Thursday, January 23, 2020

General mental ability and specific abilities: Their relative importance for extrinsic career success. - PsycNET

https://psycnet.apa.org/record/2019-78958-001

Citation

Lang, J. W. B., & Kell, H. J. (2019). General mental ability and specific abilities: Their relative importance for extrinsic career success. Journal of Applied Psychology. Advance online publication. https://doi.org/10.1037/apl0000472

Abstract

Recent research on the role of general mental ability (GMA) and specific abilities in work-related outcomes has shown that the results differ depending on the theoretical and conceptual approach that researchers use. While earlier research has typically assumed that GMA causes the specific abilities and has thus used incremental validity analysis, more recent research has explored the implications of treating GMA and specific abilities as equals (differing only in breadth and not subordination) and has used relative importance analysis. In this article, we extend this work to the prediction of extrinsic career success operationalized as pay, income, and the attainment of jobs with high prestige. Results, based on a large national sample, revealed that GMA and specific abilities measured in school were good predictors of job prestige measured after 11 years, pay measured after 11 years, and income 51 years later toward the end of the participants' work lives. With 1 exception, GMA was a dominant predictor in incremental validity analyses. However, in relative importance analyses, the majority of the explained variance was explained by specific abilities, and GMA was not more important than single specific abilities in relative importance analyses. Visuospatial, verbal, and mathematical abilities all had substantial variance shares and were also more important than GMA in some of the analyses. Implications for the interpretation of cognitive ability data and facilitating people's success in their careers are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved)



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Kevin S. McGrew,  PhD
Educational Psychologist
Director
Institute for Applied Psychometrics (IAP)
www.themindhub.com
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Thursday, January 16, 2020

This is your child's brain on books: Scans show benefit of reading vs. screen time

This is your child's brain on books: Scans show benefit of reading vs. screen time
https://flip.it/rrjPv7

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Kevin S. McGrew, PhD
Educational & School Psychologist
Director
Institute for Applied Psychometrics (IAP)
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Thursday, January 09, 2020

Default network contributions to episodic and semantic processing during divergent creative thinking: A representational similarity analysis



Default network contributions to episodic and semantic processing during divergent creative thinking: A representational similarity analysis
https://flip.it/PkSmQI

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Kevin S. McGrew,  PhD
Educational Psychologist
Director
Institute for Applied Psychometrics (IAP)
www.themindhub.com
************************************************

Tuesday, December 17, 2019

Cohort differences on the CVLT-II and CVLT3: evidence of a negative Flynn effect on the attention/working memory and learning trials: The Clinical Neuropsychologist: Vol 0, No 0

This will be added to the Flynn effect reference project document when it is next updated.

Cohort differences on the CVLT-II and CVLT3: evidence of a negative Flynn effect on the attention/working memory and learning trials: The Clinical Neuropsychologist: Vol 0, No 0
https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/13854046.2019.1699605


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Kevin S. McGrew, PhD
Educational & School Psychologist
Director
Institute for Applied Psychometrics (IAP)
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Saturday, December 14, 2019

Longitudinal Analysis of Associations between 3-D Mental Rotation and Mathematics Reasoning Skills during Middle School: Across and within Genders

File under Gv and Gq/Gf as per CHC model of intelligence

Longitudinal Analysis of Associations between 3-D Mental Rotation and Mathematics Reasoning Skills during Middle School: Across and within Genders

Caitlin McPherran Lombardia, Beth M. Caseyb, Elizabeth Pezarisb, Maryam Shadmehrb, and Margeau Jong

JOURNAL OF COGNITION AND DEVELOPMENT 2019, VOL. 20, NO. 4, 487–509 
https://doi.org/10.1080/15248372.2019.1614592

ABSTRACT

The development of math reasoning and 3-d mental rotation skills are intertwined. However, it is currently not understood how these cognitive processes develop and interact longitudinally at the within-person level – either within or across genders. In this study, 553 students (52% girls) were assessed from fifth to seventh grades on 3-d mental rotation spatial skills (assessed each fall) and numerical and algebraic math reasoning skills (assessed each spring). Boys outperformed girls on mental rotation tests across all three grades, and on fifth and seventh grade math reasoning tests. Consistent with the literature on between-person comparisons, there was a positive correlation between mental rotation and math reasoning skills in the full sample and for both genders. A random inter-cept cross-lagged panel model was used to control for these confounding group-level differences in order to isolate within-person associations between earlier and later performance. Initially in fifth grade, math reasoning predicted subsequent sixth grade mental rotation skills. By seventh grade, more advanced mental rotation skills were associated with subsequent math reasoning skills while math reasoning skills were no longer predictive of mental rotation skills. An examination of gender differences revealed that this pattern was driven by boys while girls experienced less within-person change. These findings suggest that boys may initially rely in part on their math reasoning skills to solve 3-d mental rotation tasks. However, as their 3-d mental rotation skills mature, they begin to primarily depend upon these developing spatial skills to solve math reasoning problems rather than the reverse

Tuesday, December 10, 2019

Development of Network Topology and Functional Connectivity of the Prefrontal Cortex

Development of Network Topology and Functional Connectivity of the Prefrontal Cortex
https://flip.it/zlHFXJ

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Kevin S. McGrew, PhD
Educational & School Psychologist
Director
Institute for Applied Psychometrics (IAP)
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Monday, December 09, 2019

Article: Individual Differences in Learning Efficiency - Kathleen B. McDermott, Christopher L. Zerr, 2019

Individual Differences in Learning Efficiency - Kathleen B. McDermott, Christopher L. Zerr, 2019 https://flip.it/QxZ6uT

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Kevin S. McGrew, PhD
Educational & School Psychologist
Director
Institute for Applied Psychometrics (IAP)
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Friday, December 06, 2019

Psychometric Network Analysis of the Hungarian WAIS


Christopher J. Schmank, Sara Anne Goring, Kristof Kovacs and Andrew R. A. Conway

Received: 1 June 2019; Accepted: 24 August 2019; Published: 9 September 2019

Abstract: The positive manifold—the finding that cognitive ability measures demonstrate positive correlations with one another—has led to models of intelligence that include a general cognitive ability or general intelligence (g). This view has been reinforced using factor analysis and reflective, higher-order latent variable models. However, a new theory of intelligence, Process Overlap Theory (POT), posits that g is not a psychological attribute but an index of cognitive abilities that results from an interconnected network of cognitive processes. These competing theories of intelligence are compared using two different statistical modeling techniques: (a) latent variable modeling and (b) psychometric network analysis. Network models display partial correlations between pairs of observed variables that demonstrate direct relationships among observations. Secondary data analysis was conducted using the Hungarian Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale Fourth Edition (H-WAIS-IV). The underlying structure of the H-WAIS-IV was first assessed using confirmatory factor analysis assuming a reflective, higher-order model and then reanalyzed using psychometric network analysis. The compatibility (or lack thereof) of these theoretical accounts of intelligence with the data are discussed.

Keywords: intelligence; Process Overlap Theory; psychometric network analysis; latent variable modeling; statistical modeling

Click on image to enlarge.







Growing debate about the ethics and regulation of direct-to-consumer transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS)

https://sharpbrains.com/blog/2019/12/06/growing-debate-about-the-ethics-and-regulation-of-direct-to-consumer-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-tdcs/

Thursday, December 05, 2019

Gf training and neuroscience



https://www.decisionneurosciencelab.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/11/Daugherty_et_al_2019.pdf

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***********************************************
Kevin S. McGrew,  PhD
Educational Psychologist
Director
Institute for Applied Psychometrics (IAP)
www.themindhub.com
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Tuesday, December 03, 2019

Meta-analysis of relation between WCST and IQ

https://res.mdpi.com/d_attachment/brainsci/brainsci-09-00349/article_deploy/brainsci-09-00349.pdf

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***********************************************
Kevin S. McGrew,  PhD
Educational Psychologist
Director
Institute for Applied Psychometrics (IAP)
www.themindhub.com
************************************************