Saturday, June 22, 2019

Kan-van-der-maas-and-levine-2019 - no support for g via network psychometrics and mutualism theory

File: kan-van-der-maas-and-levine-2019 - annotated.pdf

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Intelligence 73 (2019) 52–62

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Extending psychometric network analysis: Empirical evidence against g in favor of mutualism? Kees-Jan Kana⁎ , Han L.J. van der Maasb, Stephen Z. Levine

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A B S T R A C T

The current study implements psychometric network analysis within the framework of confirmatory (structural equation) modeling. Utility is demonstrated by three applications on independent data sets. The first application uses WAIS data and shows that the same kind of fit statistics can be produced for network models as for traditional confirmatory factor models. This can assist deciding between factor analytical and network theories of intelligence, e.g.g theory versus mutualism theory. The second application uses the 'Holzinger and Swineford data' and illustrates how to cross-validate a network. The third application concerns a multigroup analysis on scores on the Brief Test of Adult Cognition by Telephone (BCATC). It exemplifies how to test if network parameters have the same values across groups. Of theoretical interest is that in all applications psychometric network models outperformed previously established (g) factor models. Simulations showed that this was unlikely due to overparameterization. Thus the overall results were more consistent with mutualism theory than with mainstreamg theory. The presence of common (e.g. genetic) influences is not excluded, however.


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We note that from a descriptive (statistical) point of view bi-factor models may tend to fit better, but also that from an explanatory (sub-stantive theoretical) perspective, a bifactor model of intelligence is considered unsatisfactory (e.g., Jensen, 1998; Hood, 2008). Decisions as to which model to adopt as a the best model should rely on both fit and theory, not on fit itself (Morgan, Hodge, Wells, & Watkins, 2015; Murray & Johnson, 2013). In other words, theory drives, fit assists

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theory drives, fit assists

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Kovacs & Conway, 2016)

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POT

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Secondly, that the general factor represents a single, unitary source of variance is not a given, but a hypothesis, which – like any other scientific hypothesis – requires empirical scrutiny

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not a given, but a hypothesis

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results of other (non-psychometric) lines of re-search are of importance.

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In brief, the mutualism model of intelligence is a model of cognitive development that was inspired by research in ecosystem modeling, where the dynamics between variables are due to reciprocal causation. The key idea is that such reciprocal causation also occurs among cog-nitive abilities during their development.

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Unlike in g theory, these capacities are (or can be) con-sidered statistically independent. Yet, because the growth of a given cognitive ability is not only limited by its own, specific limiting capa-city, but is also affected by the level of other cognitive abilities (through the dynamical interactions), and thus by their corresponding limiting capacities, the cognitive abilities themselves become positively corre-lated throughout the course of their development.

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The essence of statistical modeling and model selection (Kline, 2015) is the combination of Popperian logic (Popper, 2005) and Oc-cam's razor or 'the law of parsimony'

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Mutualism thus provides an alternative explanation of the positive manifold,


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As has been noted (van der Maas et al., 2017), mutualism – the idea of dynamic coupling between cognitive abilities – aligns neatly with some of the latest and most rapid developments in psychometrics, namely psychometric network modeling (Borsboom, 2008; Epskamp, Cramer, Waldorp, Schmittmann, & Borsboom, 2012)

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It shows that one may conceptualize cognitive abilities as being related to each other directly, rather than through common, unobserved variables on which they depend. Indeed, the connections between any pairs of cognitive variables can be modeled using (full or full partial) correlations only, hence without postulating any latent factors.

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In other words, factor models are nested within network models.


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As demonstrated, the implementation of network models within a confirmatory (structural equation) modeling framework (Boker et al., 2011; Epskamp et al., 2017) permits, for instance, (1) the comparisons among factor and networks models, which can assist in the comparison of a priori theo-retically driven models, (2) the comparison of networks over groups, and (3) the combination of these two.

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From a descriptive viewpoint concerning individual differences in cognitive performance, the major finding of interest was that the psy-chometric networks provided better descriptions of the data than pre-viously established confirmatory factor analytic models. Additional si-mulations showed this is unlikely due to overparameterization. In view of substantive theory, our results imply that the hypothesis of an un-derlying general factor of intelligence is not required in order to explain the pattern of correlations between the different cognitive performance measures. More strongly, the current results provide an empirical ar-gument against g theory (e.g. Jensen, 1998) favoring the mutualism theory of intelligence (van der Maas et al., 2006). The latter posits that positive associations between cognitive abilities arise through re-ciprocal dynamical interaction between those abilities during devel-opment, and that this is a sufficient explanation

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our results imply that the hypothesis of an un-derlying general factor of intelligence is not required in order to explain the pattern of correlations between the different cognitive performance measures. More strongly, the current results provide an empirical ar-gument against g theory (e.g. Jensen, 1998) favoring the mutualism theory of intelligence (van der Maas et al., 2006).


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Apart from the fact that psychometric network models outperformed traditional factor models, we obtained additional findings of theoretical interest.

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Overall, the current study promotes confirmatory psychometric network analysis, in the field of cognition and intelligence in particular

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and in differential psychology in general.

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With respect to the debate concerning the theoretical status ofg, we conclude the following. We do not exclude the presence of common or general influences, e.g. of certain genetic variants or environmental variables like exposure to education. The question to be answered is more how such effects could have arisen: Are they the result of dyna-mical reciprocal interactions or are they due to a single mediating variable g which has never been found to exist? The evidence from the current series of studies argues clearly against the latter and therefore against mainstream g theory. They favor the mutualism theory of in-telligence.

Friday, June 21, 2019

The Ontario Brain Institute (OBI) announces six new ONtrepreneurs working at the frontier of applied neurotech



The Ontario Brain Institute (OBI) announces six new ONtrepreneurs working at the frontier of applied neurotech
https://sharpbrains.com/blog/2019/06/21/the-ontario-brain-institute-obi-announces-six-new-ontrepreneurs-working-at-the-frontier-of-applied-neurotech/

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******************************************************
Kevin McGrew, PhD
Educational Psychologist
Director, Institute for Applied Psychometrics
IAP
******************************************************

A meta-analysis of the relationship between emotion recognition ability and intelligence

File under Gei in CHC taxonomy

A meta-analysis of the relationship between emotion recognition ability and intelligence
https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/02699931.2019.1632801

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A meta-analysis of the relationship between emotion recognition ability and intelligence



A meta-analysis of the relationship between emotion recognition ability and intelligence
https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/02699931.2019.1632801

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******************************************************
Kevin McGrew, PhD
Educational Psychologist
Director, Institute for Applied Psychometrics
IAP
******************************************************

RT @stuholliday: Some great reading for my Psych brethren/followers in this weeks @newscientist ๐Ÿ‘Œ



RT @stuholliday: Some great reading for my Psych brethren/followers in this weeks @newscientist ๐Ÿ‘Œ
https://twitter.com/stuholliday/status/1142069066259161088/photo/1

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Fwd: PsycALERT Update - Journal of Educational Psychology


--
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Kevin S. McGrew,  PhD
Educational Psychologist
Director
Institute for Applied Psychometrics (IAP)
www.themindhub.com
************************************************
---------- Forwarded message ----------
From: APA PsycAlert <psycalerts@apa.org>
Date: Jun 21, 2019, 9:23 AM -0500
To: iap@earthlink.net
Subject: PsycALERT Update - Journal of Educational Psychology

Psycnet

PsycALERT®: APA JOURNALS IN PsycARTICLES®

New Online First content is available for the following journal

Journal of Educational Psychology
Improving fraction understanding in sixth graders with mathematics difficulties: Effects of a number line approach combined with cognitive learning strategies.
Barbieri, Christina A.; Rodrigues, Jessica; Dyson, Nancy; Jordan, Nancy C. - 6/20/2019
Read More >>
Reducing interference from misconceptions: The role of inhibition in knowledge revision.
Butterfuss, Reese; Kendeou, Panayiota - 6/20/2019
Read More >>
Subtypes of mathematical difficulties and their stability.
Chan, Winnie Wai Lan; Wong, Terry Tin-Yau - 6/20/2019
Read More >>
Webinar Series May-June 2019 APA psycCareers Feb 2019
Relative importance of intelligence and ability self-concept in predicting test performance and school grades in the math and language arts domains.
Lauermann, Fani; MeiรŸner, Anja; Steinmayr, Ricarda - 6/20/2019
Read More >>
At-scale, state-sponsored language and literacy professional development: Impacts on early childhood classroom practices and children's outcomes.
Piasta, Shayne B.; Farley, Kristin S.; Mauck, Susan A.; Soto Ramirez, Pamela; Schachter, Rachel E.; O'Connell, Ann A.; Justice, Laura M.; Spear, Caitlin F.; Weber-Mayrer, Melissa - 6/20/2019
Read More >>
Differential codevelopment of vocabulary knowledge and reading comprehension for students with and without learning disabilities.
Quinn, Jamie M.; Wagner, Richard K.; Petscher, Yaacov; Roberts, Greg; Menzel, Andrew J.; Schatschneider, Christopher - 6/20/2019
Read More >>
The Conscientiousness × Interest Compensation (CONIC) model: Generalizability across domains, outcomes, and predictors.
Song, Juyeon; Gaspard, Hanna; Nagengast, Benjamin; Trautwein, Ulrich - 6/20/2019
Read More >>
Leaving the pond—Choosing an ocean: Effects of student composition on STEM major choices at university.
von Keyserlingk, Luise; Becker, Michael; Jansen, Malte; Maaz, Kai - 6/20/2019
Read More >>

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Sunday, June 09, 2019

Communication and cross-examination in court for children and adults with intellectual disabilities: A systematic review - Joanne Morrison, Rachel Forrester-Jones, Jill Bradshaw, Glynis Murphy, 2019


Courts in England, Wales and Northern Ireland have identified children and adults with intellectual disabilities (ID) as vulnerable witnesses. The call from the English Court of Appeal is for advocates to adjust questioning during cross-examination according to individual needs. This review systematically examined previous empirical studies with the aim of delineating the particular communication needs of children and adults with ID during cross-examination. Studies utilising experimental methodology similar to examination/cross-examination processes, or which assessed the communication of actual cross-examinations in court were included. A range of communication challenges were highlighted, including: suggestibility to leading questions and negative feedback; acquiescence; accuracy; memory and understanding of court language. In addition, a number of influencing factors were identified, including: age; IQ level; question styles used. This review highlights the need for further research using cross-examination methodology and live practice, that take into consideration the impact on communication of the unique environment and situation of the cross-examination process.


- Document - Selection, Use, and Interpretation of German Intelligence Tests for Children and Adolescents Based on CHC-theory: Update, Extension, and Critical Discussion/Auswahl, Anwendung und Interpretation deutschsprachiger Intelligenztests fur Kinder und Jugendliche auf Grundlage der CHC-Theorie: Update, Erweiterung und kritische Bewertung

Abstract :

In order to facilitate planning and interpretation of cognitive assessments for children and adolescents a CHC broad and narrow ability classification of nine widespread German tests of intelligence is presented. The Cattel-Horn-Carroll-theory of intelligence is an influential model in the field of intelligence testing. Its structure and basic premises are presented. On this basis, intelligence testing can be planned and interpreted systematically in a common theoretical framework. Practical implications and suggestions for diagnosticians (e. g. crossbattery-assessment) are pointed out. Finally, possibilities and limitations of CHC-theory in the field of intelligence testing are discussed. Keywords intelligence assessment--CHC-theory--cross-battery-assessment Um die Planung und Interpretation intelligenzdiagnostischer Untersuchungen von Kindern und Jugendlichen zu erleichtern, wird eine aktuelle Zuordnung der Untertests von neun weit verbreiteten deutschsprachigen Intelligenztests zu den Schicht-II- und Schicht-I-Faktoren der CattellHorn-Carroll-Intelligenztheorie (CHC-Theorie) vorgelegt. Die Grundlagen und Kernaussagen der international und zunehmend auch in Deutschland einflussreichen CHC-Theorie werden dargestellt. Auf dieser Basis konnen Intelligenztests verfahrensubergreifend im Rahmen einer einheitlichen Terminologie interpretiert werden. Anwendungsmoglichkeiten fur die diagnostische Praxis werden aufgezeigt. Die CHC-Theorie stellt eine Verstandigungsbasis im Feld der Diagnostik intellektueller Fahigkeiten dar, deren Chancen und Grenzen abschliessend diskutiert werden. Schlagworter Intelligenzdiagnostik--CHC-Theorie--Cross-battery-assessment

https://go.galegroup.com/ps/anonymous?id=GALE%7CA586902942&sid=googleScholar&v=2.1&it=r&linkaccess=abs&issn=00327034&p=AONE&sw=w

Cognitive abilities of action video game and role-playing video game players: Data from a massive open online course. - PsycNET



Abstract

Numerous studies have demonstrated that regularly playing action video games (AVGPs) is associated with increased cognitive performance. Individuals who play role-playing video games (RPGs) have usually been excluded from these studies. This is because RPGs traditionally contained no action components and were thus not expected to influence cognitive performance. However, modern RPGs increasingly include numerous action-like components. We therefore examined whether current RPG players (RPGPs) perform similar to action video game players (AVGPs) or nonvideo game players (NVGPs) on two cognitive tasks. Self-identified AVGPs (N = 76), NVGPs (N = 77), and RPGPs (N = 23) completed two online cognitive tasks: A useful field of view (UFOV) task and a multiple-object tracking task (MOT). The UFOV task measures the ability to deploy visuospatial attention over a large field of view while dividing one's attention between a central and a peripheral task. The MOT task measures the ability to use attentional control to dynamically refresh information in working memory. RPGPs performed similar to AVGPs and better than NVGPs on both tasks. However, patterns of covariation (e.g., gender and age) presented obstacles to interpretation in some cases. Our study is the first to demonstrate that RPGPs show similar cognitive performance to AVGPs. These findings suggest that regularly playing modern RPGs may enhance visuospatial abilities. However, because the current study was purely cross-sectional, intervention studies will be needed to assess causation. We discuss the implications of this finding, as well as considerations for how gamers are classified going forward. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved)




Saturday, June 01, 2019

The Academic Outcomes of Working Memory and Metacognitive Strategy Training in Children: A Double‐Blind Randomised Controlled Trial - Jones - - Developmental Science - Wiley Online Library



Abstract

Working memory training has been shown to improve performance on untrained working memory tasks in typically developing children, at least when compared to non‐adaptive training; however, there is little evidence that it improves academic outcomes. The lack of transfer to academic outcomes may be because children are only learning skills and strategies in a very narrow context, which they are unable to apply to other tasks. Metacognitive strategy interventions, which promote metacognitive awareness and teach children general strategies that can be used on a variety of tasks, may be a crucial missing link in this regard. In this double‐blind randomised controlled trial, 95 typically developing children aged 9‐14 years were allocated to three cognitive training programmes that were conducted daily after‐school. One group received Cogmed working memory training, another group received concurrent Cogmed and metacognitive strategy training, and the control group received adaptive visual search training, which better controls for expectancy and motivation than non‐adaptive training. Children were assessed on four working memory tasks, reading comprehension, and mathematical reasoning before, immediately after, and three months after training. Working memory training improved working memory and mathematical reasoning relative to the control group. The improvements in working memory were maintained three months later and these were significantly greater for the group that received metacognitive strategy training, compared to working memory training alone. Working memory training is a potentially effective educational intervention when provided in addition to school; however, future research will need to investigate ways to maintain academic improvements long‐term and to optimise metacognitive strategy training to promote far‐transfer.

https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/desc.12870