Showing posts with label Ravens. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Ravens. Show all posts

Monday, October 10, 2011

Research byte: Ravens matrices also measures Gf (fluid intelligence) for individuals with intellectual disabilities

Well designed and methodologically solid study indicates that the Ravens Coloured Progressive Matrices (measure of fluid intelligence, Gf, as per CHC theory) measures the same construct (Gf) for normals and I dividuals with intellectual disabilities.

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Sunday, May 01, 2011

IQ's Reading: Support for speed of reasoning ability (Carroll's RE; Horn's CDS)

Article "in press" in Intelligence by Goldhammer et al. that provides support for a speed of reasoning factor. I have provided additional comments in the article via the IQ's Readings blog feature.

No major individual intelligence battery appears to measure this construct. We the authors of the WJ III (conflict of interest disclosure--I am coauthor of the WJ III) intended our Decision Speed test to represent some of this ability. To date we have not been able to demonstrate validity evidence for this interpretation. This may be due to two factors. First, all post-WJ III analyses I have completed have found the DS test to covary with the Retrieval Fluency and Rapid Picture Naming tests. RF and RPN covary very strong....and I have interpreted this as reflecting the narrow ability of NA (naming facility) or what is often called RAN, but which I prefer to call "speed of lexical access" as per the reading research of Perfetti. The DS test tends to "hang out" with these two other tests and appears to tap this speed of lexical access ability to some degree, most likely due to the need for examinee's to quickly access the meaning of the common objects before deciding which two are the same conceptually.

The other possibility that the DS test may measure some RE variance but this has not been possible to validate due to the lack of other valid RE indicators in the WJ III collection of tests analyzed.

Anyone looking for a good thesis/dissertation? I could envision a study which tests administered that allow for the specification of perceptual speed (P), speed of lexical access (NA), and speed of reasoning (RE) factors that also includes the WJ III RF, RPN and DS tests.

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Saturday, December 04, 2010

Book Nook: Uses and Abuses of Intelligence: Studies Advancing Spearman and Raven's Quest for Non-Arbitrary Metrics

John and Jean Raven asked me to post the following update regarding their book. The following information is reproduced as received from the Raven's.

Uses and Abuses of Intelligence: Studies Advancing Spearman and Raven’s Quest for Non-Arbitrary Metrics. Edited by John and Jean Raven

Now Available from Amazon.co.uk*
ISBN 978-0-9557195-0-9





The opening chapter summarises the theoretical basis of Raven’s Progressive Matrices tests and the measurement model that lies behind them. Despite their widespread us, neither their foundation on the work of Charles Spearman nor their grounding in what has become known as “Item Response Theory” is widely understood. Both are extremely interesting and important issues and the chapter will therefore be of interest to a wide audience.

Part II: Practical Measurement Issues: Lessons from 75 Years’ Work with Item Response Theory discusses fundamental measurement issues in psychology. Particular attention is paid to the problems involved in the differential measurement of change, e,g, when trying to assess the relative effects of alternative treatments. These are particularly serious when attempts are made to measure change using tests which do not yield interval scales. The discussion in the book is easily understood and very illuminating. As one of the psychometricians involved in these studies commented “At last I have understood what I have been doing all my life … and my students will too!”.

Part III deals with the stability and change in Progressive Matrices scores over time and culture. Although the intergenerational increases are now well known, their significance from the point of re-interpreting the results of many studies which had previously been thought to show a decline in abilities with increasing age has been less widely appreciated. Other findings reported in this Section – such as the trifling effect of such things as access to television and education on Progressive Matrices scores – are still often surprising.

Part IV amounts to a clarion call for psychologists to find ways of thinking about, and assessing, a much wider range of human abilities together with aspects of the environment which determine behaviour. It would seem that, compared with other unidentified and unmeasured factors, “intelligence” makes a rather small contribution to the variance in life performance. On the other hand, notions of “intelligence” or “ability” play a major role in the legitimisation and cementation of hierarchy and thus to the network of factors advancing our plunge toward extinction as a species.

Part V continues this discussion of abuses of the concept of “intelligence”, particularly via an outstanding chapter on “bias” in mental testing contributed by Jim Flynn.

*In the US the book is still only available (direct or via booksellers) from Royal Fireworks Press. ISBN 978-0-89824-356-7.


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Thursday, May 14, 2009

Fluid IQ (Gf), personality and emotional IQ: Guest post by Walter Howe

This is a guest post by Walter Howe, Director of Psychological Assessments Australia. This is the third time he has guest blogged (click here and here for prior posts that dealt with cognitive load theory and working memory). I would urge others to take up my standing offer to provide guest posts, especially if a reader sees a journal article of interest and doesn't have access to the journal. I can typically secure a PDF copy of most articles and would send them privately to individuals in exchange for a guest blog post about the article. Come one----many of you are dying to read and comment on the blogosphere. I would LOVE to have a number of regular contributors.

DiFabio, R. & Palazzeschi, L. (2009). An in-depth look at scholastic success: Fluid intelligence, personality traits or emotional intelligence? Personality and Individual Differences, 49 (2009) 581 585.

I must confess I am a fan of the construct of emotional intelligence because it bridges the sometimes artificial divide between cognition and affect. It provides a useful framework for understanding the interaction of cognition and affect. Emotions not only influence how we think but also what we think about, which makes them even more powerful than most people would acknowledge.

Di Fabio and Palazzeschi’s study is an attempt to validate emotional intelligence as a predictor of school success (teacher rated GPA). Their sample was drawn from senior high school students (mostly girls) in Tuscany. They examined the influence of fluid intelligence (Gf) (Raven’s Advanced Progressive Matrices); personality (Eysenck Personality Questionnaire – Extraversion; Neuroticism & Psychoticism) and two measures of emotional intelligence, one trait based (BarOn Emotional Quotient Inventory - EQi) and the other ability based (Mayer Salovey Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test - MSCEIT) on school success as measured by GPA.

Their results show that emotional intelligence added incremental validity over both fluid intelligence (Gf) and personality as predictors of school success, especially ability based emotional intelligence, with the skill of managing emotions working the best.

Some studies with adults using different outcome measures, such as business success, have also shown the positive predictive power of ability based emotional intelligence, and of managing emotions.

The work of Mark Brackett at Yale also supports the contention that emotional intelligence can contribute to school academic success. Students who undertook a program he designed, achieved higher grades than those who didn’t. He is currently involved in a large, school district wide training program in the UK.

Many school psychologists are involved in whole school, evidence-based, primary prevention programs, but most of these programs have a mental health focus. Programs based on ability based emotional intelligence theory have the added advantage of also improving school grades, something all us wholeheartedly support. School psychologists might also consider a measure of ability based emotional intelligence, as part of an assessment of academic difficulties. Multi Health Systems (MHS), publishers of the MSCEIT has an adolescent version currently in development.
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Wednesday, May 06, 2009

Uses and Abuses of Intelligence book: Reviews and responses

I previously made a post mentioning the recent and controversial book by John Raven - Uses and Abuses of Intelligence. Dr. Raven was courteous enough to send me a copy a year ago...and despite good intentions, I've not got around to reading it (so much to read...so little time). Thus, I thought it would be a good idea to post some reviews and a response to one of the reviews by Raven. This way people can make their own informed decisions.

An overview description of the book can be found here.

Independent reviews by Sutherland, Belgrev, and Hunt can also be viewed.

A response by Raven to Sutherland can be found here.

This is an FYI announcement. As noted above, I've not had time to read the book and have formed no judgment at this time.

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Tuesday, December 16, 2008

IQ (ISIR) Scholar Spotlight: David Lohman--CogAT, NNAT, Ravens research

David Lohman presented at the 2008 ISIR conference. I've been a big fan of Lohman's work as much of it has direct application to the work of practicing school and educational psychologists. Lohman was a student of the late Richard Snow, whose work has had a significant work on my thoughts regarding non-cognitive factors important for school learning (see prior post today). Lohman is an author of the group CogAt (click here to see prior post re: study with WJ III). Aside from being an excellent applied psychometrician, Lohman has written papers on a wide variety of topics in educational psychology and intelligence. He is also very generous in making his various publications available for download at his web page.

At this conference he presented a paper comparing scores and norm characteristics from the CogAT, NNAT, and Ravens. The name of the paper and abstract (italics added by me) is below. The focus was on the use of nonverbal measures of intelligence in the identifcation of gifted students. The results presented were a bit disconcerting regarding possible technical issues with the norms of two of the tests---I've featured Lowman's conclusion in the abstract below. Lohman's research raises significant issues re: the accuracy of gifted identification via the NNAT and Ravens. Of course, and appropriately so, Lohman made it clear that his findings and research needed to recognize his potential conflict of interest as author of the CogAT, a direct competitor to the other tests, esp. the NNAT. It is refreshing to see such scholarly integrity in person.
  • Ethnic Differences on Fluid Reasoning Tests: Is the NNAT the Panacea? David F. Lohman, University of Iowa
  • Abstract: Nonverbal, figural reasoning tests such as the Raven Progressive Matrices are often used as markers for Gf in research on intelligence. These tests are also widely used in schools to help identify academically gifted students. The Naglieri Nonverbal Ability Test (NNAT) has been particularly popular following a recent report that in a large, representative sample of U.S. school children, it was found to identify equal proportions of high-scoring White, Black, and Hispanic students. Although questions have been raised about the integrity of the data analyses used in this study, the author of the study continues to defend it as the most important research yet conducted with the NNAT. The goal of this investigation was to compare the NNAT with two other nonverbal assessments: the Raven Progressive Matrices and the Nonverbal Battery of the Cognitive Abilities Test (CogAT). All three tests were administered by trained examiners in counterbalanced order to 1,200 children in grades K to 6 in an ethnically diverse school district. Results showed provided no support for the assertion that the NNAT reduced ethnic differences – either at the mean or at the tails of the distribution. Rather, ethnic differences were actually somewhat larger on the NNAT than on the other two tests. Furthermore, it was discovered that the variance of basic normative score on the NNAT (M = 100, SD = 15) substantially exceeded the reported value of 15 at all but one test level. Re-analyses of the standardization data for the NNAT confirmed this finding. A similar normative score on the Raven (computed from the most recent U.S. national norms) was 10 points too lenient. Consequences of invalid or outdated normative scores for research and practice are discussed.
If you are interested in learning more about this issue, you should check out his full length publication in Gifted Child Quarterly (which Lohman makes available from his web page). You can view a copy by clicking here. The reference citation is: Lohman, D. F., Korb, K., & Lakin, J. (2008). Identifying academically gifted English language learners using nonverbal tests: A comparison of the Raven, NNAT, and CogAT. Gifted Child Quarterly, 52, 275-296. Apparently this paper received the "Research Paper of the Year Award" from the National Association of Gifted Children.

The bottom line take-away: Buyer beware. Educators need to do their due diligence when evaluating and comparing psychometric instruments (group or individual) that impact important educational decisions regarding children.

[Conflict of interest disclosure - I'm a coauthor of the WJ III mentioned above, which is an instrument that competes with a different individually administered cognitive battery of the author of the NNAT, which was a focus of Lohman's presentation and paper].

Thursday, March 20, 2008

Ravens, PsychWiki and psychometrics

Dr. John Raven (yes of Raven's Progressive Matrices fame) has asked me to disseminate some new resource information to IQ's Corner readers.

First is the PsychWiki resource. Dr. Raven wants people to be aware of the new a virtual lab meeting feature, a place where he has a post regarding attempts to make progress on "a shift toward a new measurement paradigm in psychometrics."

Second is a new book he has "in press" - Uses and Abuses of Intelligence. Information regarding this publication can be found at the Eye On Society site.

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Wednesday, March 07, 2007

Body parts and IQ

The following is a guest blog post by Joel Schneider (Clinical psychologist, Illinois State University), a member of IQs Corner Virtual Community of Scholars project.

What do your fingers, palms, ears, ankles, and elbows have to do with your intelligence?

Every once in a while researchers report something about intelligence that is startling and weird: symmetrical people tend to score higher on IQ tests than people whose fingers, palms, ears, ankles, and elbows are differently sized. Of all the things associated with intelligence, being symmetrical does not usually leap to mind. Now, if an unexpected finding comes from only one study with a small sample, it is probably a fluke. However, if three different research teams with 5 different samples all report the same thing, the finding deserves serious attention. This is now the case with the correlation of intelligence with symmetry (Bates, 2007).

It is no small feat of engineering that our genes are able to get our body parts that come in pairs (arms, legs, ears, eyes, etc.) to be roughly the same size and stay that way throughout our development. It is true that developmental processes fail to get it exactly right in everyone all the time, but it is amazing that it works at all. When one side of the body is substantially larger than the other, it is not usually due to abnormal genes but is instead the result of an environmentally caused disturbance of development such as exposure to a parasite, a toxin, a stroke, or any number of stressors that strike at random. For each individual, we can measure the size differences between body part pairs and calculate an overall measure of asymmetry. This overall measure, called fluctuating asymmetry, is hypothesized to be a rough index of how much biological stress an individual has endured during development, particularly during pregnancy and infancy. The logic behind the connection between intelligence and fluctuating asymmetry goes something like this: the kinds of stressors that result in asymmetry might also have an effect on the brain. Therefore, when we see a very asymmetrical person, it is likely that the processes that disrupted development in the person's body, have have also (but not necessary) disrupted aspects of brain development that lead to lower IQ test scores.

Before we get carried away with this finding and starting using calipers to make hiring and college admission decisions, it is important to remember that the kinds of correlations found in these studies, although substantial enough (between .2 and .4) to be scientifically interesting, are not sufficiently strong to suggest that fluctuating asymmetry measures should be used for decisions about individuals, especially in the absence of other information. In the Bates (2007) study, it appeared that highly symmetrical people tended to score higher on intelligence tests but could also score low. In contrast, highly asymmetrical people almost always scored lower on IQ tests. Thus, it appears that asymmetry is a signal that something may have gone wrong with brain development but being symmetrical does not necessarily mean that a person is highly intelligent.

  • Bates, T. C. (2007). Fluctuating asymmetry and intelligence, Intelligence, 35, 41-46. (click here to view)

Abstract

  • The general factor of mental ability (g) may reflect general biological fitness. If so, g-loaded measures such as Raven's progressive matrices should be related to morphological measures of fitness such as fluctuating asymmetry (FA: left–right asymmetry of a set of typically left–right symmetrical body traits such as finger lengths). This prediction of a negative correlation between FA and IQ was confirmed in two independent samples, with correlations of −0.41 and −0.29, respectively. Head size also predicted Raven's scores but this relationship appeared to be mediated by FA. It is concluded that g along with correlated variables such as head size are in large part a reflection of a more general fitness factor influencing the growth and maintenance of all bodily systems, with brain function being an especially sensitive indicator of this fitness factor.

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Friday, February 02, 2007

Dr. Raven's 3-20/21-07 education policy seminar

In a prior post I made mention of a forthcoming two-day seminar by Dr. John Raven at the University of Minnesota. Dr. Steve Hughes has now provided a description about this seminar. A summary of the presentation is listed below, along with links to a more detailed ad flyer and registration information.

The Learning Society: How Educators Can Help Our Children Save the Planet (click here for more info)

John Raven, Ph.D.
College of Human Ecology
University of Edinburgh

March 20-21, 9:00-4:30
Room 156, Continuing Education and Conference Center,
1890 Buford Avenue, University of Minnesota, St. Paul Campus
(click here for link to registration)

  • "Join world famous author, researcher, and Competency-Based Education expert John Raven for a special two-day workshop designed for educational policymakers and practitioners. Learn about cutting-edge techniques from organizational psychology that help create a vibrant and innovative educational system — a system where children develop the awareness, confidence, and leadership skills necessary to address meaningful, real-world problems: Problems that will define (or destroy) the future of human life on Earth."
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Friday, January 26, 2007

Ravens test and Flynn Effect webcast

Thanks to Dr. Steve Hughes, Director of Research, The TOVA Company, and Assistant Professor of Pediatrics, University of Minnesota Medical School, for the follow-up to a prior IQ's Corner post that announced the webcast of a presentation by Dr. John Raven on the topic "The Raven Progressive Matrices and the Flynn Effect: Review and Recent Research."

Dr. Hughes just dropped me an email altering me to the fact that the entire 90 minute webcast is now archived and available for viewing via the University of Minnesota BREEZE technology server (click here to view).

In addition, it appears that Dr. Raven will be back in Minnesota in March for a two day seminar that expands on some of this material, and covers more territory on fostering high-level competencies, effective educational environments and how to change the education system to actually produce such outcomes. When I know more, I will make a post with specific information.

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Thursday, December 07, 2006

Flynn Effect and Ravens test webcast

The Raven Progressive Matrices and the Flynn Effect: Review and Recent Research . Thursday, December 7th 2:30 PM Central Standard Time (Minneapolis/Chicago time)

Description
  • For more than 20 years, it has been known that IQ is increasing in many countries around the world at the rate of about three standard score points per decade. For the same length of time, debate has raged over the underlying causes and meaning of this effect. While the degree of improvement is not uniform, and there is some suggestion that the effect may be diminishing or reversing in some regions, the "Flynn Effect" nevertheless is accepted as a real phenomenon that defies simple explanation.
  • In this special, 90 minute presentation, Dr. John Raven of the University of Edinburgh, will present wide-ranging data Raven Progressive Matrices normative studies --and a host of other sources--to provide a compelling explanation of the Flynn effect and address recent claims that the effect may be diminishing. This will be a remarkable lecture by a speaker whose grasp of source material is almost unparalleled.
  • Dr. Raven is presenting as a special lecturer for the University of Minnesota Medical School Psychology Internship didactic seminar series, however, all are invited to attend live or tune-in via the webcast. The event occurs on Thursday, December 7th, 2:30 to 4:00 CST. Room 12-109/12-115, Phillips-Wangensteen Building, University of Minnesota Medical School campus.
  • View the webcast by clicking here. You may log in as a guest. You may be prompted to install the Breeze meeting add-in. Remote attendees will be able to submit questions via the "chat" interface. The webcast will be recorded for later viewing.
  • For more information, contact Steve Hughes at 612-625-4287 or sjh@umn.edu.
  • Thanks to the TOVA Company for providing equipment used for this webcast.
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Saturday, June 25, 2005

Fluid reasoning (Gf) performance and response generation speed

During the past few months this blogmaster has provided a number of empirically-based insights regarding individual differences in fluid reasoning (Gf) performance.

Below is yet another potentialy usefull Gf interpretation tidbit.

Verguts, T. & De Boeck, P. (2000). Generation Speed in Raven's Progressive Matrices Test.
Intelligence, 27(4), 329-345.

  • Performance on fluid reasoning (Gf) tests (e.g., Ravens Progressive Matrices-RPM) may be enhanced by the speed/fluency by which individuals identify rules that govern Gf test items. When faced with fluid reasoning tasks, individuals are viewed to have, at their disposal, a pool or distribution of rules from which to select. The fluency by which an individual “samples” or generates rules (response generation speed) was statistically linked to Gf performance in Verguts and De Boeck’s (2000) study in a sample of 127 undergraduate students.
  • This finding is not new. As early as 1898 (Thorndike) noted that in order to generate correct responses to problems, an individual must first generate a number of possibilities, retain them, and then implement the correct possibility/rule. Verbal response fluency has been studied extensively (see Carroll, 1993 for an overview) while Gf-related fluency has not.
  • Verguts and DeBoeck (2000) suggest that “If…rules are compared with balls in an urn, this means that people sample balls from an urn. Individual differences in the generation process can be thought of as sampling from different urns (qualitative differences) or at different rate (quantitative differences)” (p.330).
  • These investigators demonstrated that response or rule generation speed was correlated with Gf performance (viz., RPM test performance), particularly on items/tasks where discovering the rule(s) is more challenging. However, speed of rule generation should be considered a necessary, but not sufficient condition, for optimal Gf performance. According to these investigators, other variables that may influence rule generation fluency/speed may include individual differences in (a) the quality of rules sampled and (b) the accuracy of applying the generated results (which may be related to working memory efficiency).