Thursday, December 01, 2022

Ongoing trends of human intelligence - ScienceDirect

 Ongoing trends of human intelligence - ScienceDirect 
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0160289622000897?via%3Dihub

Abstract
The aim of the study is to estimate the most recent trends of intelligence world-wide. We find that the most recent studies report mainly positive Flynn effects in economically less developed countries, but trivial and frequently negative Flynn effects in the economically most advanced countries. This is confirmed by an analysis of 48 countries in the 2000–2018 PISA tests, showing that high pre-existing IQ and school achievement are the best predictors of declining test scores. IQ gaps between countries are still large (e.g., 19 IQ points in PISA between East Asia and South Asia) but are diminishing world-wide. We predict that these trends, observed in adolescents today, will reduce cognitive gaps between the working-age populations of countries and world regions during coming decades. As is predicted by the well-established relationship between intelligence and economic growth, there is already evidence that the ongoing cognitive convergence is paralleled by global economic convergence. These developments raise questions as to how long this cognitive and economic convergence will continue, whether it will eliminate cognitive and economic gaps between countries entirely, and whether a condition with high levels of cognitive ability and economic prosperity is sustainable long-term.

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Kevin S. McGrew, PhD
Educational & School Psychologist
Director
Institute for Applied Psychometrics (IAP)
https://www.themindhub.com
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Tuesday, November 15, 2022

Domain-specificity of Flynn effects in the CHC-model: Stratum II test score changes in Germanophone samples (1996–2018) - ScienceDirect

 Domain-specificity of Flynn effects in the CHC-model: Stratum II test score changes in Germanophone samples (1996–2018) - ScienceDirect 
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0160289622000885

Generational IQ test score changes (the Flynn effect) were globally positive over large parts of the 20th century. However, accumulating evidence of recent studies shows a rather inconsistent pattern in past decades. Patterns of recently observed test score changes appeared to be markedly different in strength and even signs between countries and domains. Because of between-study design differences and data availability in terms of differing IQ domains, it is so far unclear if these inconsistencies represent a consequence of differences in Flynn effect trajectories between countries, covered time-spans, or investigated IQ domains. Here, we present data from 36 largely population-representative Germanophone standardization samples from 12 well-established psychometric tests (17 subtests) of 10 stratum II domains from 1996 to 2018, thus providing a comprehensive assessment of domain-specific changes according to the Cattell-Horn-Carroll intelligence model. Examination of both raw score and measurement-invariant latent mean changes yielded positive (comprehension-knowledge, learning-efficiency, domain-specific knowledge), negative (working memory capacity), stagnating (processing speed, reading and writing), and ambiguous (fluid reasoning, reaction and decision speed, quantitative knowledge, visual processing) stratum II Flynn effects. This means that in the present sample, the Flynn effect is surprisingly differentiated on domain level and does not conform to the frequently observed IQ test score gains in crystallized and fluid intelligence. These findings could be attributed to either (i) a so far undetected domain-specificity of the Flynn effect due to an unavailability of test data beyond crystallized and fluid domains or (ii) a symptom for an impending stagnation of the Flynn effect.

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Kevin S. McGrew, PhD
Educational & School Psychologist
Director
Institute for Applied Psychometrics (IAP)
https://www.themindhub.com
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Sunday, November 13, 2022

Frontiers | The relation between rhythm processing and cognitive abilities during child development: The role of prediction

 Frontiers | The relation between rhythm processing and cognitive abilities during child development: The role of prediction 
https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fpsyg.2022.920513/full

Rhythm and meter are central elements of music. From the very beginning, children are responsive to rhythms and acquire increasingly complex rhythmic skills over the course of development. Previous research has shown that the processing of musical rhythm is not only related to children's music-specific responses but also to their cognitive abilities outside the domain of music. However, despite a lot of research on that topic, the connections and underlying mechanisms involved in such relation are still unclear in some respects. In this article, we aim at analyzing the relation between rhythmic and cognitive-motor abilities during childhood and at providing a new hypothesis about this relation. We consider whether predictive processing may be involved in the relation between rhythmic and various cognitive abilities and hypothesize that prediction as a cross-domain process is a central mechanism building a bridge between rhythm processing and cognitive-motor abilities. Further empirical studies focusing on rhythm processing and cognitive-motor abilities are needed to precisely investigate the links between rhythmic, predictive, and cognitive processes

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Kevin S. McGrew, PhD
Educational & School Psychologist
Director
Institute for Applied Psychometrics (IAP)
https://www.themindhub.com
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Friday, November 11, 2022

Out-of-level cognitive testing of children with special educational needs.

 Out-of-level cognitive testing of children with special educational needs. 
https://psycnet.apa.org/fulltext/2023-16305-001.html

Children with special educational needs in the area of learning (SEN-L) have severe learning disabilities and often exhibit substantial cognitive impairments. Therefore, standard assessment instruments of basic cognitive abilities designed for regular school children are frequently too complex for them and, thus, unable to provide reliable proficiency estimates. The present study evaluated whether out-of-level testing with the German version of the Cognitive Abilities Test using test versions developed for younger age groups might suit the needs of these children. Therefore, N = 511 children with SEN-L and N = 573 low achieving children without SEN-L attending fifth grades in Germany were administered four tests measuring reasoning and verbal comprehension that were designed for fourth graders. The results showed that children with SEN-L exhibited significantly more missing responses than children without SEN-L. Moreover, three of the four tests were still too difficult for them. Importantly, no substantial differential response functioning was found for children with and without SEN-L. Thus, out-of-level testing might represent a feasible strategy to assess basic cognitive functioning in children with SEN-L. However, comparative interpretations would require additional norms or linked test versions that place results from out-of-level tests on a common metric.

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Kevin S. McGrew, PhD
Educational & School Psychologist
Director
Institute for Applied Psychometrics (IAP)
https://www.themindhub.com
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Tuesday, November 08, 2022

When does working memory get better with longer time? - PsycNET

 When does working memory get better with longer time? - PsycNET 
https://psycnet.apa.org/doiLanding?doi=10.1037%2Fxlm0001199

Longer free time between presentation of verbal list items often leads to better immediate serial recall. The present series of three experiments demonstrates that this beneficial effect of time is more general than has been known: It is found for verbal items presented visually and auditorily (Experiments 1 and 2), and also when people engage in concurrent articulation during presentation, thereby preventing rehearsal (Experiment 3). The effect of time is to improve memory most strongly for the later part of the list, contrary to what is predicted from the assumption that time between items is used to bolster memory traces of already encoded items through rehearsal, refreshing, or elaboration. The data are compatible with a ballistic form of short-term consolidation, and with the assumption that encoding an item into working memory partially depletes a limited resource, which is replenished over time

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Kevin S. McGrew, PhD
Educational & School Psychologist
Director
Institute for Applied Psychometrics (IAP)
https://www.themindhub.com
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Monday, November 07, 2022

Network Models for Cognitive Development and Intelligence

 Network Models for Cognitive Development and Intelligence 
https://dare.uva.nl/search?identifier=781f22ef-02f2-40d2-b0dc-f9b2f03a1d4b

Cronbach's (1957) famous division of scientific psychology into two disciplines is still apparent for the fields of cognition (general mechanisms) and intelligence (dimensionality of individual differences). The welcome integration of the two fields requires the construction of mechanistic models of cognition and cognitive development that explain key phenomena in individual differences research. In this paper, we argue that network modeling is a promising approach to integrate the processes of cognitive development and (developing) intelligence into one unified theory. Network models are defined mathematically, describe mechanisms on the level of the individual, and are able to explain positive correlations among intelligence subtest scores—the empirical basis for the well-known g -factor—as well as more complex factorial structures. Links between network modeling, factor modeling, and item response theory allow for a common metric, encompassing both discrete and continuous characteristics, for cognitive development and intelligence. With low vertical pressure (path a ), switches in the middle point of the are continuous, with high vertical pressure (path b ) they are sudden, exhibiting hysteresis, bimodality, divergence, and other typical characteristics of phase transitions. 

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Kevin S. McGrew, PhD
Educational & School Psychologist
Director
Institute for Applied Psychometrics (IAP)
https://www.themindhub.com
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Thursday, November 03, 2022

Measurement invariance in the social sciences: Historical development, methodological challenges, state of the art, and future perspectives - ScienceDirect

 Measurement invariance in the social sciences: Historical development, methodological challenges, state of the art, and future perspectives - ScienceDirect 
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0049089X22001168

Abstract
This review summarizes the current state of the art of statistical and (survey) methodological research on measurement (non)invariance, which is considered a core challenge for the comparative social sciences. After outlining the historical roots, conceptual details, and standard procedures for measurement invariance testing, the paper focuses in particular on the statistical developments that have been achieved in the last 10 years. These include Bayesian approximate measurement invariance, the alignment method, measurement invariance testing within the multilevel modeling framework, mixture multigroup factor analysis, the measurement invariance explorer, and the response shift-true change decomposition approach. Furthermore, the contribution of survey methodological research to the construction of invariant measurement instruments is explicitly addressed and highlighted, including the issues of design decisions, pretesting, scale adoption, and translation. The paper ends with an outlook on future research perspectives.

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Kevin S. McGrew, PhD
Educational & School Psychologist
Director
Institute for Applied Psychometrics (IAP)
https://www.themindhub.com
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Wednesday, November 02, 2022

From MDPI: "Exploring Neural Signal Complexity as a Potential Link between Creative Thinking, Intelligence, and Cognitive Control"

https://www.mdpi.com/1384150:

Exploring Neural Signal Complexity as a Potential Link between Creative Thinking, Intelligence, and Cognitive ControlFunctional connectivity studies have demonstrated that creative thinking builds upon an interplay of multiple neural networks involving the cognitive control system. Theoretically, cognitive control has generally been discussed as the common basis underlying the positive relationship between creative thinking and intelligence. However, the literature still lacks a detailed investigation of the association patterns between cognitive control, the factors of creative thinking as measured by divergent thinking (DT) tasks, i.e., fluency and originality, and intelligence, both fluid and crystallized. In the present study, we explored these relationships at the behavioral and the neural level, based on N = 77 young adults. We focused on brain-signal complexity (BSC), parameterized by multi-scale entropy (MSE), as measured during a verbal DT and a cognitive control task. We demonstrated that MSE is a sensitive neural indicator of originality as well as inhibition. Then, we explore the relationships between MSE and factor scores indicating DT and intelligence. In a series of across-scalp analyses, we show that the overall MSE measured during a DT task, as well as MSE[...]


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Kevin McGrew, PhD
Educational Psychologist
Director, Institute for Applied Psychometrics
IAP
www.themindhub.com
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Friday, October 28, 2022

Assessment: The power and potential of psychological testing, educational measurement, and program evaluation around the world. - PsycNET

 Assessment: The power and potential of psychological testing, educational measurement, and program evaluation around the world. - PsycNET 
https://psycnet.apa.org/doiLanding?doi=10.1037%2F0000311-003

Assessment is a broad, globally relevant, and much-needed area of inquiry and practice—with tremendous power and potential. Psychologists are leaders and experts in assessment, with specialized knowledge in research design; statistics; and, of course, psychological testing, measurement, and evaluation. This chapter discusses assessment broadly, focusing on its centrality to psychology and research. It also discusses contemporary national assessment practices considering the "big four" specialties: clinical, counseling, school, and industrial/organizational psychology. The chapter presents basic competencies, including what applied psychologists do in the United States. It discusses three important international assessment topics: psychological testing, educational measurement, and program evaluation. The chapter explains cross-cultural issues in assessment, including test translation and adaptation. It highlights challenges, opportunities, and cutting edge exemplars, including therapeutic assessment, formative educational testing and item development, and transformative program evaluation. The chapter offers practical suggestions for developing global assessment competencies and participating in the international assessment community. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved)

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Kevin S. McGrew, PhD
Educational & School Psychologist
Director
Institute for Applied Psychometrics (IAP)
https://www.themindhub.com
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Thursday, October 27, 2022

Social and Emotional Variables as Predictors of Students’ Perceived Cognitive Competence and Academic Performance - Maryam Hachem, Guher Gorgun, Man-Wai Chu, Okan Bulut, 2022

 Social and Emotional Variables as Predictors of Students' Perceived Cognitive Competence and Academic Performance - Maryam Hachem, Guher Gorgun, Man-Wai Chu, Okan Bulut, 2022 
https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1177/08295735221118474

Abstract

Research extensively highlights the importance of social-emotional skills in learning and development. In this study, we evaluated whether social and emotional variables directly impact students' perceived cognitive competence and academic performance through a structural equation model. Survey responses (N = 29,384) were collected from 114 K-12 schools in a large school district in Alberta. Results showed that cognitive competence was directly predicted by social cognition and social competence but indirectly by emotional competence through the mediating effect of social competence. Academic performance was also directly predicted by social cognition. Cognitive competence was positively associated with academic emotions, while academic performance was negatively associated with them. Overall, our findings suggest that learning is a highly social process, and investing in the development of social-emotional skills must be a priority, with a primary focus on creating positive and supportive learning environments. Future research may adjust this model and target more specific social-emotional variables. 

Study is relevant to my prior publication regarding CAMML (Cognitive-Affective-Motivation Model of Learning)

******************************************
Kevin S. McGrew, PhD
Educational & School Psychologist
Director
Institute for Applied Psychometrics (IAP)
https://www.themindhub.com
******************************************