS shopping - Serotonin t-shirts

Thanks to Mind Hacks for the tip re: the YAY Serotonin t-shirts that are now available for purchase. Just in time for my holiday shopping

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Sunday, November 25, 2007

Random tidbits from the mind blogosphere 11-25-07

  • Check out the GNIF Brain Blogger blog for interesting post re: how "false" memories may feel true.
  • Thanks to Positive Technology Journal for link to just released report by British Medical Association re: the ethical implications of using technology to enhance cognitive functioning

Wednesday, November 21, 2007

More on brain training for the eldery

Sharp Brains has a more detailed post regarding the topic I blogged about research demonstrating positive effects for brain training in the elderly. Check out SB's post....I consider SB to be the "Ralph Nader" or "Consumer Reports" regarding the growing brain fitness industry.

Random tidbits from mind blogospher e11-21-07

  • Interesting post at BPS re: research on deliberate attempts to feign mental retardation (e.g., in capital punishment cases).
  • Check out "interesting brain web sites" post at the Brain Injury blog - IMHO, the #1 blog related to brain injury news and views.
  • Need a break? Do you tire of doing Excel spreadsheets. Check out new "game" played with Excel. Thanks to the Download Squad for the tip.
  • Infant statisticians? Check out the Mouse Trap for post re: study suggesting that infants may possess some rudimentary understanding of probability.
  • I'm not sure how accurate this new blog feature is, but it is interesting. Check out Omni Brain's post for a link on calculating the readability level of blogs. IQ's Corner came out at the "college level." I'm not surprised given that the focus is largely for scholarly/academic/theoretical information dissemination.

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Psychology book nook reviews 11-21-07

A new issue of PsycCRITIQUES is available online.

November 21, 2007
Volume 52, Issue 47

Book Reviews
1. Everything Conceivable: How Assisted Reproduction Is Changing Men, Women, and the World
Author: Liza Mundy
Reviewer: Margaret E. Madden

2. Why We Talk: The Evolutionary Origins of Language
Author: Jean-Louis Dessalles (James Grieve, Trans.)
Reviewer: Shelia M. Kennison

3. Making Up the Mind: How the Brain Creates Our Mental World
Author: Chris Frith
Reviewer: Stuart W. G. Derbyshire

4. Excess Baggage: Leveling the Load and Changing the Workplace
Author: Ellen Rosskam
Reviewer: David J. Schroeder

5. Narrowing the Achievement Gap: Strategies for Educating Latino, Black, and Asian Students
Authors: Susan J. Paik and Herbert J. Walberg (Eds.)
Reviewer: Jennifer B. Unger

6. The Foundations of Primary Care: Daring to Be Different
Author: Joachim P. Sturmberg
Reviewer: Elizabeth Soliday

7. The Case Against Adolescence: Rediscovering the Adult in Every Teen
Author: Robert Epstein
Reviewer: Susan L. O'Donnell

8. An Activity-Based Approach to Developing Young Children's Social Emotional Competence
Authors: Jane Squires and Diane Bricker
Reviewer: Samantha L. Wilson

9. Higher Level Language Processes in the Brain: Inference and Comprehension Processes
Authors: Franz Schmalhofer and Charles A. Perfetti (Eds.)
Reviewer: Susan E. F. Chipman

10. The Female Body in Mind: The Interface Between the Female Body and Mental Health
Authors: Mervat Nasser, Karen Baistow, and Janet Treasure (Eds.)
Reviewer: Sara Martino

11. The Path to Paradise: The Inner World of Suicide Bombers and Their Dispatchers
Author: Anat Berko (Elizabeth Yuval, Trans.)
Reviewers: Beth S. Gershuny and Sheldon Solomon

12. The Root of All Evil: An Exposition of Prejudice, Fundamentalism, and Gender Imbalance
Authors: Sharon Mijares, Aliaa Rafea, Rachel Falik, and Jenny Schipper
Reviewer: Patricia L. Wolleat

13. Traumatic Incident Reduction and Critical Incident Stress Management: A Synergistic Approach
Author: Victor R. Volkman (Ed.)
Reviewer: Victor A. Colotla

14. Under Pressure and Overwhelmed: Coping With Anxiety in College
Authors: Christopher Vye, Kathlene Scholljegerdes, and I. David Welch
Reviewer: Robert D. Brown

15. Cooperative Learning: Integrating Theory and Practice
Author: Robyn M. Gillies
Reviewer: Ted Wohlfarth

16. Handbook of Sport Psychology (3rd ed.)
Authors: Gershon Tenenbaum and Robert C. Eklund (Eds.)
Reviewer: Shulamith Kreitler

Video Review
17. Integrative Relational Psychotherapy
with Paul L. Wachtel
Reviewers: Timothy Anderson and Brian D. Uhlin

Film Review
18. The Prestige
Director: Christopher Nolan
Reviewer: Keith Isenberg

Dissertation dish: Prediction of CHC abilities by teachers

It is DD (dissertation dish) time!!!

I just received an e-alert regarding the availability of a new CHC-related dissertation [click here for other CHC/WJ III dissertations recently located]. Below is the reference and abstract. Without reading the dissertation, a question that needs to be asked is how good where all the questionnaire items. Possibly higher teacher-rated and actual tested CHC relations would be present with improved rating scale items.
  • Upper elementary teachers' predictions of their students' oral reading levels and levels of reading-related CHC abilities by Zavertnik, Jennifer Leigh, Ph.D., Temple University, 2007, 158 pages; AAT 3268230
  • Intelligence tests are invaluable tools for school psychologists to assist in understanding a student's cognitive strengths and needs in making accurate diagnostic and treatment decisions. Research has shown that profile analysis, the time-honored method of test interpretation practiced by the majority of school psychologists, is flawed. The Cattell-Horn-Carroll (CHC) Theory of Cognitive Abilities offers the most empirically supported theory of intelligence to date. Based on this theory, researchers have proposed a cross-battery approach to cognitive assessment. School psychologists are encouraged to use this framework to provide more reliable and valid psychoeducational evaluations. However, little research has looked at the application of CHC theory in the classroom. This study investigated whether teachers were able to predict the level of CHC abilities that their 3 rd , 4 th , and 5 th grade students possess as related to reading achievement. This study utilized a 23-item questionnaire completed by the student's teacher based on classroom observations. Each item related to one of the five broad CHC abilities that have been found to correlate with reading achievement: Gc, Ga, Glr, Gsm and Gs. The teachers were also asked to rate each student's oral reading ability. Ten subtests from the Woodcock-Johnson Tests of Cognitive Ability--Third Edition (WJ-III COG) and one subtest from the Woodcock-Johnson Tests of Achievement--Third Edition (WJ-III ACH) were then individually administered to each participant. Additional analyses examined which abilities teachers were best able to predict as well as which of the five CHC abilities best predicted the oral reading score. Results from the 47 participants (26 girls and 21 boys) found that only the teachers' concurrent predictions of their students' crystallized ability and oral reading scores significantly correlated with their actual scores. The students' short-term memory and crystallized ability scores were the only CHC abilities associated with the students' oral reading scores. Together, these two abilities explained 50.5% of the variance in the students' scores. While further replication is warranted with larger, more diverse samples, this teacher survey has the potential to be an important source of information to school psychologists, particularly in the pre-referral process.
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Tuesday, November 20, 2007

State-of-the-art of reading theory research - recommended reading

I just skimmed what I think is an important article re: the state-of-research re: theories of reading. The reference (and abstract) is below.

Even if you are not interested in understanding the state-of-the-art of theories of reading, the first half of the article provides a nice overview of the importance of unified theories in science, questions these theories should answer, criteria to use to evaluate such theories, etc.

The value of the article (to me) is that it made me feel less ignorant re: my ongoing unease regarding my knowledge of the extant reading research. There is soooooooooooo much reading research being published, many advocates for different positions and favorite constructs (e.g. phonological awareness; RAN; etc.), etc., that I find it hard to integrate the various pieces into a coherent understanding. I now realize that my inability to get my brain around the extant reading research is not due only to my cognitive and knowledge limitations, but also stems from the fact that theories of reading are still in a state of infancy and that no grand unified framework exists to organize all the different article-based bits of information I have been accumulating.

I found a couple of quotes in the article to be particularly enjoyable. They are below (emphasis added by the blog dictator).
  • A useful metaphor for scientific theory was suggested by Judson (1980): Scientific theories are the invisible mansions of the mind. As applied to developing fields,this metaphor implies that a theory should be a developing architecture with many rooms and a plan that is open to additions and modifications: a dynamic architecture. Larger theories encompass and unify smaller theories within their developinglarger structures.
  • Correlating reading behavior with brain areas and their activity is a growing line of research. However, as in cognitive psychology, cognitive neuroscience is characterized by localist and fragmented theories. Although observations from MRIs, event-related potentials, and neuron recordings proliferate, no theory as yet explains how the brain engenders the reading mind. Without a theory of how it does, all these observations float free of any interpretive mooring.

Sadoski, M., & Paivio, A. (2007). Toward a unified theory of reading. Scientific Studies of Reading, 11(4), 337-356. (click here to view)

  • Despite nearly 40 years of scientific theorizing about reading, the field remains fragmented with little progress toward unification. In this article, we (a) emphasize the privileged position of unified theories in all science, (b) compare the growth of theory in cognitive science and reading, (c) identify the phenomenal domain of a unified scientific theory of cognition in reading, (d) propose five general principles for evaluating such theories, and (e) discuss selected influential theories and their potential for contributing to a unified theory of cognition in reading. Our purpose is to extol reading theory and encourage increased attention to developing powerful, unified theories.
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Another g+specific abilities and rdg. ach. study

Yet another g+specific CHC-to-rdg achievement study has been published. This Journal of Psychoeducational Assessment "in press" article, by Nick Benson, also uses the WJ III norm data [conflict of interest disclosure - I'm a coauthor or the WJ III]. This research differs significantly from most all prior g+specific abilities causal SEM modeling investigations by including not only effects between CHC cognitive abilities and reading, but causal effects among specific subskills of reading (reading fluency, basic reading skills, reading comprehension). The abstract is below.

Blogmaster comment - the evidence continue to mount that indicates, when using a comprehensive cognitive ability taxonomy (CHC theory), construct valid measures from the major broad CHC domains, and methodology that allows the simultaneous effects of both general intelligence (g) and specific cognitive abilities in the analysis, that some specific cognitive abilities are important in understanding school achievement above an beyond the influence (effect) of g. Other studies that support this position are listed below the current featured article abstract.

  • Structural equation modeling procedures are applied to the standardization sample of the Woodcock–Johnson III to simultaneously estimate the effects of a psychometric general factor (g), specific cognitive abilities, and reading skills on reading achievement. The results of this study indicate that g has a strong direct relationship with basic reading skills until about sixth grade. Also, g is found to have a strong indirect effect on reading fluency and comprehension across grade levels. Basic reading skills has a strong direct effect on reading fluency across grade levels. The effect of cognitive processing speed (Gs) on reading fluency increase with age. Reading fluency initially has a strong direct effect on reading comprehension, but this effect is reduced with age. Conversely, the direct effect of crystallized intelligence or knowledge (Gc) on reading comprehension increase with age.
Other supporting g+specific abilities research studies.
  • Bensen, N. (2007, in press). Cattell-Horn-Carroll cognitive abilities and reading achievement. Journal of Psychoeducational Assessment (this is the article featured above)
  • Flanagan, D. P. (2000). Wechsler-based CHC cross-battery assessment and reading achievement: Strengthening the validity of interpretations drawn from Wechsler test scores. School Psychology Quarterly, 15(3), 295-329.
  • Floyd, R. G., Keith, T. Z., Taub, G. E., & McGrew, K. S. (2007). Cattell–Horn–Carroll cognitive abilities and their effects on reading decoding skills: g has indirect effects, more specific abilities have direct effects. School Psychology Quarterly, 22, 200-233.
  • Keith, T. Z. (1999). Effects of general and specific abilities on student achievement: Similarities and differences across ethnic groups. School Psychology Quarterly, 14(3), 239-262.
  • McGrew, K. S., Flanagan, D. P., Keith, T. Z., & Vanderwood, M. (1997). Beyond g: The impact of Gf-Gc specific cognitive abilities research on the future use and interpretation of intelligence tests in the schools . School Psychology Review, 26(2), 189-210.
  • Taub, G., Floyd, R. G., Keith, T. Z., & McGrew, K. S. (in press). Effects of general and broad cognitive abilities on mathematics achievement from kindergarten through high school. School Psychology Quarterly.
  • Vanderwood, M. L., McGrew, K. S., Flanagan, D. P., & Keith, T. Z. (2002). The contribution of general and specific cognitive abilities to reading achievement. Learning and Individual Differences, 13, 159-188.
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Handbook on Aging and Cognition

I don't often make posts about new book advertisements that pass through my email box, but I thought this one might be worthy of mention, primarily because I've always been impressed with the cognition/intelligence research completed by one of the editors (Dr. Tim Salthouse). Check out the new edited text Handbook on Aging and Cognition. I've not read the book nor do I have a copy (hint....if the publisher is reading this about a free copy for the blogmaster).

Friday, November 16, 2007

Brain clock = g (general intelligence)?

[Double click on image to enlarge]
Check out intriguing post at my sister blog (the IQ Brain Clock) re: another study that suggests that temporal processing (temporal g) may be more related to psychometric intelligence/g than the classic reaction time g paradigm.

CHC and WJ III dissertations 11-16-07

The other day I posted a list of 19 CHC (Cattell-Horn-Carroll) based dissertations (titles and abstracts) that have been published in the past five years. I've now expanded this list to include WJ III dissertations published during the past five years. The total n is now approximately 30. Title pages and abstracts can be found by clicking here.

I've set an email alert with my university to notify me of new dissertations in these two areas (CHC and WJ III) and will pass along FYI's on new and notable dissertations as they come in.

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Wednesday, November 14, 2007

Autism research bibliography

Over the past year there has been a steady increase in people who have contacted me to ask my opinion regarding CHC-based assessment of individuals with autism. I respond honestly ....saying that I have spent little time studying this specific developmental disability. Today I decided to run a search of my IAP Reference see what literature I might skim to "get up to speed." I was amazed at the number of references I had accumulated over the past few years (over 400). This is definitely a hot topic of contemporary research.

I've decided to make the result of my search available to others. Click here if you want to view/download/print a copy.

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Cattell-Horn-Carroll dissertations

I just ran a search of my university library to locate any and all possible Cattell-Horn-Carroll (CHC) dissertations that have been recently completed. I found just under 20 such dissertations. The list (including abstracts) can be found by clicking here.

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Psychology book nook reviews 11-14-07

A new issue of PsycCRITIQUES is available online.

November 14, 2007
Volume 52, Issue 46

Book Reviews
1. The Psychology of Genocide, Massacres, and Extreme Violence: Why “Normal” People Come to Commit Atrocities
Author: Donald G. Dutton
Reviewer: Anthony J. Marsella

2. Behavioral Consultation and Primary Care: A Guide to Integrating Services
Authors: Patricia J. Robinson and Jeffrey T. Reiter
Reviewer: Nicholas A. Cummings

3. Social History Assessment
Author: Arlene Bowers Andrews
Reviewer: Leslie M. Lothstein

4. Handbook of Narrative Inquiry: Mapping a Methodology
Author: D. Jean Clandinin (Ed.)
Reviewer: David Manier

5. Handbook of Emotion Regulation
Author: James J. Gross (Ed.)
Reviewer: Lisa M. Bauer

6. Married with Special-Needs Children: A Couples' Guide to Keeping Connected
Authors: Laura E. Marshak and Fran Pollock Prezant
Reviewer: Anisha Shah

7. Understanding Personality Disorders: An Introduction
Author: Duane L. Dobbert
Reviewer: Kristin B. Webb

8. ADHD Grown Up: A Guide to Adolescent and Adult ADHD
Author: Joel L. Young
Reviewer: Marcia McCabe

9. Missing Data: A Gentle Introduction
Authors: Patrick E. McKnight, Katherine M. McKnight, Souraya Sidani, and Aurelio José Figueredo
Reviewer: Francis C. Staskon

10. Getting Help: The Complete and Authoritative Guide to Self-Assessment and Treatment of Mental Health Problems
Author: Jeffrey C. Wood
Reviewer: Erica J. Gannon

11. Examinations of Criminal Responsibility: Foundations in Mental Health Case Law
Author: Richard I. Frederick, David F. Mrad, & Richart L. DeMier
Reviewer: Kimberly Kirkland

12. Brain Aging: Models, Methods, and Mechanisms
Author: David R. Riddle (Ed.)
Reviewer: Richard H. Cox

13. The Identity Trap: Saving Our Teens From Themselves
Author: Joseph Nowinski
Reviewer: F. Richard Ferraro

14. Why Is Math So Hard for Some Children? The Nature and Origins of Mathematical Learning Difficulties and Disabilities
Authors: Daniel B. Berch and Michèle M. M. Mazzocco (Eds.)
Reviewer: Stephen A. Truhon

15. Bad Religion: The Psychology of Religious Misbehavior
Author: Michael L. Klassen
Reviewer: Benjamin Beit-Hallahmi

16. Tough Choices or Tough Times: The Report of the New Commission on the Skills of the American Workforce
Authors: National Center on Education and the Economy
Reviewer: Kathleen Sullivan Brown

Video Review
17. Obsessive-Compulsive Behavior
with Martin M. Antony
Reviewer: Elaine L. Phillips

Film Review
18. Thin
Director: Lauren Greenfield
Reviewer: Randall C. Flanery

Tuesday, November 13, 2007

Can frontal brain age-related atrophy increase gambling, depression and prejudice?

Another nice research summary in one of my favorite journals for quick contemporary research updates....Current Directions in Psychological Science. von Hippel (2007) presents a summary that suggests that age-related atrophy of the brains frontal lobes (which is the primary seat of executive functions), which can produce increased disinhibition in behavior, might be causative variables in increased prejudice, gambling, and depression in the elderly.

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Monday, November 12, 2007

IQ's Corner Headlines 11-10-07

All the news thats fit for IQ's Corner readers:

This is the 42nd installment of IQs Corner Headlines from the Brain and Mind Blogsphere. If you like this little e-newsletter you can sign up to receive it daily (delivered to your email inbox by visiting the boxes at the bottom of this blog page).

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RIAS overview/review article

My two recent RIAS posts seem to be generating some interest. I just received a copy of another RIAS journal article, written in the context of gifted identification, from one of the test authors - Dr. Cecil Reynolds. I'm posting it here so folks can access additional RIAS published material.


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Parallel test forms explanation

Thanks to my Pearson/AGS friend, Jeff Evans, for sending a link to an easy-to-understand explanation of parallel test forms (e.g., Form A and B).

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RIAS factor structure - another study

This is a follow-up to the portion of my 11-9-07 "Research Bytes" post dealing with the factor structure of the Reynolds Intellectual Assessment Scales.

After suggesting that the Nelson et al. (2007) study would have been more powerful if they had also factor analyzed the correlation matrices in the RIAS manual (along side their factor analysis in an independent referral sample), an email arrived from Dr. Alex Beaujean indicating he had completed the analysis I had suggested---and more (added yet a third sample). Dr. Beaujean currently has the manuscript under journal review, so it would be inappropriate to provide a complete copy here. However, Dr. Beaujean did agree to let me publish the abstract from the current submitted paper.

If you want additional information re: this research, contact Dr. Beaujean.

  • Beaujean, A. A., McGlaughlin, S. M. & Margulies, A. S. (submitted). Factorial Validity of the Reynolds Intellectual Assessment Scales for Referred Students.
  • The Reynolds Intellectual Assessment Scales (RIAS; Reynolds & Kamphaus, 2003, 2005), is a recently-developed, individually-administered psychometric instrument designed to measure general cognitive ability, as well as verbal (crystallized) intelligence, nonverbal (fluid) intelligence, and memory. Although it has been in circulation for over four years, there is a paucity of independent research published about its psychometric properties. The purpose of this study was to examine the factor structure of the RIAS across three samples of school-age children: the RIAS norming sample, the data reported in Nelson,Canivez, Lindstrom, and Hatt (2007), and a new, independent sample of students referred for special educational services. Using confirmatory factor analytic techniques, this study found that a two-factor model, positing verbal and nonverbal factors, fit all three data sets better than a one-factor model. Further, the two-factor model appeared invariant across the three samples, except for one subtest's residual variance. Implications of this study for practitioners are then discussed.
  • Nelson, J. M., Canivez, G. L., Lindstrom, W., & Hatt, C. V. (2007). Higher-order exploratory factor analysis of the Reynolds Intellectual Assessment Scales with a referred sample. Journal of School Psychology, 45, 439–456.
  • Reynolds, C. R., & Kamphaus, R. W. (2003). Reynolds Intellectual Assessment Scales. Lutz, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources.
  • Reynolds, C. R., & Kamphaus, R. W. (2005). Introduction to Reynolds Intellectual
    Assessment Scales and the Reynolds Intellectual Screening Test. In D. P. Flanagan & P. L. Harrison (Eds.), Contemporary intellectual assessment (2nd ed., pp.461–483). New York: Guilford.

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