Saturday, June 22, 2019

Kan-van-der-maas-and-levine-2019 - no support for g via network psychometrics and mutualism theory

File: kan-van-der-maas-and-levine-2019 - annotated.pdf

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Intelligence 73 (2019) 52–62

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Extending psychometric network analysis: Empirical evidence against g in favor of mutualism? Kees-Jan Kana⁎ , Han L.J. van der Maasb, Stephen Z. Levine

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A B S T R A C T

The current study implements psychometric network analysis within the framework of confirmatory (structural equation) modeling. Utility is demonstrated by three applications on independent data sets. The first application uses WAIS data and shows that the same kind of fit statistics can be produced for network models as for traditional confirmatory factor models. This can assist deciding between factor analytical and network theories of intelligence, e.g.g theory versus mutualism theory. The second application uses the 'Holzinger and Swineford data' and illustrates how to cross-validate a network. The third application concerns a multigroup analysis on scores on the Brief Test of Adult Cognition by Telephone (BCATC). It exemplifies how to test if network parameters have the same values across groups. Of theoretical interest is that in all applications psychometric network models outperformed previously established (g) factor models. Simulations showed that this was unlikely due to overparameterization. Thus the overall results were more consistent with mutualism theory than with mainstreamg theory. The presence of common (e.g. genetic) influences is not excluded, however.


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We note that from a descriptive (statistical) point of view bi-factor models may tend to fit better, but also that from an explanatory (sub-stantive theoretical) perspective, a bifactor model of intelligence is considered unsatisfactory (e.g., Jensen, 1998; Hood, 2008). Decisions as to which model to adopt as a the best model should rely on both fit and theory, not on fit itself (Morgan, Hodge, Wells, & Watkins, 2015; Murray & Johnson, 2013). In other words, theory drives, fit assists

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theory drives, fit assists

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Kovacs & Conway, 2016)

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POT

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Secondly, that the general factor represents a single, unitary source of variance is not a given, but a hypothesis, which – like any other scientific hypothesis – requires empirical scrutiny

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not a given, but a hypothesis

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results of other (non-psychometric) lines of re-search are of importance.

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In brief, the mutualism model of intelligence is a model of cognitive development that was inspired by research in ecosystem modeling, where the dynamics between variables are due to reciprocal causation. The key idea is that such reciprocal causation also occurs among cog-nitive abilities during their development.

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Unlike in g theory, these capacities are (or can be) con-sidered statistically independent. Yet, because the growth of a given cognitive ability is not only limited by its own, specific limiting capa-city, but is also affected by the level of other cognitive abilities (through the dynamical interactions), and thus by their corresponding limiting capacities, the cognitive abilities themselves become positively corre-lated throughout the course of their development.

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The essence of statistical modeling and model selection (Kline, 2015) is the combination of Popperian logic (Popper, 2005) and Oc-cam's razor or 'the law of parsimony'

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Mutualism thus provides an alternative explanation of the positive manifold,


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As has been noted (van der Maas et al., 2017), mutualism – the idea of dynamic coupling between cognitive abilities – aligns neatly with some of the latest and most rapid developments in psychometrics, namely psychometric network modeling (Borsboom, 2008; Epskamp, Cramer, Waldorp, Schmittmann, & Borsboom, 2012)

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It shows that one may conceptualize cognitive abilities as being related to each other directly, rather than through common, unobserved variables on which they depend. Indeed, the connections between any pairs of cognitive variables can be modeled using (full or full partial) correlations only, hence without postulating any latent factors.

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In other words, factor models are nested within network models.


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As demonstrated, the implementation of network models within a confirmatory (structural equation) modeling framework (Boker et al., 2011; Epskamp et al., 2017) permits, for instance, (1) the comparisons among factor and networks models, which can assist in the comparison of a priori theo-retically driven models, (2) the comparison of networks over groups, and (3) the combination of these two.

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From a descriptive viewpoint concerning individual differences in cognitive performance, the major finding of interest was that the psy-chometric networks provided better descriptions of the data than pre-viously established confirmatory factor analytic models. Additional si-mulations showed this is unlikely due to overparameterization. In view of substantive theory, our results imply that the hypothesis of an un-derlying general factor of intelligence is not required in order to explain the pattern of correlations between the different cognitive performance measures. More strongly, the current results provide an empirical ar-gument against g theory (e.g. Jensen, 1998) favoring the mutualism theory of intelligence (van der Maas et al., 2006). The latter posits that positive associations between cognitive abilities arise through re-ciprocal dynamical interaction between those abilities during devel-opment, and that this is a sufficient explanation

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our results imply that the hypothesis of an un-derlying general factor of intelligence is not required in order to explain the pattern of correlations between the different cognitive performance measures. More strongly, the current results provide an empirical ar-gument against g theory (e.g. Jensen, 1998) favoring the mutualism theory of intelligence (van der Maas et al., 2006).


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Apart from the fact that psychometric network models outperformed traditional factor models, we obtained additional findings of theoretical interest.

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Overall, the current study promotes confirmatory psychometric network analysis, in the field of cognition and intelligence in particular

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and in differential psychology in general.

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With respect to the debate concerning the theoretical status ofg, we conclude the following. We do not exclude the presence of common or general influences, e.g. of certain genetic variants or environmental variables like exposure to education. The question to be answered is more how such effects could have arisen: Are they the result of dyna-mical reciprocal interactions or are they due to a single mediating variable g which has never been found to exist? The evidence from the current series of studies argues clearly against the latter and therefore against mainstream g theory. They favor the mutualism theory of in-telligence.

Friday, June 21, 2019

The Ontario Brain Institute (OBI) announces six new ONtrepreneurs working at the frontier of applied neurotech



The Ontario Brain Institute (OBI) announces six new ONtrepreneurs working at the frontier of applied neurotech
https://sharpbrains.com/blog/2019/06/21/the-ontario-brain-institute-obi-announces-six-new-ontrepreneurs-working-at-the-frontier-of-applied-neurotech/

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******************************************************
Kevin McGrew, PhD
Educational Psychologist
Director, Institute for Applied Psychometrics
IAP
******************************************************

A meta-analysis of the relationship between emotion recognition ability and intelligence

File under Gei in CHC taxonomy

A meta-analysis of the relationship between emotion recognition ability and intelligence
https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/02699931.2019.1632801

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A meta-analysis of the relationship between emotion recognition ability and intelligence



A meta-analysis of the relationship between emotion recognition ability and intelligence
https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/02699931.2019.1632801

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******************************************************
Kevin McGrew, PhD
Educational Psychologist
Director, Institute for Applied Psychometrics
IAP
******************************************************

RT @stuholliday: Some great reading for my Psych brethren/followers in this weeks @newscientist 👌



RT @stuholliday: Some great reading for my Psych brethren/followers in this weeks @newscientist 👌
https://twitter.com/stuholliday/status/1142069066259161088/photo/1

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Fwd: PsycALERT Update - Journal of Educational Psychology


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***********************************************
Kevin S. McGrew,  PhD
Educational Psychologist
Director
Institute for Applied Psychometrics (IAP)
www.themindhub.com
************************************************
---------- Forwarded message ----------
From: APA PsycAlert <psycalerts@apa.org>
Date: Jun 21, 2019, 9:23 AM -0500
To: iap@earthlink.net
Subject: PsycALERT Update - Journal of Educational Psychology

Psycnet

PsycALERT®: APA JOURNALS IN PsycARTICLES®

New Online First content is available for the following journal

Journal of Educational Psychology
Improving fraction understanding in sixth graders with mathematics difficulties: Effects of a number line approach combined with cognitive learning strategies.
Barbieri, Christina A.; Rodrigues, Jessica; Dyson, Nancy; Jordan, Nancy C. - 6/20/2019
Read More >>
Reducing interference from misconceptions: The role of inhibition in knowledge revision.
Butterfuss, Reese; Kendeou, Panayiota - 6/20/2019
Read More >>
Subtypes of mathematical difficulties and their stability.
Chan, Winnie Wai Lan; Wong, Terry Tin-Yau - 6/20/2019
Read More >>
Webinar Series May-June 2019 APA psycCareers Feb 2019
Relative importance of intelligence and ability self-concept in predicting test performance and school grades in the math and language arts domains.
Lauermann, Fani; Meißner, Anja; Steinmayr, Ricarda - 6/20/2019
Read More >>
At-scale, state-sponsored language and literacy professional development: Impacts on early childhood classroom practices and children's outcomes.
Piasta, Shayne B.; Farley, Kristin S.; Mauck, Susan A.; Soto Ramirez, Pamela; Schachter, Rachel E.; O'Connell, Ann A.; Justice, Laura M.; Spear, Caitlin F.; Weber-Mayrer, Melissa - 6/20/2019
Read More >>
Differential codevelopment of vocabulary knowledge and reading comprehension for students with and without learning disabilities.
Quinn, Jamie M.; Wagner, Richard K.; Petscher, Yaacov; Roberts, Greg; Menzel, Andrew J.; Schatschneider, Christopher - 6/20/2019
Read More >>
The Conscientiousness × Interest Compensation (CONIC) model: Generalizability across domains, outcomes, and predictors.
Song, Juyeon; Gaspard, Hanna; Nagengast, Benjamin; Trautwein, Ulrich - 6/20/2019
Read More >>
Leaving the pond—Choosing an ocean: Effects of student composition on STEM major choices at university.
von Keyserlingk, Luise; Becker, Michael; Jansen, Malte; Maaz, Kai - 6/20/2019
Read More >>

To edit your profile or discontinue receiving table of contents alerts, visit http://psycalert.apa.org or your MyPsycNET page on APA PsycNET.

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Sunday, June 09, 2019

Communication and cross-examination in court for children and adults with intellectual disabilities: A systematic review - Joanne Morrison, Rachel Forrester-Jones, Jill Bradshaw, Glynis Murphy, 2019


Courts in England, Wales and Northern Ireland have identified children and adults with intellectual disabilities (ID) as vulnerable witnesses. The call from the English Court of Appeal is for advocates to adjust questioning during cross-examination according to individual needs. This review systematically examined previous empirical studies with the aim of delineating the particular communication needs of children and adults with ID during cross-examination. Studies utilising experimental methodology similar to examination/cross-examination processes, or which assessed the communication of actual cross-examinations in court were included. A range of communication challenges were highlighted, including: suggestibility to leading questions and negative feedback; acquiescence; accuracy; memory and understanding of court language. In addition, a number of influencing factors were identified, including: age; IQ level; question styles used. This review highlights the need for further research using cross-examination methodology and live practice, that take into consideration the impact on communication of the unique environment and situation of the cross-examination process.


- Document - Selection, Use, and Interpretation of German Intelligence Tests for Children and Adolescents Based on CHC-theory: Update, Extension, and Critical Discussion/Auswahl, Anwendung und Interpretation deutschsprachiger Intelligenztests fur Kinder und Jugendliche auf Grundlage der CHC-Theorie: Update, Erweiterung und kritische Bewertung

Abstract :

In order to facilitate planning and interpretation of cognitive assessments for children and adolescents a CHC broad and narrow ability classification of nine widespread German tests of intelligence is presented. The Cattel-Horn-Carroll-theory of intelligence is an influential model in the field of intelligence testing. Its structure and basic premises are presented. On this basis, intelligence testing can be planned and interpreted systematically in a common theoretical framework. Practical implications and suggestions for diagnosticians (e. g. crossbattery-assessment) are pointed out. Finally, possibilities and limitations of CHC-theory in the field of intelligence testing are discussed. Keywords intelligence assessment--CHC-theory--cross-battery-assessment Um die Planung und Interpretation intelligenzdiagnostischer Untersuchungen von Kindern und Jugendlichen zu erleichtern, wird eine aktuelle Zuordnung der Untertests von neun weit verbreiteten deutschsprachigen Intelligenztests zu den Schicht-II- und Schicht-I-Faktoren der CattellHorn-Carroll-Intelligenztheorie (CHC-Theorie) vorgelegt. Die Grundlagen und Kernaussagen der international und zunehmend auch in Deutschland einflussreichen CHC-Theorie werden dargestellt. Auf dieser Basis konnen Intelligenztests verfahrensubergreifend im Rahmen einer einheitlichen Terminologie interpretiert werden. Anwendungsmoglichkeiten fur die diagnostische Praxis werden aufgezeigt. Die CHC-Theorie stellt eine Verstandigungsbasis im Feld der Diagnostik intellektueller Fahigkeiten dar, deren Chancen und Grenzen abschliessend diskutiert werden. Schlagworter Intelligenzdiagnostik--CHC-Theorie--Cross-battery-assessment

https://go.galegroup.com/ps/anonymous?id=GALE%7CA586902942&sid=googleScholar&v=2.1&it=r&linkaccess=abs&issn=00327034&p=AONE&sw=w

Cognitive abilities of action video game and role-playing video game players: Data from a massive open online course. - PsycNET



Abstract

Numerous studies have demonstrated that regularly playing action video games (AVGPs) is associated with increased cognitive performance. Individuals who play role-playing video games (RPGs) have usually been excluded from these studies. This is because RPGs traditionally contained no action components and were thus not expected to influence cognitive performance. However, modern RPGs increasingly include numerous action-like components. We therefore examined whether current RPG players (RPGPs) perform similar to action video game players (AVGPs) or nonvideo game players (NVGPs) on two cognitive tasks. Self-identified AVGPs (N = 76), NVGPs (N = 77), and RPGPs (N = 23) completed two online cognitive tasks: A useful field of view (UFOV) task and a multiple-object tracking task (MOT). The UFOV task measures the ability to deploy visuospatial attention over a large field of view while dividing one's attention between a central and a peripheral task. The MOT task measures the ability to use attentional control to dynamically refresh information in working memory. RPGPs performed similar to AVGPs and better than NVGPs on both tasks. However, patterns of covariation (e.g., gender and age) presented obstacles to interpretation in some cases. Our study is the first to demonstrate that RPGPs show similar cognitive performance to AVGPs. These findings suggest that regularly playing modern RPGs may enhance visuospatial abilities. However, because the current study was purely cross-sectional, intervention studies will be needed to assess causation. We discuss the implications of this finding, as well as considerations for how gamers are classified going forward. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved)




Saturday, June 01, 2019

The Academic Outcomes of Working Memory and Metacognitive Strategy Training in Children: A Double‐Blind Randomised Controlled Trial - Jones - - Developmental Science - Wiley Online Library



Abstract

Working memory training has been shown to improve performance on untrained working memory tasks in typically developing children, at least when compared to non‐adaptive training; however, there is little evidence that it improves academic outcomes. The lack of transfer to academic outcomes may be because children are only learning skills and strategies in a very narrow context, which they are unable to apply to other tasks. Metacognitive strategy interventions, which promote metacognitive awareness and teach children general strategies that can be used on a variety of tasks, may be a crucial missing link in this regard. In this double‐blind randomised controlled trial, 95 typically developing children aged 9‐14 years were allocated to three cognitive training programmes that were conducted daily after‐school. One group received Cogmed working memory training, another group received concurrent Cogmed and metacognitive strategy training, and the control group received adaptive visual search training, which better controls for expectancy and motivation than non‐adaptive training. Children were assessed on four working memory tasks, reading comprehension, and mathematical reasoning before, immediately after, and three months after training. Working memory training improved working memory and mathematical reasoning relative to the control group. The improvements in working memory were maintained three months later and these were significantly greater for the group that received metacognitive strategy training, compared to working memory training alone. Working memory training is a potentially effective educational intervention when provided in addition to school; however, future research will need to investigate ways to maintain academic improvements long‐term and to optimise metacognitive strategy training to promote far‐transfer.

https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/desc.12870



Tuesday, May 28, 2019

Frontiers | Musical Instrument Practice Predicts White Matter Microstructure and Cognitive Abilities in Childhood | Psychology


Musical training has been associated with advantages in cognitive measures of IQ and verbal ability, as well as neural measures including white matter microstructural properties in the corpus callosum (CC) and the superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF). We hypothesized that children who have musical training will have different microstructural properties in the SLF and CC. One hundred children aged 7.9–9.9 years (mean age 8.7) were surveyed for their musical activities, completed neuropsychological testing for general cognitive abilities, and underwent diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) as part of a larger study. Children who play a musical instrument for more than 0.5 h per week (n = 34) had higher scores on verbal ability and intellectual ability (standardized scores from the Woodcock-Johnson Tests of Cognitive Abilities), as well as higher axial diffusivity (AD) in the left SLF than those who did not play a musical instrument (n = 66). Furthermore, the intensity of musical practice, quantified as the number of hours of music practice per week, was correlated with axial diffusivity (AD) in the left SLF. Results are not explained by age, sex, socio-economic status, or physical fitness of the participants. The results suggest that the relationship between musical practice and intellectual ability is related to the maturation of white matter pathways in the auditory-motor system. The findings suggest that musical training may be a means of improving cognitive and brain health during development.


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Kevin McGrew, PhD
Educational Psychologist
Director, Institute for Applied Psychometrics
IAP
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Factor analysis in psychological assessment research: Common pitfalls and recommendations. - PsycNET


Abstract

This article provides a summary and discussion of major challenges and pitfalls in factor analysis as observed in psychological assessment research, as well as our recommendations within each of these areas. More specifically, we discuss a need to be more careful about item distribution properties in light of their potential impact on model estimation as well as providing a very strong caution against item parceling in the evaluation of psychological test instruments. Moreover, we consider the important issue of estimation, with a particular emphasis on selecting the most appropriate estimator to match the scaling properties of test item indicators. Next, we turn our attention to the issues of model fit and comparison of alternative models with the strong recommendation to allow for theoretical guidance rather than being overly influenced by model fit indices. In addition, since most models in psychological assessment research involve multidimensional items that often do not map neatly onto a priori confirmatory models, we provide recommendations about model respecification. Finally, we end our article with a discussion of alternative forms of model specification that have become particularly popular recently: exploratory structural equation modeling (ESEM) and bifactor modeling. We discuss various important areas of consideration for the applied use of these model specifications, with a conclusion that, whereas ESEM models can offer a useful avenue for the evaluation of internal structure of test items, researchers should be very careful about using bifactor models for this purpose. Instead, we highlight other, more appropriate applications of such models. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved)




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Kevin McGrew, PhD
Educational Psychologist
Director, Institute for Applied Psychometrics
IAP
******************************************************

Brain network modularity predicts cognitive training-related gains in young adults - ScienceDirect


Abstract

The brain operates via networked activity in separable groups of regions called modules. The quantification of modularity compares the number of connections within and between modules, with high modularity indicating greater segregation, or dense connections within sub-networks and sparse connections between sub-networks. Previous work has demonstrated that baseline brain network modularity predicts executive function outcomes in older adults and patients with traumatic brain injury after cognitive and exercise interventions. In healthy young adults, however, the functional significance of brain modularity in predicting training-related cognitive improvements is not fully understood. Here, we quantified brain network modularity in young adults who underwent cognitive training with casual video games that engaged working memory and reasoning processes. Network modularity assessed at baseline was positively correlated with training-related improvements on untrained tasks. The relationship between baseline modularity and training gain was especially evident in initially lower performing individuals and was not present in a group of control participants that did not show training-related gains. These results suggest that a more modular brain network organization may allow for greater training responsiveness. On a broader scale, these findings suggest that, particularly in low-performing individuals, global network properties can capture aspects of brain function that are important in understanding individual differences in learning.

Keywords

Functional connectivity
Brain network modularity
Cognitive training
Working memory
Reasoning



******************************************************
Kevin McGrew, PhD
Educational Psychologist
Director, Institute for Applied Psychometrics
IAP
******************************************************

Friday, May 17, 2019

A longitudinal study of spatial skills and number sense development in elementary school children. - PsycNET


Citation

Carr, M., Horan, E., Alexeev, N., Barned, N., Wang, L., & Otumfuor, B. (2019). A longitudinal study of spatial skills and number sense development in elementary school children. Journal of Educational Psychology. Advance online publication. 
http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/edu0000363

Abstract

Spatial skills have been consistently linked to mathematics achievement in older students and adults, but we know little about their relationship to mathematics achievement in elementary school. This study examined how spatial skills influenced the development of number sense, and subsequent mathematics competency, as students progressed from the 2nd to the 4th grade. Gender, verbal working memory (VWM), and socioeconomic status (SES) have also been found to predict number sense development and to be linked to spatial skills; as such, they were included as covariates in this study. Participants were 304 second graders who were assessed at 5 points between 2nd and 4th grade. Two growth mixture models (spatial skills as time-invariant and time-variant covariates) were tested to determine whether different developmental trajectories were needed to explain the development of number sense. Both models revealed the presence of 2 latent classes. The classes differed in their initial level and in their growth rate, with the higher performing class beginning the second grade at an advantage and increasing that advantage over time. SES, VWM, and spatial skills influenced latent class membership and subsequent mathematics competency. SES, spatial skills, and VWM, but not gender, predicted the intercept but differences were found in predictors of the slope of number sense. The impact of number sense changed over time and differed as a function of latent class having an earlier impact on the higher performing class. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved)






*********************************************
Kevin McGrew, PhD
Educational Psychologist 
Director
Institute for Applied Psychometrics
*********************************************

Tuesday, May 14, 2019

Affective Working Memory: An Integrative Psychological Construct - Joseph A. Mikels, Patricia A. Reuter-Lorenz, 2019

When people ruminate about an unfortunate encounter with a loved one, savor a long-sought accomplishment, or hold in mind feelings from a marvelous or regretfully tragic moment, what mental processes orchestrate these psychological phenomena? Such experiences typify how affect interacts with working memory, which we posit can occur in three primary ways: emotional experiences can modulate working memory, working memory can modulate emotional experiences, and feelings can be the mental representations maintained by working memory. We propose that this last mode constitutes distinct neuropsychological processes that support the integration of particular cognitive and affective processes: affective working memory. Accumulating behavioral and neural evidence suggests that affective working memory processes maintain feelings and are partially separable from their cognitive working memory counterparts. Affective working memory may be important for elucidating the contribution of affect to decision making, preserved emotional processes in later life, and mechanisms of psychological dysfunction in clinical disorders. We review basic behavioral, neuroscience, and clinical research that provides evidence for affective working memory; consider its theoretical implications; and evaluate its functional role within the psychological architecture. In sum, the perspective we advocate is that affective working memory is a fundamental mechanism of mind.

https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/1745691619837597



Creative ideation, broad retrieval ability, and processing speed: A confirmatory study of nested cognitive abilities - ScienceDirect

Highlights

A set of nested basic cognitive abilities underlying creative ideation in divergent thinking was proposed.

A nested cognitive abilities structural model had excellent fit to the data.

Mental speed, broad retrieval ability, and divergent thinking were all measured within the verbal domain.

The proposed model is more effective for prediction of real-life criteria as compared to a classic three-dimensional CFA model.

The used modeling approach allows to disentangle relevant cognitive components in the multipart concept of divergent thinking.

Abstract

Divergent thinking (DT) ability (i.e., the ability to come up with creative ideas) is a complex cognitive construct that has been associated with several specific components of the Cattel-Horn-Carroll (CHC) model. In this study, we employed a nested latent variable approach to examine the specific role of mental speed (Gs) and general retrieval ability (Gr) in DT ability, which was assessed by DT tasks that instructed to be creative and were scored for creative quality. Specifically, Gs was assumed to facilitate both Gr and DT, and Gr was assumed to contribute to DT. Successive latent variable models with orthogonal factors were tested to reflect these nested cognitive basic abilities. The proposed model of nested factors fit the data well: Latent Gs accounted for variation in Gs, Gr, and DT creative quality scores, latent Gr predicted performance in Gr and DT scores beyond Gs, and latent DT explained variation in DT scores beyond Gs and Gr. In addition, we related the resulting orthogonal latent variables to the external criteria of school grades to illustrate the explanatory power of the modeling approach. This study provides evidence that divergent thinking performance relies on mental speed and retrieval ability, as well as cognitive abilities unique to divergent thinking. We discuss consequences for the understanding of divergent thinking ability in the context of the CHC model.





Sunday, May 12, 2019

Different Types Of Meditation Change Different Areas Of The Brain, Study Finds






Do Schools Promote Executive Functions? Differential Working Memory Growth Across School-Year and Summer Months - Jenna E. Finch, 2019

Children's working memory (WM) skills, which support both academic and social success, continue to improve significantly through the school years. This study leverages the first nationally representative data set with direct assessments of elementary school students' WM skills to examine whether WM grows more during the school year or summer months and whether WM growth rates differ by household income. Results demonstrate that WM skills grow more during the school-year months compared to the summer months, suggesting that school environments provide children with unique opportunities to improve and practice their WM skills. Further, lower-income children have significantly faster WM growth rates in the first 2 years of school and the intervening summer, compared to their peers from higher-income families, leading to an overall narrowing in WM disparities by household income during the early school years. However, there was no evidence that schools equalize or exacerbate differences in WM skills between children from lower-income and higher-income households.


Do Schools Promote Executive Functions? Differential Working Memory Growth Across School-Year and Summer Months - Jenna E. Finch, 2019
https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/full/10.1177/2332858419848443

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Saturday, May 11, 2019

IQ and Society



******************************************************
Kevin McGrew, PhD
Educational Psychologist
Director, Institute for Applied Psychometrics
IAP
******************************************************

Sunday, May 05, 2019

WJ IV Visual-Auditory Learning correlation with Basic Reading Skills by age (4-18)

In a recent thread on the IAPCHC listserv, a question was asked about the correlation of the WJ IV Visual-Auditory Learning test with Basic Reading Skills.  I ran the correlation (by ages 4-18) in the WJ IV norm data.  The raw correlations, along with a smoothed fitted curve, is presented below.  It is obvious (and makes sense given the developmental nature of reading skill development) that the VAL test shows developmental trends, with the highest correlations occurring at the youngest ages (4-7/8).

Click on image to enlarge




Tuesday, April 30, 2019

The efficacy of different interventions to foster children’s executive function skills: A series of meta-analyses. - PsycNET

Citation

Takacs, Z. K., & Kassai, R. (2019). The efficacy of different interventions to foster children's executive function skills: A series of meta-analyses. Psychological Bulletin. Advance online publication. 
http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/bul0000195

Abstract

In the present meta-analysis all available evidence regarding the efficacy of different behavioral interventions for children's executive function skills were synthesized. After a systematic search we included experimental studies aiming to enhance children's (up to 12 years of age) executive functioning with neurodevelopmental tests as outcome measures. The results of 100 independent effect sizes in 90 studies including data of 8,925 children confirmed that it is possible to foster these skills in childhood (Diamond & Lee, 2011). We did not find convincing evidence, however, for the benefits to remain on follow-up assessment. Different approaches were effective for typically and nontypically developing samples. For nontypically developing children (including children with neurodevelopmental disorders or behavior problems) acquiring new strategies of self-regulation including biofeedback-enhanced relaxation and strategy teaching programs were the most effective. For typically developing children we found evidence for the moderate beneficial effects of mindfulness practices. Although small to moderate effects of explicit training with tasks loading on executive function skills in the form of computerized and noncomputer training were found, these effects were consistently weaker for nontypically developing children who might actually be more in need of such training. Thus, atypically developing children seem to profit more from acquiring new strategies of self-regulation as compared with practice with executive function tasks. We propose that explicit training does not seem to be meaningful as the approaches that implicitly foster executive functions are similarly or more effective, and these activities are more enjoyable and can be more easily embedded in children's everyday activities. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved)




******************************************************
Kevin McGrew, PhD
Educational Psychologist
Director, Institute for Applied Psychometrics
IAP
******************************************************

Thursday, April 25, 2019

The mysterious disappearance of blogmaster of IQs Corner

My regular readers have noticed that I have not posted anything to my three blogs since last thanksgiving.  Why?

Well..I came down with a serious illness and spent 82 days in the hospital, 72 of which were at the world renowned Mayo Clinic in Rochester MN.  I have since returned home and am doing OT and PT rehab....that is now my full time job.  

I want to thank all who learned of my experience and sent kind words of support.  I shall return.

If you want more details you can check out the Caring Bridge log my lovely wife maintained.

https://www.caringbridge.org/visit/kevinmcgrewiq



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***********************************************
Kevin S. McGrew,  PhD
Educational Psychologist
Director
Institute for Applied Psychometrics (IAP)
www.themindhub.com
************************************************

Saturday, March 16, 2019

Dr. Nina Kraus on Why Musical Training Helps us Process the World Around Us



******************************************************
Kevin McGrew, PhD
Educational Psychologist
Director, Institute for Applied Psychometrics
IAP
******************************************************