Tuesday, October 20, 2020

The comparative analysis of intelligence. - PsycNET

 The comparative analysis of intelligence. - PsycNET 
https://psycnet.apa.org/record/2020-77459-001


Flaim, Mary Blaisdell, Aaron P.
Citation
Flaim, M., & Blaisdell, A. P. (2020). The comparative analysis of intelligence. Psychological Bulletin. Advance online publication. https://doi.org/10.1037/bul0000306

Abstract
The study of intelligence in humans has been ongoing for over 100 years, including the underlying structure, predictive validity, related cognitive measures, and source of differences. One of the key findings in intelligence research is the uniform positive correlations among cognitive tasks. This has been replicated with every cognitive test battery in humans. Nevertheless, many other aspects of intelligence research have revealed contradictory lines of evidence. Recently, cognitive test batteries have been developed for animals to examine similarities to humans in cognitive structure. The results are inconsistent, but there is evidence for some similarities. This article reviews the way intelligence and related cognitive abilities are assessed in humans and animals and suggests a different way of devising test batteries for maximizing between-species comparisons. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved)

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Kevin S. McGrew, PhD
Educational & School Psychologist
Director
Institute for Applied Psychometrics (IAP)
https://www.themindhub.com
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Monday, October 19, 2020

Exercise and fluid intelligence (Gf)



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Kevin McGrew, PhD
Educational Psychologist
Director, Institute for Applied Psychometrics
IAP
www.themindhub.com
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Friday, October 02, 2020

Rhythmic timing in aging adults: On the role of cognitive functioning and structural brain integrity. - PsycNET

https://psycnet.apa.org/record/2020-73180-001

Rhythmic timing in aging adults: On the role of cognitive functioning and structural brain integrity.


First PostingDatabase: APA PsycArticles



Schirmer, Annett Romero-Garcia, Rafael Chiu, Man Hey Escoffier, Nicolas Penney, Trevor B. Goh, Benjamin Suckling, John Tan, Jasmine Feng, Lei

Citation

Schirmer, A., Romero-Garcia, R., Chiu, M. H., Escoffier, N., Penney, T. B., Goh, B., Suckling, J., Tan, J., & Feng, L. (2020). Rhythmic timing in aging adults: On the role of cognitive functioning and structural brain integrity. Psychology and Aging. Advance online publication. https://doi.org/10.1037/pag0000575

Abstract

Here we asked whether impaired timing in older adults results from an aging clock or a more general brain and cognitive decline. Healthy aging adults (N = 70, aged 62–83 years) tapped to the beat of a periodic and a syncopated rhythm. Analyses focused on performance differences between rhythms (periodic-syncopated), which reduced the impact of timing unrelated processes. Apart from tapping, participants completed a cognitive assessment and neuroimaging of gray matter volume (GMV) and fractional anisotropy (FA) globally as well as regionally (cortical: auditory, premotor, paracentral; subcortical: putamen, caudate, cerebellum). The rhythm difference showed no significant age effects for tapping asynchrony and an age-related decrease for tapping consistency. Additionally, age reduced cognitive functioning, global GMV/FA, and, beyond this, auditory GMV. Irrespective of age, the rhythm difference in tapping asynchrony was linked, not to GMV, but to caudal, premotor, and paracentral FA after controlling for global FA. Tapping consistency was associated with global rather than regional brain integrity. Additionally, age differences in tapping consistency were mediated by a decline in global brain integrity as well as cognitive functioning. Together these results agree with previous proposals differentiating between timing accuracy and reliability and suggest that aging largely preserves the former but not the latter. Whereas timing accuracy may depend on an internal clock supported by robust striatocortical circuitry, timing reliability may depend on global brain and cognitive functioning, which show a pronounced age-related decline. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved)



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Kevin McGrew, PhD
Educational Psychologist
Director, Institute for Applied Psychometrics
IAP
www.themindhub.com
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Friday, September 18, 2020

Teleassessment with children and adolescents during the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic and beyond: Practice and policy implications.

 Teleassessment with children and adolescents during the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic and beyond: Practice and policy implications. 
https://psycnet.apa.org/fulltext/2020-69507-001.html

Abstract

Due to physical distancing guidelines, the closure of nonessential businesses, and the closure of public schools, the role of telehealth for the delivery of psychological services for children has never been more debated. However, the transition to teleassessment is more complicated for some types of assessment than others. For instance, the remote administration of achievement and intelligence testsis a relatively recent adaptation of telehealth, and despite recommendations for rapid adoption by some policymakers and publishing companies, caution and careful consideration of individual and contextual variables and the existing research literature, as well as measurement, cultural and linguistic, and legal and ethical issues, is warranted. The decision to use remotely administered achievement and intelligence tests is best made on a case-by-case basis after consideration of these factors. We discuss each of these issues as well as implications for practice and policy, as well as issue provisional guidance for consideration for publishing companies interested in these endeavors moving forward.
Public Significance Statement

The current review describes a number of factors that may reduce the accuracy of standardized tests, like intelligence tests, when they are given remotely. Additionally, it highlights the importance of considering the purpose of assessment, client cultural and linguistic background, as well as ethical and legal decision making, on the use and interpretation of standardized test results

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Kevin S. McGrew, PhD
Educational & School Psychologist
Director
Institute for Applied Psychometrics (IAP)
https://www.themindhub.com
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Differential patterns of growth in reading and math skills during elementary school. - PsycNET

 Differential patterns of growth in reading and math skills during elementary school. - PsycNET 
https://psycnet.apa.org/record/2020-68825-001

Abstract
This study investigated developmental trajectories of reading and math using latent-growth-curve analyses across multiple academic skills, measures, and multiple time periods within a single sample. Reading-related growth was marked by significant individual differences during the early elementary-school period and nonsignificant individual differences during the late elementary-school period. For math-related skills, nonsignificant individual differences were present for early math growth and significant individual differences were present in late elementary-school. No clear pattern of cumulative, compensatory, or stable development emerged for either reading-related or math skills. These differing growth patterns highlight developmental complexities and suggest domain-specific differences in achievement growth that are potentially associated with contextual factors. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved)

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Kevin S. McGrew, PhD
Educational & School Psychologist
Director
Institute for Applied Psychometrics (IAP)
https://www.themindhub.com
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Tuesday, September 15, 2020

Grit: A Concept Analysis: Issues in Mental Health Nursing: Vol 0, No 0

FYI.  Recent meta-analysis suggests grit may be more or less isomorphic with Big 5 personality trait of conscientious.  Some jingle jangle fallacy afoot. 

 Grit: A Concept Analysis: Issues in Mental Health Nursing: Vol 0, No 0 
https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/01612840.2020.1814913

Abstract
The concept of grit, defined as having passion and perseverance for long-term goals, has gained significant recognition in recent years. The idea that being gritty is ultimately more important than innate talent to achieve goals has widespread appeal. This review examined the concept of grit to clarify relationships between constructs and identify future opportunities for research. A systematic search across five databases including CINAHL, PsycINFO, PubMed, Scopus and Web of Science yielded 422 records. After screening and assessment for eligibility, 42 articles were retained and reviewed using the Walker and Avant method for concept analysis. Results provided support for passion, perseverance and long-term goals as defining attributes of grit, along with an extensive nomological network of antecedents, consequences, and mediating and moderating variables. Positive thoughts, behaviours and habits appear to play a key preparatory role in achieving long-term goals. Grit was associated with reduced burnout and depression, improved performance and well-being. Further research is needed to understand the best practice approaches for developing grit at both an individual and collective level.

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Kevin S. McGrew, PhD
Educational & School Psychologist
Director
Institute for Applied Psychometrics (IAP)
https://www.themindhub.com
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Tuesday, September 08, 2020

Wednesday, August 05, 2020

Welcome to Channel g. Dr. Andrew Conway on Intelligence. Stay tuned

Welcome to Channel g
https://www.psychologytoday.com/us/blog/channel-g/202008/welcome-channel-g

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Kevin S. McGrew, PhD
Educational & School Psychologist
Director
Institute for Applied Psychometrics (IAP)
https://www.themindhub.com
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Monday, August 03, 2020

The Neuropsychological Norms for the U.S.-Mexico Border Region in Spanish (NP-NUMBRS) Project: Overview and considerations for life span research and evidence-based practice: The Clinical Neuropsychologist: Vol 0, No 0

 The Neuropsychological Norms for the U.S.-Mexico Border Region in Spanish (NP-NUMBRS) Project: Overview and considerations for life span research and evidence-based practice: The Clinical Neuropsychologist: Vol 0, No 0 
https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/13854046.2020.1794046

Objective

This paper summarizes the findings of the Neuropsychological Norms for the U.S.-Mexico Border Region in Spanish (NP-NUMBRS) Project and offers a roadmap for future research.

Methods

The NP-NUMBRS project represents the largest and most comprehensive co-normed neuropsychological battery to date for native Spanish-speaking healthy adults from the U.S. (California/Arizona)-Mexico borderland region (N = 254; ages 19–60 years). These norms provide demographic adjustments for tests across numerous domains (i.e., verbal fluency, processing speed, attention/working memory, executive function, episodic memory [learning and delayed recall], visuospatial, and fine motor skills).

Conclusions

This project: 1) shows that the NP-NUMBRS norms consistently outperformed previously published norms for English-speaking non-Hispanic (White and African-American) adults in identifying impairment; 2) explores the role of Spanish-English bilingualism in test performance; and 3) provides support for the diagnostic validity of these norms in detecting HIV-associated neurocognitive impairment. Study limitations include the limited assessment of sociocultural variables and generalizability (e.g., other Latina/o populations, age limit [19 − 60 years]). Future research is needed to: 1) investigate these norms with U.S.-dwelling Spanish-speakers of non-Mexican heritage and other clinical subpopulations; 2) expand coverage of cognitive domains (e.g. language, visuospatial); 3) develop large normative datasets for children and older Latina/o populations; 4) examine how sociocultural factors impact performance (e.g., bilingualism, acculturation); 5) investigate these norms' diagnostic and ecological validity; and 6) develop norms for neurocognitive change across time. It is hoped that the NP-NUMBRS norms will aid researchers and clinicians working with U.S.-dwelling Spanish-speakers from the U.S.-Mexico borderland to conduct research and evidence-based neuropsychological evaluations in a more culturally responsive and ethical manner.