Tuesday, November 24, 2020

Are individual differences in attention control related to working memory capacity? A latent variable mega-analysis. - PsycNET

And yet more good research implicating attentional control (AC under Gwm in CHC taxonomy) as central to human intelligence.

Are individual differences in attention control related to working memory capacity? A latent variable mega-analysis. - PsycNET 
https://psycnet.apa.org/record/2020-86314-001

Citation
Unsworth, N., Miller, A. L., & Robison, M. K. (2020). Are individual differences in attention control related to working memory capacity? A latent variable mega-analysis. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General.Advance online publication. https://doi.org/10.1037/xge0001000

Abstract
The current study examined whether there are coherent individual differences in attention control abilities and whether they are related to variation in working memory capacity. Data were pooled from multiple studies over 12 years of data collection. Mega-analyses on the combined data set suggested that most of the attention control measures had adequate reliabilities and were weakly to moderately related to one another. A number of latent variable mega-analyses suggested that the attention control measures loaded onto a broad attention control factor and this factor was consistently related to working memory capacity. Furthermore, working memory capacity was generally related to each individual attention control measure. These results provide important evidence for the notion that there is a coherent attention control factor and this factor is related to working memory capacity consistent with much prior research. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved)

******************************************
Kevin S. McGrew, PhD
Educational & School Psychologist
Director
Institute for Applied Psychometrics (IAP)
https://www.themindhub.com
******************************************

Saturday, November 07, 2020

More support for the Gs—>Gwm—>—Gf/ Gc developmental cascade model as per CHC taxonomy

 More support for the developmental cascade model


Speed of processing, control of processing, working memory and crystallized and fluid intelligence: Evidence for a developmental cascade 

Anna Tourva, George Spanoudis
 
Keywords: Fluid intelligence Crystallized intelligence Working memory Speed of processing Executive attention Developmental-cascade model 

A B S T R A C T  

The present study investigated the causal relations among age, speed of processing, control of processing, working memory and intelligence, fluid and crystallized. 158 participants aged from 7 to 18 years old completed a large battery of tests measuring latent factors of speed, control of processing and working memory. Intelligence was assessed using the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence. Structural equation modeling was performed to determine whether there is a cognitive-developmental cascade in which age-related increases in processing speed lead to improvements in control of processing that leads to increases in working memory, and whether improved working memory, in turn, leads to increases in both fluid and crystallized intelligence. Several alternative models of a different cascade order of the above factors were also tested. The results of the present study provide evidence of a cognitive-developmental cascade, confirming that this model describes cognitive development during childhood and adolescence.  

Click images to enlarge.








Development and psychometric properties of rubrics for assessing social-emotional skills in youth - ScienceDirect

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0191491X20301863 
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0191491X20301863?via%3Dihub

Paper from excellent group of scholars doing critical work on "BEYOND IQ" factors.

******************************************
Kevin S. McGrew, PhD
Educational & School Psychologist
Director
Institute for Applied Psychometrics (IAP)
https://www.themindhub.com
******************************************

Friday, November 06, 2020

Toward a hierarchical model of social cognition: A neuroimaging meta-analysis and integrative review of empathy and theory of mind-file under Gei per CHC taxonomy.

 Toward a hierarchical model of social cognition: A neuroimaging meta-analysis and integrative review of empathy and theory of mind. 
https://psycnet.apa.org/fulltext/2020-82377-001.html
Toward a Hierarchical Model of Social Cognition: A Neuroimaging Meta-Analysis and Integrative Review of Empathy and Theory of Mind
Matthias Schurz email the authorJoaquim RaduaMatthias G. TholenLara MaliskeDaniel S. MarguliesRogier B. MarsJerome SalletPhilipp Kanske
Author Affiliationsauthor affiliations hide/reveal  
Schurz, M., Radua, J., Tholen, M. G., Maliske, L., Margulies, D. S., Mars, R. B., . . . Kanske, P. (2020). Toward a hierarchical model of social cognition: A neuroimaging meta-analysis and integrative review of empathy and theory of mind. Psychological Bulletin. Advance online publication. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/bul0000303
Abstract

Along with the increased interest in and volume of social cognition research, there has been higher awareness of a lack of agreement on the concepts and taxonomy used to study social processes. Two central concepts in the field, empathy and Theory of Mind (ToM), have been identified as overlapping umbrella terms for different processes of limited convergence. Here, we review and integrate evidence of brain activation, brain organization, and behavior into a coherent model of social-cognitive processes. We start with a meta-analytic clusteringof neuroimaging data across different social-cognitive tasks. Results show that understanding others' mental states can be described by a multilevel model of hierarchical structure, similar to models in intelligence and personality research. A higher level describes more broad and abstract classes of functioning, whereas a lower one explains how functions are applied to concrete contexts given by particular stimulus and task formats. Specifically, the higher level of our model suggests 3 groups of neurocognitive processes: (a) predominantly cognitive processes, which are engaged when mentalizing requires self-generated cognition decoupled from the physical world; (b) more affectiveprocesses, which are engaged when we witness emotions in others based on shared emotional, motor, and somatosensory representations; (c) combined processes, which engage cognitive and affective functions in parallel. We discuss how these processes are explained by an underlying principal gradient of structural brain organization. Finally, we validate the model by a review of empathy and ToM task interrelations found in behavioral studies.
Public Significance Statement

Empathy and Theory of Mind are important human capacities for understanding others. Here, we present a meta-analysis of neuroimaging data from 4,207 participants, which shows that these abilities can be deconstructed into specific and partially shared neurocognitive subprocesses. Our findings provide systematic, large-scale support for the hypothesis that understanding others' mental states can be described by a multilevel model of hierarchical structure, similar to models in intelligence and personality research.


******************************************
Kevin S. McGrew, PhD
Educational & School Psychologist
Director
Institute for Applied Psychometrics (IAP)
https://www.themindhub.com
******************************************

Monday, November 02, 2020

Intelligence and creativity share a common cognitive and neural basis. -File under P-FIT, g, creativity, Glr, Gf, Gc, Gc, brain networks

A most excellent study.  


https://doi.apa.org/doiLanding?doi=10.1037%2Fxge0000958

Frith, E., Elbich, D. B., Christensen, A. P., Rosenberg, M. D., Chen, Q., Kane, M. J., Silvia, P. J., Seli, P., & Beaty, R. E. (2020). Intelligence and creativity share a common cognitive and neural basis. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General. Advance online publication. https://doi.org/10.1037/xge0000958

Are intelligence and creativity distinct abilities, or do they rely on the same cognitive and neural systems? We sought to quantify the extent to which intelligence and creative cognition overlap in brain and behavior by combining machine learning of fMRI data and latent variable modeling of cognitive ability data in a sample of young adults (N = 186) who completed a battery of intelligence and creative thinking tasks. The study had 3 analytic goals: (a) to assess contributions of specific facets of intelligence (e.g., fluid and crystallized intelligence) and general intelligence to creative ability (i.e., divergent thinking originality), (b) to model whole-brain functional connectivity networks that predict intelligence facets and creative ability, and (c) to quantify the degree to which these predictive networks overlap in the brain. Using structural equation modeling, we found moderate to large correlations between intelligence facets and creative ability, as well as a large correlation between general intelligence and creative ability (r = .63). Using connectome-based predictive modeling, we found that functional brain networks that predict intelligence facets overlap to varying degrees with a network that predicts creative ability, particularly within the prefrontal cortex of the executive control network. Notably, a network that predicted general intelligence shared 46% of its functional connections with a network that predicted creative ability—including connections linking executive control and salience/ventral attention networks—suggesting that intelligence and creative thinking rely on similar neural and cognitive systems. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved)




******************************************************
Kevin McGrew, PhD
Educational Psychologist
Director, Institute for Applied Psychometrics
IAP
www.themindhub.com
******************************************************

Tuesday, October 20, 2020

The comparative analysis of intelligence. - PsycNET

 The comparative analysis of intelligence. - PsycNET 
https://psycnet.apa.org/record/2020-77459-001


Flaim, Mary Blaisdell, Aaron P.
Citation
Flaim, M., & Blaisdell, A. P. (2020). The comparative analysis of intelligence. Psychological Bulletin. Advance online publication. https://doi.org/10.1037/bul0000306

Abstract
The study of intelligence in humans has been ongoing for over 100 years, including the underlying structure, predictive validity, related cognitive measures, and source of differences. One of the key findings in intelligence research is the uniform positive correlations among cognitive tasks. This has been replicated with every cognitive test battery in humans. Nevertheless, many other aspects of intelligence research have revealed contradictory lines of evidence. Recently, cognitive test batteries have been developed for animals to examine similarities to humans in cognitive structure. The results are inconsistent, but there is evidence for some similarities. This article reviews the way intelligence and related cognitive abilities are assessed in humans and animals and suggests a different way of devising test batteries for maximizing between-species comparisons. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved)

******************************************
Kevin S. McGrew, PhD
Educational & School Psychologist
Director
Institute for Applied Psychometrics (IAP)
https://www.themindhub.com
******************************************

Monday, October 19, 2020

Exercise and fluid intelligence (Gf)



******************************************************
Kevin McGrew, PhD
Educational Psychologist
Director, Institute for Applied Psychometrics
IAP
www.themindhub.com
******************************************************

Friday, October 02, 2020

Rhythmic timing in aging adults: On the role of cognitive functioning and structural brain integrity. - PsycNET

https://psycnet.apa.org/record/2020-73180-001

Rhythmic timing in aging adults: On the role of cognitive functioning and structural brain integrity.


First PostingDatabase: APA PsycArticles



Schirmer, Annett Romero-Garcia, Rafael Chiu, Man Hey Escoffier, Nicolas Penney, Trevor B. Goh, Benjamin Suckling, John Tan, Jasmine Feng, Lei

Citation

Schirmer, A., Romero-Garcia, R., Chiu, M. H., Escoffier, N., Penney, T. B., Goh, B., Suckling, J., Tan, J., & Feng, L. (2020). Rhythmic timing in aging adults: On the role of cognitive functioning and structural brain integrity. Psychology and Aging. Advance online publication. https://doi.org/10.1037/pag0000575

Abstract

Here we asked whether impaired timing in older adults results from an aging clock or a more general brain and cognitive decline. Healthy aging adults (N = 70, aged 62–83 years) tapped to the beat of a periodic and a syncopated rhythm. Analyses focused on performance differences between rhythms (periodic-syncopated), which reduced the impact of timing unrelated processes. Apart from tapping, participants completed a cognitive assessment and neuroimaging of gray matter volume (GMV) and fractional anisotropy (FA) globally as well as regionally (cortical: auditory, premotor, paracentral; subcortical: putamen, caudate, cerebellum). The rhythm difference showed no significant age effects for tapping asynchrony and an age-related decrease for tapping consistency. Additionally, age reduced cognitive functioning, global GMV/FA, and, beyond this, auditory GMV. Irrespective of age, the rhythm difference in tapping asynchrony was linked, not to GMV, but to caudal, premotor, and paracentral FA after controlling for global FA. Tapping consistency was associated with global rather than regional brain integrity. Additionally, age differences in tapping consistency were mediated by a decline in global brain integrity as well as cognitive functioning. Together these results agree with previous proposals differentiating between timing accuracy and reliability and suggest that aging largely preserves the former but not the latter. Whereas timing accuracy may depend on an internal clock supported by robust striatocortical circuitry, timing reliability may depend on global brain and cognitive functioning, which show a pronounced age-related decline. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved)



******************************************************
Kevin McGrew, PhD
Educational Psychologist
Director, Institute for Applied Psychometrics
IAP
www.themindhub.com
******************************************************

Friday, September 18, 2020

Teleassessment with children and adolescents during the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic and beyond: Practice and policy implications.

 Teleassessment with children and adolescents during the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic and beyond: Practice and policy implications. 
https://psycnet.apa.org/fulltext/2020-69507-001.html

Abstract

Due to physical distancing guidelines, the closure of nonessential businesses, and the closure of public schools, the role of telehealth for the delivery of psychological services for children has never been more debated. However, the transition to teleassessment is more complicated for some types of assessment than others. For instance, the remote administration of achievement and intelligence testsis a relatively recent adaptation of telehealth, and despite recommendations for rapid adoption by some policymakers and publishing companies, caution and careful consideration of individual and contextual variables and the existing research literature, as well as measurement, cultural and linguistic, and legal and ethical issues, is warranted. The decision to use remotely administered achievement and intelligence tests is best made on a case-by-case basis after consideration of these factors. We discuss each of these issues as well as implications for practice and policy, as well as issue provisional guidance for consideration for publishing companies interested in these endeavors moving forward.
Public Significance Statement

The current review describes a number of factors that may reduce the accuracy of standardized tests, like intelligence tests, when they are given remotely. Additionally, it highlights the importance of considering the purpose of assessment, client cultural and linguistic background, as well as ethical and legal decision making, on the use and interpretation of standardized test results

******************************************
Kevin S. McGrew, PhD
Educational & School Psychologist
Director
Institute for Applied Psychometrics (IAP)
https://www.themindhub.com
******************************************

Differential patterns of growth in reading and math skills during elementary school. - PsycNET

 Differential patterns of growth in reading and math skills during elementary school. - PsycNET 
https://psycnet.apa.org/record/2020-68825-001

Abstract
This study investigated developmental trajectories of reading and math using latent-growth-curve analyses across multiple academic skills, measures, and multiple time periods within a single sample. Reading-related growth was marked by significant individual differences during the early elementary-school period and nonsignificant individual differences during the late elementary-school period. For math-related skills, nonsignificant individual differences were present for early math growth and significant individual differences were present in late elementary-school. No clear pattern of cumulative, compensatory, or stable development emerged for either reading-related or math skills. These differing growth patterns highlight developmental complexities and suggest domain-specific differences in achievement growth that are potentially associated with contextual factors. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved)

******************************************
Kevin S. McGrew, PhD
Educational & School Psychologist
Director
Institute for Applied Psychometrics (IAP)
https://www.themindhub.com
******************************************

Tuesday, September 15, 2020

Grit: A Concept Analysis: Issues in Mental Health Nursing: Vol 0, No 0

FYI.  Recent meta-analysis suggests grit may be more or less isomorphic with Big 5 personality trait of conscientious.  Some jingle jangle fallacy afoot. 

 Grit: A Concept Analysis: Issues in Mental Health Nursing: Vol 0, No 0 
https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/01612840.2020.1814913

Abstract
The concept of grit, defined as having passion and perseverance for long-term goals, has gained significant recognition in recent years. The idea that being gritty is ultimately more important than innate talent to achieve goals has widespread appeal. This review examined the concept of grit to clarify relationships between constructs and identify future opportunities for research. A systematic search across five databases including CINAHL, PsycINFO, PubMed, Scopus and Web of Science yielded 422 records. After screening and assessment for eligibility, 42 articles were retained and reviewed using the Walker and Avant method for concept analysis. Results provided support for passion, perseverance and long-term goals as defining attributes of grit, along with an extensive nomological network of antecedents, consequences, and mediating and moderating variables. Positive thoughts, behaviours and habits appear to play a key preparatory role in achieving long-term goals. Grit was associated with reduced burnout and depression, improved performance and well-being. Further research is needed to understand the best practice approaches for developing grit at both an individual and collective level.

******************************************
Kevin S. McGrew, PhD
Educational & School Psychologist
Director
Institute for Applied Psychometrics (IAP)
https://www.themindhub.com
******************************************

Tuesday, September 08, 2020