Tuesday, December 10, 2019

Development of Network Topology and Functional Connectivity of the Prefrontal Cortex

Development of Network Topology and Functional Connectivity of the Prefrontal Cortex
https://flip.it/zlHFXJ

******************************************
Kevin S. McGrew, PhD
Educational & School Psychologist
Director
Institute for Applied Psychometrics (IAP)
******************************************


Monday, December 09, 2019

Article: Individual Differences in Learning Efficiency - Kathleen B. McDermott, Christopher L. Zerr, 2019

Individual Differences in Learning Efficiency - Kathleen B. McDermott, Christopher L. Zerr, 2019 https://flip.it/QxZ6uT

******************************************
Kevin S. McGrew, PhD
Educational & School Psychologist
Director
Institute for Applied Psychometrics (IAP)
******************************************


Friday, December 06, 2019

Psychometric Network Analysis of the Hungarian WAIS


Christopher J. Schmank, Sara Anne Goring, Kristof Kovacs and Andrew R. A. Conway

Received: 1 June 2019; Accepted: 24 August 2019; Published: 9 September 2019

Abstract: The positive manifold—the finding that cognitive ability measures demonstrate positive correlations with one another—has led to models of intelligence that include a general cognitive ability or general intelligence (g). This view has been reinforced using factor analysis and reflective, higher-order latent variable models. However, a new theory of intelligence, Process Overlap Theory (POT), posits that g is not a psychological attribute but an index of cognitive abilities that results from an interconnected network of cognitive processes. These competing theories of intelligence are compared using two different statistical modeling techniques: (a) latent variable modeling and (b) psychometric network analysis. Network models display partial correlations between pairs of observed variables that demonstrate direct relationships among observations. Secondary data analysis was conducted using the Hungarian Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale Fourth Edition (H-WAIS-IV). The underlying structure of the H-WAIS-IV was first assessed using confirmatory factor analysis assuming a reflective, higher-order model and then reanalyzed using psychometric network analysis. The compatibility (or lack thereof) of these theoretical accounts of intelligence with the data are discussed.

Keywords: intelligence; Process Overlap Theory; psychometric network analysis; latent variable modeling; statistical modeling

Click on image to enlarge.







Growing debate about the ethics and regulation of direct-to-consumer transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS)

https://sharpbrains.com/blog/2019/12/06/growing-debate-about-the-ethics-and-regulation-of-direct-to-consumer-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-tdcs/

Thursday, December 05, 2019

Gf training and neuroscience



https://www.decisionneurosciencelab.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/11/Daugherty_et_al_2019.pdf

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***********************************************
Kevin S. McGrew,  PhD
Educational Psychologist
Director
Institute for Applied Psychometrics (IAP)
www.themindhub.com
************************************************

Tuesday, December 03, 2019

Meta-analysis of relation between WCST and IQ

https://res.mdpi.com/d_attachment/brainsci/brainsci-09-00349/article_deploy/brainsci-09-00349.pdf

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***********************************************
Kevin S. McGrew,  PhD
Educational Psychologist
Director
Institute for Applied Psychometrics (IAP)
www.themindhub.com
************************************************

Thursday, November 28, 2019

Ethnic adjustment abuses in forensic assessment of intellectual abilities. - PsycNET

https://psycnet.apa.org/record/2019-61762-001

Within the past few years, courts have been more open to accepting evidence of psychological research. For instance, in 2002, the United States Supreme Court, citing an American Psychological Association (APA) Amicus brief, declared that the execution of mentally retarded individuals was unconstitutional because it violated the Eighth Amendment prohibition against cruel and unusual punishment. Between 2005 and 2012, the Supreme Court accepted APA briefs describing the limitations in neural development of adolescents and its relevance to sentencing. In 2013, the Court ruled that in assessing an individual's intelligence there must be a consideration of the standard error of measurement. All of this suggested a progressive movement in judicial recognition of psychological research. However, during the same time, many courts were allowing and accepting testimony in capital sentencing cases of so-called ethnic adjustment. Some psychologists were testifying that defendants who were from ethnic minority groups had IQ scores that were suppressed and that therefore their scores had to be "adjusted" upward to compensate for the suppression. However, these adjustments were based purely on clinical judgment and did not reflect any empirical studies. As a result, several of these individuals who had their IQ scores adjusted have been executed. This article will describe the case law surrounding this concept, ethical issues that it raises, and how a practitioner can provide useful consultation to attorneys who represent defendants in such cases. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved)

Tuesday, November 26, 2019

Evaluating the Relation Between CHC Cognitive Factors and Selected Components of Executive Functioning | SpringerLink

https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s40817-019-00073-3


Executive functioning remains an elusive paradigm in regard to their underlying constructs. The Cattell-Horn-Carroll (CHC) theory of cognitive functions is the predominant theory of the measurement of human intelligence in psychology in regard to test construction and interpretation. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relations between components of the Tower Test and Color-Word Interference Test from the Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System (D-KEFS) and CHC theory, as measured by the Woodcock-Johnson III Tests of Cognitive Abilities (WJ-III-COG). Participants were 64 undergraduate students (women, n = 38; men, n = 26), with a mean age of 19.88 years. Results of a Structured Equation Model indicated a correlation between the two factors modeled for Intelligence and Executive functioning was estimated to be 0.575 (0.331), and was statistically significant (p < .001), with a 95% credible interval of (0.551, 0.599). Thus, approximately 33% of the variance for measures of Intelligence was accounted for by measures of Executive Functioning; the biggest CHC contributor was Numbers Reversed which argues for the importance of attention and working memory being an important component of executive functioning. The results suggest that despite a relation between some components of executive function and cognitive ability, much variance between the D-KEFS and WJ-III-COG remains unaccounted for. These findings have implications for evaluation and intervention planning within vocational and educational settings.

Keywords

Neuropsychology Neuropsychological assessment Executive functioning Intelligence CHC 

Thursday, November 07, 2019

Individual differences in learning efficiency


Kathleen B. McDermott and Christopher L. Zerr

Abstract 

Most research on long-term memory uses an experimental approach whereby participants are assigned to different conditions, and condition means are the measures of interest. This approach has demonstrated repeatedly that conditions that slow the rate of learning tend to improve later retention. A neglected question is whether aggregate findings at the level of the group (i.e., slower learning tends to improve retention) translate to the level of individual people. We identify a discrepancy whereby—across people—slower learning tends to coincide with poorer memory. The positive relation between learning rate (speed of learning) and retention (amount remembered after a delay) across people is referred to as learning efficiency. A more efficient learner can acquire information faster and remember more of it over time. We discuss potential characteristics of efficient learners and consider future directions for research.

Keywords learning efficiency, individual differences, memory, learning rate, retention

A few select quotes below.  Dr. Joel Schneider and I have written elsewhere that we believe that attentional control (AC; a key mechanism of working memory or Gwm) is a key cognitive mechanism in learning and cognitive functioning.

Learning strategy differences:  Faster learners generate more mediators while learning, and these mediators tend to be both implemented earlier in the learning process and more effective in aiding memory 

Prior knowledge:  However, prior knowledge (or crystallized intelligence) may still promote integration of new information into existing knowledge and improve the efficacy of learning strategies—the more knowledge someone possesses, the richer the set of potential mediators.

Attentional control:  People who are better able to focus their attention are less susceptible to interfering information; further, they more quickly search long-term memory when retrieving information (Unsworth & Spillers, 2010). Neuroimaging evidence suggests that the ability to control one's attention is a potential driver of efficient learning. 


Saturday, September 21, 2019

All you need is g? Predicting piano skill acquisition in beginners: The role of general intelligence, music aptitude, and mindset


Abstract
;  This study was designed to investigate sources of individual differences in musical skill acquisition. We had 171 undergraduates with little or no piano-playing experience attempt to learn a piece of piano music with the aid of a video-guide, and then, following practice with the guide, attempt to perform the piece from memory. A panel of musicians evaluated the performances based on their melodic and rhythmic accuracy. Participants also completed tests of working memory capacity, fluid intelligence, crystallized intelligence, processing speed, and two tests of music aptitude (the Swedish Music Discrimination Test and the Advanced Measures of Music Audiation). Measures of general intelligence and music aptitude correlated significantly with skill acquisition, but mindset did not. Structural equation modeling revealed that general intelligence, music aptitude, and mindset together accounted for 22.4% of the variance in skill acquisition. However, only general intelligence contributed significantly to the model (β = 0.44, p < .001). The contributions of music aptitude (β = 0.08, p = .39) and mindset (β = −0.06, p = .50) were non-significant after accounting for general intelligence. We also found that openness to experience did not significantly predict skill acquisition or music aptitude. Overall, the results suggest that after accounting for individual differences in general intelligence, music aptitude and mindset do not predict piano skill acquisition in beginners.




 


Tuesday, September 17, 2019

Digit Span Subscale Scores May Be Insufficiently Reliable for Clinical Interpretation: Distinguishing Between Stratified Coefficient Alpha and Omega Hierarchical - Gilles E. Gignac, Matthew R. Reynolds, Kristof Kovacs, 2019



Digit Span Subscale Scores May Be Insufficiently Reliable for Clinical Interpretation: Distinguishing Between Stratified Coefficient Alpha and Omega Hierarchical - Gilles E. Gignac, Matthew R. Reynolds, Kristof Kovacs, 2019
https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/full/10.1177/1073191117748396

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******************************************************
Kevin McGrew, PhD
Educational Psychologist
Director, Institute for Applied Psychometrics
IAP
******************************************************

Saturday, September 07, 2019

Status of Dr. Kevin McGrew: "I'm back!!"



As many of my readers may (or may not) know, this past winter I was critically ill for 82 days.  As a result, I was unable to respond to many questions or requests.  But...I have been on the mend since the middle of February and am again at full steam.

Why am I sharing?  Well....apparently the word spread that I had either expired or had retired.  This is far from the truth.  I am back doing my project work, research, and engaging in consultations.  Thanks to all who provided support during my illness.

The brain’s default network: updated anatomy, physiology and evo



The brain's default network: updated anatomy, physiology and evo
https://www.nature.com/articles/s41583-019-0212-7

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Monday, August 05, 2019

AAIDD Opposes a Proposed Revision to the DSM-5’s Entry for Intellectual Disability

http://aaidd.org/news-policy/news/releases/2019/07/29/aaidd-opposes-a-proposed-revision-to-the-dsm-5-s-entry-for-intellectual-disability

The human imagination: the cognitive neuroscience of visual mental ima


Abstract

Mental imagery can be advantageous, unnecessary and even clinically disruptive. With methodological constraints now overcome, research has shown that visual imagery involves a network of brain areas from the frontal cortex to sensory areas, overlapping with the default mode network, and can function much like a weak version of afferent perception. Imagery vividness and strength range from completely absent (aphantasia) to photo-like (hyperphantasia). Both the anatomy and function of the primary visual cortex are related to visual imagery. The use of imagery as a tool has been linked to many compound cognitive processes and imagery plays both symptomatic and mechanistic roles in neurological and mental disorders and treatments.

The human imagination: the cognitive neuroscience of visual mental ima
https://www.nature.com/articles/s41583-019-0202-9

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Is executive control related to working memory capacity and fluid intelligence?

Abstract

In the last two decades, individual-differences research has put forward 3 cognitive psychometric constructs: executive control (i.e., the ability to monitor and control ongoing thoughts and actions), working memory capacity (WMC, i.e., the ability to retain access to a limited amount of information in the service of complex tasks), and fluid intelligence (gF, i.e., the ability to reason with novel information). These constructs have been proposed to be closely related, but previous research failed to substantiate a strong correlation between executive control and the other two constructs. This might arise from the difficulty in establishing executive control as a latent variable and from differences in the way the 3 constructs are measured (i.e., executive control is typically measured through reaction times, whereas WMC and gF are measured through accuracy). The purpose of the present study was to overcome these difficulties by measuring executive control through accuracy. Despite good reliabilities of all measures, structural equation modeling identified no coherent factor of executive control. Furthermore, WMC and gF-modeled as distinct but correlated factors-were unrelated to the individual measures of executive control. Hence, measuring executive control through accuracy did not overcome the difficulties of establishing executive control as a latent variable. These findings call into question the existence of executive control as a psychometric construct and the assumption that WMC and gF are closely related to the ability to control ongoing thoughts and actions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Is executive control related to working memory capacity and fluid intelligence?
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30958017

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Saturday, July 27, 2019

A combined analysis of genetically correlated traits identifies 187 lo



A combined analysis of genetically correlated traits identifies 187 lo
https://www.nature.com/articles/s41380-017-0001-5

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Declines in vocabulary among American adults within levels of educational attainment, 1974–2016 - ScienceDirect

File under Flynn effect related research

Abstract

We examined trends over time in vocabulary, a key component of verbal intelligence, in the nationally representative General Social Survey of U.S. adults (n = 29,912). Participants answered multiple-choice questions about the definitions of 10 specific words. When controlled for educational attainment, the vocabulary of the average U.S. adult declined between the mid-1970s and the 2010s. Vocabulary declined across all levels of educational attainment (less than high school, high school or 2-year college graduate, bachelor's or graduate degree), with the largest declines among those with a bachelor's or graduate degree. Hierarchical linear modeling analyses separating the effects of age, time period, and cohort suggest that the decline is primarily a time period effect. Increasing educational attainment has apparently not improved verbal ability among Americans. Instead, as educational attainment has increased, those at each educational level are less verbally skilled even though the vocabulary skills of the whole population are unchanged.

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0160289618302198



Hot and cool dimensionality of executive function: Model invariance across age and maternal education in preschool children - ScienceDirect


Abstract

The structure of executive function (EF), as it pertains to distinct "hot" (affectively salient) and "cool" (affectively neutral) dimensions, in early childhood is not well understood. Given that the neural circuitry underlying EF may become increasingly differentiated with development and enriched experiences, EF may become more dissociable into hot and cool factors with age and advantaged socioeconomic circumstances. We used confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) to compare a multidimensional hot and cool EF model with a unidimensional model in early childhood, and to investigate model invariance across age and maternal education. Participants were 1900 children (2–5 years of age) from socioeconomically diverse families in an urban area in the southern United States. We aggregated data from four previously collected studies that included EF tasks, thus this study includes secondary data analysis. We tested model fit across (1) children older and younger than 4 years of age and (2) higher (college experience) versus lower (no college) maternal education. Results indicated that a two-factor hot and cool EF model provided the best fit to the data across all groups. Although the number of factors was invariant, only partial metric invariance was met for age, suggesting that how certain tests represent EF changes with age. For maternal education, partial scalar invariance was met, with higher maternal education associated with higher scores on certain EF tasks. Findings with this large sample suggest that EF includes two factors characterized as hot and cool. However, the study raises questions about model invariance, particularly across age.

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0885200619300961



Friday, July 19, 2019

Strategies to improve name learning: A review. - PsycNET


Abstract

The following points emerge from the present review of strategies to improve the learning of proper names: (a) Face-name mnemonic techniques based on mental imagery have been shown to be efficient in laboratory settings in both young and older adults. Unfortunately, they are particularly effortful and require capacity for imagination, making them difficult to apply in a real conversational context. (b) Strategies based on spaced retrieval practice have been found to be efficient both in laboratory and more ecological settings, and both in young and older adults. (c) Techniques based on spaced retrieval practice appear to be more efficient than those based on mental imagery. (d) More recent research has proposed new perspectives, such as basing learning strategies on implicit, rather than explicit, memory processes such as hyper-binding. Finally, neuroscience research has started to investigate the possibility of using non-invasive electrical brain stimulation to improve name learning. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved)


Off-task behavior in kindergarten: Relations to executive function and academic achievement. - PsycNET


Abstract

Behavioral self-regulation supports young children's learning and is a strong predictor of later academic achievement. The capacity to manage one's attention and control one's behavior is commonly measured via direct assessments of executive function (EF). However, to understand how EF skills contribute to academic achievement, it is helpful to investigate how EF manifests in the classroom context and in children's overt behavior. The current study observed 172 kindergarteners for a single school day and captured the total proportion of class time children were off-task in the classroom. This behavior was further classified into specific subtypes to assess whether these categorizations differentially predicted components of EF and academic achievement in first grade. Results indicated that children with lower response inhibition spent statistically significantly more time in one type of off-task behavior (i.e., off-task actively engaging with other materials), and children with lower working memory spent significantly more time in another type of off-task behavior (i.e., off-task passively disengaged). Higher proportion of class time spent off-task passively disengaged in kindergarten further statistically significantly predicted fewer gains in reading comprehension in first grade. These findings illustrate the utility of measuring children's EF in a classroom context, and how fine-grained observation systems can shed light on the specific classroom and child processes that influence learning. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved)


Thursday, July 18, 2019

Learning of Spatial Properties of a Large-Scale Virtual City With an Interactive Map



******************************************************
Kevin McGrew, PhD
Educational Psychologist
Director, Institute for Applied Psychometrics
IAP
******************************************************

Tuesday, July 16, 2019

Age-related differentiation in verbal and visuospatial working memory processing in childhood | SpringerLink

https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s00426-019-01219-w


******************************************************
Kevin McGrew, PhD
Educational Psychologist
Director, Institute for Applied Psychometrics
IAP
www.themindhub.com
******************************************************

Monday, July 15, 2019

Saturday, July 13, 2019

Are specific learning disorders truly specific, and are they disorders? - ScienceDirect

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2211949318300383


******************************************************
Kevin McGrew, PhD
Educational Psychologist
Director, Institute for Applied Psychometrics
IAP
www.themindhub.com
******************************************************

Monday, July 08, 2019

A role for metamemory in cognitive offloading



******************************************************
Kevin McGrew, PhD
Educational Psychologist
Director, Institute for Applied Psychometrics
IAP
******************************************************

Structure of brain networks is not fixed - Neuroscience News



Structure of brain networks is not fixed - Neuroscience News
https://neurosciencenews.com/brain-network-structure-14435/amp/

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******************************************************
Kevin McGrew, PhD
Educational Psychologist
Director, Institute for Applied Psychometrics
IAP
******************************************************

What data patterns can lie behind a correlation coefficient?



What data patterns can lie behind a correlation coefficient?
https://janhove.github.io/teaching/2016/11/21/what-correlations-look-like

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******************************************************
Kevin McGrew, PhD
Educational Psychologist
Director, Institute for Applied Psychometrics
IAP
******************************************************

Friday, July 05, 2019

Cognitive ability is associated with changes in the functional organization of the cognitive control brain network - A. Breukelaar - 2018 - Human Brain Mapping - Wiley Online Library



Cognitive ability is associated with changes in the functional organization of the cognitive control brain network - A. Breukelaar - 2018 - Human Brain Mapping - Wiley Online Library
https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1002/hbm.24342

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******************************************************
Kevin McGrew, PhD
Educational Psychologist
Director, Institute for Applied Psychometrics
IAP
******************************************************

Saturday, June 22, 2019

Kan-van-der-maas-and-levine-2019 - no support for g via network psychometrics and mutualism theory

File: kan-van-der-maas-and-levine-2019 - annotated.pdf

Annotation summary:

--- Page 53 ---

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Intelligence 73 (2019) 52–62

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Extending psychometric network analysis: Empirical evidence against g in favor of mutualism? Kees-Jan Kana⁎ , Han L.J. van der Maasb, Stephen Z. Levine

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A B S T R A C T

The current study implements psychometric network analysis within the framework of confirmatory (structural equation) modeling. Utility is demonstrated by three applications on independent data sets. The first application uses WAIS data and shows that the same kind of fit statistics can be produced for network models as for traditional confirmatory factor models. This can assist deciding between factor analytical and network theories of intelligence, e.g.g theory versus mutualism theory. The second application uses the 'Holzinger and Swineford data' and illustrates how to cross-validate a network. The third application concerns a multigroup analysis on scores on the Brief Test of Adult Cognition by Telephone (BCATC). It exemplifies how to test if network parameters have the same values across groups. Of theoretical interest is that in all applications psychometric network models outperformed previously established (g) factor models. Simulations showed that this was unlikely due to overparameterization. Thus the overall results were more consistent with mutualism theory than with mainstreamg theory. The presence of common (e.g. genetic) influences is not excluded, however.


--- Page 54 ---

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We note that from a descriptive (statistical) point of view bi-factor models may tend to fit better, but also that from an explanatory (sub-stantive theoretical) perspective, a bifactor model of intelligence is considered unsatisfactory (e.g., Jensen, 1998; Hood, 2008). Decisions as to which model to adopt as a the best model should rely on both fit and theory, not on fit itself (Morgan, Hodge, Wells, & Watkins, 2015; Murray & Johnson, 2013). In other words, theory drives, fit assists

Underline (red):
theory drives, fit assists

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Kovacs & Conway, 2016)

Note (yellow):
POT

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Secondly, that the general factor represents a single, unitary source of variance is not a given, but a hypothesis, which – like any other scientific hypothesis – requires empirical scrutiny

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not a given, but a hypothesis

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results of other (non-psychometric) lines of re-search are of importance.

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In brief, the mutualism model of intelligence is a model of cognitive development that was inspired by research in ecosystem modeling, where the dynamics between variables are due to reciprocal causation. The key idea is that such reciprocal causation also occurs among cog-nitive abilities during their development.

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Unlike in g theory, these capacities are (or can be) con-sidered statistically independent. Yet, because the growth of a given cognitive ability is not only limited by its own, specific limiting capa-city, but is also affected by the level of other cognitive abilities (through the dynamical interactions), and thus by their corresponding limiting capacities, the cognitive abilities themselves become positively corre-lated throughout the course of their development.

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The essence of statistical modeling and model selection (Kline, 2015) is the combination of Popperian logic (Popper, 2005) and Oc-cam's razor or 'the law of parsimony'

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Mutualism thus provides an alternative explanation of the positive manifold,


--- Page 55 ---

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As has been noted (van der Maas et al., 2017), mutualism – the idea of dynamic coupling between cognitive abilities – aligns neatly with some of the latest and most rapid developments in psychometrics, namely psychometric network modeling (Borsboom, 2008; Epskamp, Cramer, Waldorp, Schmittmann, & Borsboom, 2012)

Highlight (yellow):
It shows that one may conceptualize cognitive abilities as being related to each other directly, rather than through common, unobserved variables on which they depend. Indeed, the connections between any pairs of cognitive variables can be modeled using (full or full partial) correlations only, hence without postulating any latent factors.

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In other words, factor models are nested within network models.


--- Page 59 ---

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As demonstrated, the implementation of network models within a confirmatory (structural equation) modeling framework (Boker et al., 2011; Epskamp et al., 2017) permits, for instance, (1) the comparisons among factor and networks models, which can assist in the comparison of a priori theo-retically driven models, (2) the comparison of networks over groups, and (3) the combination of these two.

Highlight (yellow):
From a descriptive viewpoint concerning individual differences in cognitive performance, the major finding of interest was that the psy-chometric networks provided better descriptions of the data than pre-viously established confirmatory factor analytic models. Additional si-mulations showed this is unlikely due to overparameterization. In view of substantive theory, our results imply that the hypothesis of an un-derlying general factor of intelligence is not required in order to explain the pattern of correlations between the different cognitive performance measures. More strongly, the current results provide an empirical ar-gument against g theory (e.g. Jensen, 1998) favoring the mutualism theory of intelligence (van der Maas et al., 2006). The latter posits that positive associations between cognitive abilities arise through re-ciprocal dynamical interaction between those abilities during devel-opment, and that this is a sufficient explanation

Underline (red):
our results imply that the hypothesis of an un-derlying general factor of intelligence is not required in order to explain the pattern of correlations between the different cognitive performance measures. More strongly, the current results provide an empirical ar-gument against g theory (e.g. Jensen, 1998) favoring the mutualism theory of intelligence (van der Maas et al., 2006).


--- Page 61 ---

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Apart from the fact that psychometric network models outperformed traditional factor models, we obtained additional findings of theoretical interest.

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Overall, the current study promotes confirmatory psychometric network analysis, in the field of cognition and intelligence in particular

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and in differential psychology in general.

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With respect to the debate concerning the theoretical status ofg, we conclude the following. We do not exclude the presence of common or general influences, e.g. of certain genetic variants or environmental variables like exposure to education. The question to be answered is more how such effects could have arisen: Are they the result of dyna-mical reciprocal interactions or are they due to a single mediating variable g which has never been found to exist? The evidence from the current series of studies argues clearly against the latter and therefore against mainstream g theory. They favor the mutualism theory of in-telligence.

Friday, June 21, 2019

The Ontario Brain Institute (OBI) announces six new ONtrepreneurs working at the frontier of applied neurotech



The Ontario Brain Institute (OBI) announces six new ONtrepreneurs working at the frontier of applied neurotech
https://sharpbrains.com/blog/2019/06/21/the-ontario-brain-institute-obi-announces-six-new-ontrepreneurs-working-at-the-frontier-of-applied-neurotech/

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******************************************************
Kevin McGrew, PhD
Educational Psychologist
Director, Institute for Applied Psychometrics
IAP
******************************************************

A meta-analysis of the relationship between emotion recognition ability and intelligence

File under Gei in CHC taxonomy

A meta-analysis of the relationship between emotion recognition ability and intelligence
https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/02699931.2019.1632801

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A meta-analysis of the relationship between emotion recognition ability and intelligence



A meta-analysis of the relationship between emotion recognition ability and intelligence
https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/02699931.2019.1632801

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******************************************************
Kevin McGrew, PhD
Educational Psychologist
Director, Institute for Applied Psychometrics
IAP
******************************************************

RT @stuholliday: Some great reading for my Psych brethren/followers in this weeks @newscientist 👌



RT @stuholliday: Some great reading for my Psych brethren/followers in this weeks @newscientist 👌
https://twitter.com/stuholliday/status/1142069066259161088/photo/1

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Fwd: PsycALERT Update - Journal of Educational Psychology


--
***********************************************
Kevin S. McGrew,  PhD
Educational Psychologist
Director
Institute for Applied Psychometrics (IAP)
www.themindhub.com
************************************************
---------- Forwarded message ----------
From: APA PsycAlert <psycalerts@apa.org>
Date: Jun 21, 2019, 9:23 AM -0500
To: iap@earthlink.net
Subject: PsycALERT Update - Journal of Educational Psychology

Psycnet

PsycALERT®: APA JOURNALS IN PsycARTICLES®

New Online First content is available for the following journal

Journal of Educational Psychology
Improving fraction understanding in sixth graders with mathematics difficulties: Effects of a number line approach combined with cognitive learning strategies.
Barbieri, Christina A.; Rodrigues, Jessica; Dyson, Nancy; Jordan, Nancy C. - 6/20/2019
Read More >>
Reducing interference from misconceptions: The role of inhibition in knowledge revision.
Butterfuss, Reese; Kendeou, Panayiota - 6/20/2019
Read More >>
Subtypes of mathematical difficulties and their stability.
Chan, Winnie Wai Lan; Wong, Terry Tin-Yau - 6/20/2019
Read More >>
Webinar Series May-June 2019 APA psycCareers Feb 2019
Relative importance of intelligence and ability self-concept in predicting test performance and school grades in the math and language arts domains.
Lauermann, Fani; Meißner, Anja; Steinmayr, Ricarda - 6/20/2019
Read More >>
At-scale, state-sponsored language and literacy professional development: Impacts on early childhood classroom practices and children's outcomes.
Piasta, Shayne B.; Farley, Kristin S.; Mauck, Susan A.; Soto Ramirez, Pamela; Schachter, Rachel E.; O'Connell, Ann A.; Justice, Laura M.; Spear, Caitlin F.; Weber-Mayrer, Melissa - 6/20/2019
Read More >>
Differential codevelopment of vocabulary knowledge and reading comprehension for students with and without learning disabilities.
Quinn, Jamie M.; Wagner, Richard K.; Petscher, Yaacov; Roberts, Greg; Menzel, Andrew J.; Schatschneider, Christopher - 6/20/2019
Read More >>
The Conscientiousness × Interest Compensation (CONIC) model: Generalizability across domains, outcomes, and predictors.
Song, Juyeon; Gaspard, Hanna; Nagengast, Benjamin; Trautwein, Ulrich - 6/20/2019
Read More >>
Leaving the pond—Choosing an ocean: Effects of student composition on STEM major choices at university.
von Keyserlingk, Luise; Becker, Michael; Jansen, Malte; Maaz, Kai - 6/20/2019
Read More >>

To edit your profile or discontinue receiving table of contents alerts, visit http://psycalert.apa.org or your MyPsycNET page on APA PsycNET.

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Sunday, June 09, 2019

Communication and cross-examination in court for children and adults with intellectual disabilities: A systematic review - Joanne Morrison, Rachel Forrester-Jones, Jill Bradshaw, Glynis Murphy, 2019


Courts in England, Wales and Northern Ireland have identified children and adults with intellectual disabilities (ID) as vulnerable witnesses. The call from the English Court of Appeal is for advocates to adjust questioning during cross-examination according to individual needs. This review systematically examined previous empirical studies with the aim of delineating the particular communication needs of children and adults with ID during cross-examination. Studies utilising experimental methodology similar to examination/cross-examination processes, or which assessed the communication of actual cross-examinations in court were included. A range of communication challenges were highlighted, including: suggestibility to leading questions and negative feedback; acquiescence; accuracy; memory and understanding of court language. In addition, a number of influencing factors were identified, including: age; IQ level; question styles used. This review highlights the need for further research using cross-examination methodology and live practice, that take into consideration the impact on communication of the unique environment and situation of the cross-examination process.


- Document - Selection, Use, and Interpretation of German Intelligence Tests for Children and Adolescents Based on CHC-theory: Update, Extension, and Critical Discussion/Auswahl, Anwendung und Interpretation deutschsprachiger Intelligenztests fur Kinder und Jugendliche auf Grundlage der CHC-Theorie: Update, Erweiterung und kritische Bewertung

Abstract :

In order to facilitate planning and interpretation of cognitive assessments for children and adolescents a CHC broad and narrow ability classification of nine widespread German tests of intelligence is presented. The Cattel-Horn-Carroll-theory of intelligence is an influential model in the field of intelligence testing. Its structure and basic premises are presented. On this basis, intelligence testing can be planned and interpreted systematically in a common theoretical framework. Practical implications and suggestions for diagnosticians (e. g. crossbattery-assessment) are pointed out. Finally, possibilities and limitations of CHC-theory in the field of intelligence testing are discussed. Keywords intelligence assessment--CHC-theory--cross-battery-assessment Um die Planung und Interpretation intelligenzdiagnostischer Untersuchungen von Kindern und Jugendlichen zu erleichtern, wird eine aktuelle Zuordnung der Untertests von neun weit verbreiteten deutschsprachigen Intelligenztests zu den Schicht-II- und Schicht-I-Faktoren der CattellHorn-Carroll-Intelligenztheorie (CHC-Theorie) vorgelegt. Die Grundlagen und Kernaussagen der international und zunehmend auch in Deutschland einflussreichen CHC-Theorie werden dargestellt. Auf dieser Basis konnen Intelligenztests verfahrensubergreifend im Rahmen einer einheitlichen Terminologie interpretiert werden. Anwendungsmoglichkeiten fur die diagnostische Praxis werden aufgezeigt. Die CHC-Theorie stellt eine Verstandigungsbasis im Feld der Diagnostik intellektueller Fahigkeiten dar, deren Chancen und Grenzen abschliessend diskutiert werden. Schlagworter Intelligenzdiagnostik--CHC-Theorie--Cross-battery-assessment

https://go.galegroup.com/ps/anonymous?id=GALE%7CA586902942&sid=googleScholar&v=2.1&it=r&linkaccess=abs&issn=00327034&p=AONE&sw=w

Cognitive abilities of action video game and role-playing video game players: Data from a massive open online course. - PsycNET



Abstract

Numerous studies have demonstrated that regularly playing action video games (AVGPs) is associated with increased cognitive performance. Individuals who play role-playing video games (RPGs) have usually been excluded from these studies. This is because RPGs traditionally contained no action components and were thus not expected to influence cognitive performance. However, modern RPGs increasingly include numerous action-like components. We therefore examined whether current RPG players (RPGPs) perform similar to action video game players (AVGPs) or nonvideo game players (NVGPs) on two cognitive tasks. Self-identified AVGPs (N = 76), NVGPs (N = 77), and RPGPs (N = 23) completed two online cognitive tasks: A useful field of view (UFOV) task and a multiple-object tracking task (MOT). The UFOV task measures the ability to deploy visuospatial attention over a large field of view while dividing one's attention between a central and a peripheral task. The MOT task measures the ability to use attentional control to dynamically refresh information in working memory. RPGPs performed similar to AVGPs and better than NVGPs on both tasks. However, patterns of covariation (e.g., gender and age) presented obstacles to interpretation in some cases. Our study is the first to demonstrate that RPGPs show similar cognitive performance to AVGPs. These findings suggest that regularly playing modern RPGs may enhance visuospatial abilities. However, because the current study was purely cross-sectional, intervention studies will be needed to assess causation. We discuss the implications of this finding, as well as considerations for how gamers are classified going forward. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved)




Saturday, June 01, 2019

The Academic Outcomes of Working Memory and Metacognitive Strategy Training in Children: A Double‐Blind Randomised Controlled Trial - Jones - - Developmental Science - Wiley Online Library



Abstract

Working memory training has been shown to improve performance on untrained working memory tasks in typically developing children, at least when compared to non‐adaptive training; however, there is little evidence that it improves academic outcomes. The lack of transfer to academic outcomes may be because children are only learning skills and strategies in a very narrow context, which they are unable to apply to other tasks. Metacognitive strategy interventions, which promote metacognitive awareness and teach children general strategies that can be used on a variety of tasks, may be a crucial missing link in this regard. In this double‐blind randomised controlled trial, 95 typically developing children aged 9‐14 years were allocated to three cognitive training programmes that were conducted daily after‐school. One group received Cogmed working memory training, another group received concurrent Cogmed and metacognitive strategy training, and the control group received adaptive visual search training, which better controls for expectancy and motivation than non‐adaptive training. Children were assessed on four working memory tasks, reading comprehension, and mathematical reasoning before, immediately after, and three months after training. Working memory training improved working memory and mathematical reasoning relative to the control group. The improvements in working memory were maintained three months later and these were significantly greater for the group that received metacognitive strategy training, compared to working memory training alone. Working memory training is a potentially effective educational intervention when provided in addition to school; however, future research will need to investigate ways to maintain academic improvements long‐term and to optimise metacognitive strategy training to promote far‐transfer.

https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/desc.12870



Tuesday, May 28, 2019

Frontiers | Musical Instrument Practice Predicts White Matter Microstructure and Cognitive Abilities in Childhood | Psychology


Musical training has been associated with advantages in cognitive measures of IQ and verbal ability, as well as neural measures including white matter microstructural properties in the corpus callosum (CC) and the superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF). We hypothesized that children who have musical training will have different microstructural properties in the SLF and CC. One hundred children aged 7.9–9.9 years (mean age 8.7) were surveyed for their musical activities, completed neuropsychological testing for general cognitive abilities, and underwent diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) as part of a larger study. Children who play a musical instrument for more than 0.5 h per week (n = 34) had higher scores on verbal ability and intellectual ability (standardized scores from the Woodcock-Johnson Tests of Cognitive Abilities), as well as higher axial diffusivity (AD) in the left SLF than those who did not play a musical instrument (n = 66). Furthermore, the intensity of musical practice, quantified as the number of hours of music practice per week, was correlated with axial diffusivity (AD) in the left SLF. Results are not explained by age, sex, socio-economic status, or physical fitness of the participants. The results suggest that the relationship between musical practice and intellectual ability is related to the maturation of white matter pathways in the auditory-motor system. The findings suggest that musical training may be a means of improving cognitive and brain health during development.


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Kevin McGrew, PhD
Educational Psychologist
Director, Institute for Applied Psychometrics
IAP
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Factor analysis in psychological assessment research: Common pitfalls and recommendations. - PsycNET


Abstract

This article provides a summary and discussion of major challenges and pitfalls in factor analysis as observed in psychological assessment research, as well as our recommendations within each of these areas. More specifically, we discuss a need to be more careful about item distribution properties in light of their potential impact on model estimation as well as providing a very strong caution against item parceling in the evaluation of psychological test instruments. Moreover, we consider the important issue of estimation, with a particular emphasis on selecting the most appropriate estimator to match the scaling properties of test item indicators. Next, we turn our attention to the issues of model fit and comparison of alternative models with the strong recommendation to allow for theoretical guidance rather than being overly influenced by model fit indices. In addition, since most models in psychological assessment research involve multidimensional items that often do not map neatly onto a priori confirmatory models, we provide recommendations about model respecification. Finally, we end our article with a discussion of alternative forms of model specification that have become particularly popular recently: exploratory structural equation modeling (ESEM) and bifactor modeling. We discuss various important areas of consideration for the applied use of these model specifications, with a conclusion that, whereas ESEM models can offer a useful avenue for the evaluation of internal structure of test items, researchers should be very careful about using bifactor models for this purpose. Instead, we highlight other, more appropriate applications of such models. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved)




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Kevin McGrew, PhD
Educational Psychologist
Director, Institute for Applied Psychometrics
IAP
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Brain network modularity predicts cognitive training-related gains in young adults - ScienceDirect


Abstract

The brain operates via networked activity in separable groups of regions called modules. The quantification of modularity compares the number of connections within and between modules, with high modularity indicating greater segregation, or dense connections within sub-networks and sparse connections between sub-networks. Previous work has demonstrated that baseline brain network modularity predicts executive function outcomes in older adults and patients with traumatic brain injury after cognitive and exercise interventions. In healthy young adults, however, the functional significance of brain modularity in predicting training-related cognitive improvements is not fully understood. Here, we quantified brain network modularity in young adults who underwent cognitive training with casual video games that engaged working memory and reasoning processes. Network modularity assessed at baseline was positively correlated with training-related improvements on untrained tasks. The relationship between baseline modularity and training gain was especially evident in initially lower performing individuals and was not present in a group of control participants that did not show training-related gains. These results suggest that a more modular brain network organization may allow for greater training responsiveness. On a broader scale, these findings suggest that, particularly in low-performing individuals, global network properties can capture aspects of brain function that are important in understanding individual differences in learning.

Keywords

Functional connectivity
Brain network modularity
Cognitive training
Working memory
Reasoning



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Kevin McGrew, PhD
Educational Psychologist
Director, Institute for Applied Psychometrics
IAP
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Saturday, May 25, 2019

Toward a New Frontier in Human Intelligence: The Person-Centered Approach



Toward a New Frontier in Human Intelligence: The Person-Centered Approach
https://scottbarrykaufman.com/toward-a-new-frontier-in-human-intelligence-the-person-centered-approach/

Sent from Flipboard


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Kevin McGrew, PhD
Educational Psychologist
Director, Institute for Applied Psychometrics
IAP
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