Tuesday, March 24, 2020

PsyArXiv Preprints | Review of Modern Psychometrics with R

https://psyarxiv.com/msba7/


Sent from my iPhone

Best practices in gifted identification and assessment: Lessons from the WISC‐V - Silverman - - Psychology in the Schools - Wiley Online Library


https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/pits.22361

Abstract

School psychologists in today's schools have the unique opportunity—and responsibility—to guide identification for gifted programs. "Who is gifted?" remains a perennial question in the gifted education literature, not answered by group intelligence screeners that purportedly level the playing field for all. As the student body grows more diverse, there is increasing necessity to ensure that all students have equal access to gifted programs. Failure to identify and develop the advanced abilities of gifted children who are culturally diverse, economically deprived, highly gifted, or twice exceptional is justifiably viewed as a civil rights violation. The National Association for Gifted Children's 2018 position statement, "Use of the WISC‐V for Gifted and Twice Exceptional Identification," offers important considerations for identifying the gifted. Based on a national research study of 390 gifted children on the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, Fifth Edition (WISC‐V), the statement recommends that the traditional practice of mandating Full Scale intelligence quotient scores be abandoned. Instead, it embraces the use of any one of six expanded index scores that are better measures of abstract reasoning for selecting students for gifted provisions. As gifted children are oftentimes asynchronous, alternate index scores are less biased and better able to document the strengths of all gifted children. What is learned from the WISC‐V can be applied by school psychologists to improve the choice of comprehensive individual intelligence tests, brief intelligence tests, and the body of evidence gifted children must exhibit.


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A primer on assessing intelligence in laboratory studies - ScienceDirect


https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0160289620300180

Abstract

This paper is an attempt to provide a brief guide to major conceptual and statistical problems that are unique to the study of individual differences in intelligence and various intellectual abilities, in the context of laboratory experimental studies, and to suggest strategies to successfully navigate these problems. Such studies are generally designed so that the goal is to evaluate the relationships between individual differences in basic task performance or related markers on the one hand, and individual differences in intellectual abilities on the other hand. Issues discussed in this paper include: restriction-of-range in talent, method variance and facet theory; speed vs. power; regression to the mean; extreme-groups designs; difference scores; differences in correlations; significant vs. meaningful correlations; factor- pure tests; and criterion variables. A list of representative "do" and "don't" recommendations is provided to help guide the design and evaluation of laboratory studies.



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Saturday, March 14, 2020

Sleep and intelligence: critical review and future directions - ScienceDirect

Sleep and intelligence: critical review and future directions - ScienceDirect
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2352154620300097


General cognitive ability — or intelligence — is a key psychological phenotype. Individual differences in intelligence may either cause or be a consequence of individual differences in the macrostructure of sleep, such as timing or duration. Furthermore, biological measures of sleep, especially highly trait-like sleep EEG oscillations may provide insights about the biological underpinnings of intelligence. Here we review the current state of research on the association between sleep measures and intelligence. We concluded that the macrostructure of sleep has a small but consistent correlation with intelligence, which is possibly moderated by age. Sleep spindle amplitude and possibly other sleep EEG measures are biomarkers of intelligence. We close by discussing methodological pitfalls of the field, and give recommendations for future directions.

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Kevin S. McGrew, PhD
Educational & School Psychologist
Director
Institute for Applied Psychometrics (IAP)
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Thursday, March 12, 2020

Sunday, March 08, 2020

Worry alters speed-accuracy tradeoffs but does not impair sustained attention

Worry alters speed-accuracy tradeoffs but does not impair sustained attention
https://flip.it/mtUd3z

******************************************
Kevin S. McGrew, PhD
Educational & School Psychologist
Director
Institute for Applied Psychometrics (IAP)
******************************************


Saturday, March 07, 2020

The factor structure of cognitive functioning in cognitively healthy participants: A meta-analysis and meta-analysis of individual participant data. - PsycNET

The factor structure of cognitive functioning in cognitively healthy participants: A meta-analysis and meta-analysis of individual participant data. - PsycNET
https://psycnet.apa.org/record/2020-07834-001

The CHC model strikes again!!!

Citation

Agelink van Rentergem, J. A., de Vent, N. R., Schmand, B. A., Murre, J. M. J., Staaks, J. P. C., & Huizenga, H. M. (2020). The factor structure of cognitive functioning in cognitively healthy participants: A meta-analysis and meta-analysis of individual participant data. Neuropsychology Review. Advance online publication. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11065-019-09423-6

Abstract

AbstractMany neuropsychologists are of the opinion that the multitude of cognitive tests may be grouped into a much smaller number of cognitive domains. However, there is little consensus on how many domains exist, what these domains are, nor on which cognitive tests belong to which domain. This incertitude can be solved by factor analysis, provided that the analysis includes a broad range of cognitive tests that have been administered to a very large number of people. In this article, two such factor analyses were performed, each combining multiple studies. However, because it was not possible to obtain complete multivariate data on more than the most common test variables in the field, not all possible domains were examined here. The first analysis was a factor meta-analysis of correlation matrices combining data of 60,398 healthy participants from 52 studies. Several models from the literature were fitted, of which a version based on the Cattell-Horn-Carroll (CHC) model was found to describe the correlations better than the others. The second analysis was a factor analysis of the Advanced Neuropsychological Diagnostics Infrastructure (ANDI) database, combining scores of 11,881 participants from 54 Dutch and Belgian studies not included in the first meta-analysis. Again, the model fit was better for the CHC model than for other models. Therefore, we conclude that the CHC model best characterizes both cognitive domains and which test belongs to each domain. Therefore, although originally developed in the intelligence literature, the CHC model deserves more attention in neuropsychology. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved)


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Kevin S. McGrew, PhD
Educational & School Psychologist
Director
Institute for Applied Psychometrics (IAP)
******************************************


Thursday, March 05, 2020

Book Nook: General and Specific Mental Abilities - McFarland (Ed)-


 

Book Description

The history of testing mental abilities has seen the dominance of two contrasting approaches, psychometrics and neuropsychology. These two traditions have different theories and methodologies, but overlap considerably in the tests they use. Historically, psychometrics has emphasized the primacy of a general factor, while neuropsychology has emphasized specific abilities that are dissociable. This issue about the nature of human mental abilities is important for many practical concerns. Questions such as gender, ethnic, and age-related differences in mental abilities are relatively easy to address if they are due to a single dominant trait. Presumably such a trait can be measured with any collection of complex cognitive tests. If there are many specific mental abilities, these would be much harder to measure and associated social issues would be more difficult to resolve. The relative importance of general and specific abilities also has implications for educational practices. This book includes the diverse opinions of experts from several fields including psychometrics, neuropsychology, speech language and hearing, and applied psychology.

Saturday, February 29, 2020

Spatial ability (Gv) and math (Gq; Gf-RQ): A meta-analysis






Fang Xie & Li Zhang  & Xu Chen & Ziqiang Xin


Abstract

The relationship between spatial and mathematical ability is controversial. Thus, the current study conducted a meta-analysis of 73 studies, with 263 effect sizes to explore the relationship between spatial and mathematical ability. Furthermore, we explored potential factors that moderate this relationship. Results showed that the relationship between mathematical and spatial ability was not simply linear. Specifically, logical reasoning had a stronger association with spatial ability than numerical or arithmetic ability with spatial ability. Intrinsic-dynamic, intrinsic-static, extrinsic-dynamic, extrinsic-static spatial ability, and visual–spatial memory showed comparable associations with mathematical ability. The association between spatial and mathematical ability showed no differences between children, adolescents, and adults and no differences between typically developing individuals and individuals with developmental disabilities. The implications of these findings for theory and practice are discussed.

Keywords Spatial ability . Mathematical ability . Meta-analysis . robumeta package . Spatial training.


Implications for Theory and Practice

“Our study can shed light on our understanding of the relationship between spatial and mathematical abilities. The relationship between spatial and mathematical abilities is not simply linear. Our moderation analyses suggested that logical reasoning was more strongly associated with spatial ability than numerical and arithmetical ability. As such, when examin-ing the mechanism of the association between spatial and mathematical ability, each domain of mathematical ability should be separately examined. The current study has important educational implications. Although we did not prove the causal relationship between spatial and mathematical ability, our findings might provide some pedagogical suggestions about how to train spatial ability to improve children's mathematical abilities. Notably, a recent intervention study by Sorby et al. (2018) demonstrated the positive effect of spatial interventions on STEM-related skills, and several studies have shown that spatial training can improve mathematical achievement (Cheng and Mix 2014; Clements et al. 2011; Sorby and Baartmans 2000). Firstly, our findings shed light on what kind of spatial ability training should be chosen. The current study indicated that different domains of spatial ability are associated with mathemat-ical ability to a similar degree. Therefore, training in other domains of spatial ability, not just intrinsic-dynamic spatial abilities (Cheng and Mix 2014; Clements et al. 2011; Taylor and Hutton 2013), should be encouraged in educational practice. Further, our findings shed light on when to begin spatial ability training. This study showed that the close association between spatial and mathematical abilities exists in childhood and adolescence. Therefore, spatial training can be beneficial for both children and adolescents. For children, spatial training can be rooted in the real world to develop direct experience by using regular activities such as paper folding, paper cutting (Burte et al. 2017), and Lego construction (Nath and Szücs 2014). For adoles-cents, it is better to carry out spatial training through comprehensive courses involving theory and practice in a series of spatial skills (Miller and Halpern 2013; Patkin and Dayan 2013; Sorby et al. 2013).”

Educational Psychology Review

Ethical Practice in Forensic Psychology: A Guide for Mental Health Professionals, Second Edition

Ethical Practice in Forensic Psychology: A Guide for Mental Health Professionals, Second Edition
https://www.apa.org/pubs/books/4312028?tab=4



******************************************
Kevin S. McGrew, PhD
Educational & School Psychologist
Director
Institute for Applied Psychometrics (IAP)
******************************************


Friday, February 28, 2020

Fluid intelligence is associated with cortical volume and white matter tract integrity within multiple-demand system across adult lifespan - ScienceDirect

Fluid intelligence is associated with cortical volume and white matter tract integrity within multiple-demand system across adult lifespan - ScienceDirect
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S105381192030063X

******************************************
Kevin S. McGrew, PhD
Educational & School Psychologist
Director
Institute for Applied Psychometrics (IAP)
******************************************


Sunday, February 16, 2020

Flawed science? Two efforts launched to improve scientific validity of psychological test evidence in court https://forensicpsychologist.blogspot.com/2020/02/flawed-science-two-efforts-launched-to.html

Flawed science? Two efforts launched to improve scientific validity of psychological test evidence in court https://forensicpsychologist.blogspot.com/2020/02/flawed-science-two-efforts-launched-to.html

******************************************
Kevin S. McGrew, PhD
Educational & School Psychologist
Director
Institute for Applied Psychometrics (IAP)
******************************************


Spatial navigation ability predicts progression of dementia symptomatology

Spatial navigation ability predicts progression of dementia symptomatology
https://flip.it/eV9Piy

******************************************
Kevin S. McGrew, PhD
Educational & School Psychologist
Director
Institute for Applied Psychometrics (IAP)
******************************************