Tuesday, April 06, 2021

The Relationship between Theory of Mind and Intelligence: A Formative g Approach

The Relationship between Theory of Mind and Intelligence: A Formative g Approach

https://doi.org/10.3390/jintelligence9010011
Theory of Mind (ToM) is the ability understand that other people's mental states may be different from one's own. Psychometric models have shown that individual differences in ToM can largely be attributed to general intelligence (g) (Coyle et al. 2018). Most psychometric models specify g as a reflective latent variable, which is interpreted as a general ability that plays a causal role in a broad range of cognitive tasks, including ToM tasks. However, an alternative approach is to specify g as a formative latent variable, that is, an overall index of cognitive ability that does not represent a psychological attribute (Kovacs and Conway 2016). Here we consider a formative g approach to the relationship between ToM and intelligence. First, we conducted an SEM with reflective g to test the hypothesis that ToM is largely accounted for by a general ability. Next, we conducted a model with formative g to determine whether the relationship between ToM and intelligence is influenced by domain-specific tasks. Finally, we conducted a redundancy analysis to examine the contribution of each g variable. Results suggest that the relationship between ToM and intelligence in this study was influenced by language-based tasks, rather than solely a general ability.



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Kevin S. McGrew, PhD
Educational & School Psychologist
Director
Institute for Applied Psychometrics (IAP)
https://www.themindhub.com
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Nice followup and extension of Floyd et al (2018) IQ exchangeability study

Limited Internal Comparability of General Intelligence Composites: Impact on External Validity, Possible Predictors, and Practical Remedies


https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/pdf/10.1177/10731911211005171

Silvia Grieder1 , Anette Bünger1 , Salome D. Odermatt1 , Florine Schweizer1, and Alexander Grob1

Abstract

Research on comparability of general intelligence composites (GICs) is scarce and has focused exclusively on comparing GICs from different test batteries, revealing limited individual-level comparability. We add to these findings, investigating the group- and individual-level comparability of different GICs within test batteries (i.e., internal score comparability), thereby minimizing transient error and ruling out between-battery variance completely. We (a) determined the magnitude of intraindividual IQ differences, (b) investigated their impact on external validity, (c) explored possible predictors for these differences, and (d) examined ways to deal with incomparability. Results are based on the standardization samples of three intelligence test batteries, spanning from early childhood to late adulthood. Despite high group-level comparability, individual-level comparability was often unsatisfactory, especially toward the tails of the IQ distribution. This limited comparability has consequences for external validity, as GICs were differentially related to and often less predictive for school grades for individuals with high IQ differences. Of several predictors, only IQ level and age were systematically related to comparability. Consequently, findings challenge the use of overall internal consistencies for confidence intervals and suggest using confidence intervals based on test–retest reliabilities or age- and IQ-specific internal consistencies for clinical interpretation. Implications for test construction and application are discussed.

Keywords.  general intelligence, IQ, screening, individual level, reliability, validity

Friday, April 02, 2021

Theories and measurement of intelligence. - PsycNET

https://psycnet.apa.org/record/2020-80416-015

Citation
Floyd, R. G., Farmer, R. L., Schneider, W. J., & McGrew, K. S. (2021). Theories and measurement of intelligence. In L. M. Glidden, L. Abbeduto, L. L. McIntyre, & M. J. Tassé (Eds.), APA handbooks in psychology®. APA handbook of intellectual and developmental disabilities: Foundations (p. 385–424). American Psychological Association. https://doi.org/10.1037/0000194-015

Abstract
Advancements in the measurement of intellectual functioning via individually administered intelligence tests during the early 1900s led to reliance on IQs to represent the deficits in intellectual functioning during the past century. Concurrent development of models of intelligence also advanced understanding and measurement of intellectual functioning, and the current consensus is that intellectual functioning is best represented by a latent ability referred to as general intelligence (or psychometric g), as well as numerous broad and narrow abilities. As a result of these developments, the practice of identification of persons with intellectual disability (ID) is now based on a stronger scientific foundation. This chapter discusses three models of intelligence and reviews the genetic and environmental influences on intellectual functioning across the population, and persons with ID in particular. It culminates with a description of best practices and emerging methods in the assessment of intellectual functioning. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved)

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Kevin S. McGrew,  PhD
Educational Psychologist
Director
Institute for Applied Psychometrics (IAP)
www.themindhub.com
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Monday, March 29, 2021

Is there a “g-neuron”? Establishing a systematic link between general intelligence (g) and the von Economo neuron - ScienceDirect

 Is there a "g-neuron"? Establishing a systematic link between general intelligence (g) and the von Economo neuron - ScienceDirect 
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0160289621000246?via%3Dihub

Abstract
The construct of general intelligence (g) is one of psychology's most replicated and predictively useful constructs. Although research indicates that g is a highly heritable trait, deeply rooted in brain physiology, to date neither a strong biological correlate nor a comprehensive explanatory model involving neuronal mechanisms have been established. In this article I aim to do so by hypothesising that the von Economo neuron (VEN), a unique nerve cell thus far implicated in social cognitionand interoception, may in fact represent a central biological constituent of g. After presenting supportive evidence from neuroscience, psychiatry/neurology, clinical gerontology, and comparative psychology, an integrated reductionist framework is outlined, which reaches from the level of cognitive theory to the level of single neurons. Based thereon, it is concluded that the VENs might contribute to individual differences in g by rapidly inducing the coherence of neuronal oscillations within a functionally invariant parieto-frontal network underlying higher-order cognition, thereby facilitating mental efficiency.

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Kevin S. McGrew, PhD
Educational & School Psychologist
Director
Institute for Applied Psychometrics (IAP)
https://www.themindhub.com
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Friday, March 26, 2021

[PDF] Changing Patterns of Growth in Oral Reading Fluency During the COVID- 19 Pandemic | Semantic Scholar

 [PDF] Changing Patterns of Growth in Oral Reading Fluency During the COVID- 19 Pandemic | Semantic Scholar 
https://www.semanticscholar.org/paper/Changing-Patterns-of-Growth-in-Oral-Reading-Fluency-Domingue-Hough/9590ebbfad4364eb53a6dd40b76fe417df40200a?utm_source=alert_email&utm_content=FeedPaper&utm_campaign=AlertEmails_DAILY&utm_term=FeedPaper&email_index=1-0-1&utm_medium=1864857

Michael S. Christian VERSION: March 2021 Education has faced unprecedented disruption during the COVID-19 pandemic; evidence about the subsequent effect on children is of crucial importance. We use data from an oral reading fluency (ORF) assessment—a rapid assessment taking only a few minutes that measures a fundamental reading skill—to examine COVID's effects on children's reading ability during the pandemic in more than 100 U.S. school districts. Effects were pronounced, especially for Grades 2–3, but distinct across spring and fall 2020. While many students were not assessed in spring 2020, those who were seemed to have experienced relatively limited or no growth in ORF relative to gains observed in other years. In fall 2020, a far more representative set of students was observed. For those students, growth was more pronounced and seemed to approach levels observed in previous years. Worryingly, there were also signs of stratification such that students in lower-achieving districts may be falling further behind. However, at the level of individual students, those who were struggling with reading prior to the pandemic were not disproportionately impacted in terms of ORF growth. This data offers an important window onto how a foundational skill is being affected by COVID-19 and this approach can be used in the future to examine how student abilities recover as education enters a post-COVID paradigm.

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Kevin S. McGrew, PhD
Educational & School Psychologist
Director
Institute for Applied Psychometrics (IAP)
https://www.themindhub.com
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Thursday, March 25, 2021

Journal of Intelligence Special Issue on Psycho-Educational Assessments

https://www.mdpi.com/journal/jintelligence/special_issue_flyer_pdf/Psycho-Educational_Assessments_Theory_Practice/web


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Kevin McGrew, PhD
Educational Psychologist
Director, Institute for Applied Psychometrics
IAP
www.themindhub.com
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Saturday, March 20, 2021

Muddled Measurement: A Historical Perspective on Questionable Practices in School Psychology’s Assessment of Learning Disabilities - Eric Elias, 2021

 Muddled Measurement: A Historical Perspective on Questionable Practices in School Psychology's Assessment of Learning Disabilities - Eric Elias, 2021 
https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/0829573521999946

Abstract

As school psychologists we are well trained with using and interpreting a variety of psychometric instruments, yet there are several studies that indicate that school psychologist's interpretive practices veer off the intended path. The application of assessment to the process of identification of specific learning disabilities (SLD) has been noted as one of the more problematic areas in psychoeducational assessment for myriad reasons. While the medical field has begun to focus on de-implementing ineffective practices, the field of psychology has not followed as readily. This article considers the costs of poor decision making in the context of SLD evaluation and seeks to identify evidence-based assessment practices for SLD identification and decision making. After considering historical perspectives, approaches and practices for assessing SLD, actuarial interpretation, and treatment validity will be discussed.

Estimates of brain age for gray matter and white matter in younger and older adults: insights into human intelligence - ScienceDirect

 Estimates of brain age for gray matter and white matter in younger and older adults: insights into human intelligence - ScienceDirect 
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0006899321002882

Abstract

Aging entails a multifaceted complex of changes in macro- and micro-structural properties of human brain gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) tissues, as well as in intellectual abilities. To better capture tissue-specific brain aging, we combined volumetric and diffusivity properties to derive subject-specific age scores for each tissue. We compared age-related variance between WM and GM age scores in younger and older adults and tested whether tissue-specific age scores could explain different effects of aging on fluid (Gf) and crystalized (Gc) intelligence in younger and older adults. Chronological age was strongly associated with GM (R2 = 0.73) and WM (R2 = 0.57) age scores. The GM age score accounted for significantly more variance in chronological age in younger relative to older adults (p < 0.001), whereas the WM age score accounted for significantly more variance in chronological age in older compared to younger adults (p < 0.025). Consistent with existing literature, younger adults outperformed older adults in Gf while older adults outperformed younger adults in Gc. The GM age score was negatively associated with Gf in younger adults (p < 0.02), whereas the WM age score was negatively associated with Gc in older adults (p< 0.02). Our results provide evidence for differences in the effects of age on GM and WM in younger versus older adults that may contribute to age-related differences in Gf and Gc.

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Kevin S. McGrew, PhD
Educational & School Psychologist
Director
Institute for Applied Psychometrics (IAP)
https://www.themindhub.com
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Does reasoning training improve fluid reasoning and academic achievement for children and adolescents? A systematic review - ScienceDirect

 Does reasoning training improve fluid reasoning and academic achievement for children and adolescents? A systematic review - ScienceDirect 
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S2211949321000053

Abstract

BACKGROUND
Studies of children and adolescents suggest that reasoning training may improve both reasoning and academic achievement, but evidence and systematic evaluation of this research is limited. Accordingly, this paper provides a systematic review of the literature on reasoning training in order to describe current methods and evaluate their efficacy.

METHOD
A systematic search identified eleven articles—published between 1996 and 2016—that reported findings from thirteen separate studies of reasoning training effects on fluid reasoning (Gf) and academic achievement in children and adolescents. Specific Gf outcomes examined were analogical, deductive, inductive, nonverbal, and/or relational reasoning ability. Specific academic achievement outcomes examined were math and reading achievement. This paper reviewed studies utilizing both computerized and non-computerized methods of Gftraining.

FINDINGS
Findings from the review show that reasoning training improves Gf (near transfer effects). Although less conclusive, when considered on balance, evidence suggests that reasoning training also improves academic achievement (far transfer effects).

CONCLUSIONS
Research is needed to parameterize the effects of Gftraining on academic achievement, and in particular to identify moderators of training efficacy on academic outcomes. Limitations and directions for future research are discussed.

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Kevin S. McGrew, PhD
Educational & School Psychologist
Director
Institute for Applied Psychometrics (IAP)
https://www.themindhub.com
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Tuesday, March 16, 2021

Student Motivation and Associated Outcomes: A Meta-Analysis From Self-Determination Theory

 APS Journals Access – Association for Psychological Science – APS 
https://www.psychologicalscience.org/sage?ru=https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/full/10.1177/1745691620966789

Student Motivation and Associated Outcomes: A Meta-Analysis From Self-Determination Theory
Joshua L. Howard, Julien Bureau, Frédéric Guay, Jane X. Y. Chong, and Richard M. Ryan
Perspectives on Psychological ScienceIntrinsic motivation and behaving on the basis of perceived personal value and meaning appear to be key for school adjustment and student success. In this meta-analysis, Howard and colleagues examined how different types of motivation relate to 26 student outcomes, including performance and well-being. The researchers analyzed 344 samples of students and found that (a) intrinsic motivation was related to students' success and well-being, and (b) personal value (identified regulation) was related with persistence. Ego-involved motivation (introjected regulation) was related with persistence and performance but also with ill-being. Motivation to obtain rewards or avoid punishment was associated only with decreased well-being.

Theory Construction Methodology: A Practical Framework for Building Theories in Psychology

 APS Journals Access – Association for Psychological Science – APS 
https://www.psychologicalscience.org/sage?ru=https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/full/10.1177/1745691620969647

Theory Construction Methodology: A Practical Framework for Building Theories in Psychology
Denny Borsboom, Han L. J. van der Maas, Jonas Dalege, Rogier A. Kievit, and Brian D. Haig
Perspectives on Psychological ScienceBorsboom and colleagues propose a five-step methodology for constructing explanatory theories: The theorist (a) identifies the empirical phenomena that become the target of explanation, (b) constructs a prototheory that putatively explains the target phenomena, (c) uses the prototheory to construct a formal model (a set of equations that encode explanatory principles), (d) assesses the explanatory adequacy of the model, and (e) studies the overall adequacy of the theory by evaluating whether the phenomena are reproducible and the explanatory principles are parsimonious and plausible. The authors explain this theory construction methodology using the mutualism model of intelligence.

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Kevin S. McGrew, PhD
Educational & School Psychologist
Director
Institute for Applied Psychometrics (IAP)
https://www.themindhub.com
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What We Know, Are Still Getting Wrong, and Have Yet to Learn about the Relationships among the SAT, Intelligence and Achievement

https://www.mdpi.com/2079-3200/7/4/26/htm

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Kevin S. McGrew, PhD
Educational & School Psychologist
Director
Institute for Applied Psychometrics (IAP)
https://www.themindhub.com
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Navigating the link between processing speed and network communication in the human brain | SpringerLink

 Navigating the link between processing speed and network communication in the human brain | SpringerLink 
https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s00429-021-02241-8

Abstract
Processing speed on cognitive tasks relies upon efficient communication between widespread regions of the brain. Recently, novel methods of quantifying network communication like 'navigation efficiency' have emerged, which aim to be more biologically plausible compared to traditional shortest path length-based measures. However, it is still unclear whether there is a direct link between these communication measures and processing speed. We tested this relationship in forty-five healthy adults (27 females), where processing speed was defined as decision-making time and measured using drift rate from the hierarchical drift diffusion model. Communication measures were calculated from a graph theoretical analysis of the whole-brain structural connectome and of a task-relevant fronto-parietal structural subnetwork, using the large-scale Desikan–Killiany atlas. We found that faster processing speed on trials that require greater cognitive control are correlated with higher navigation efficiency (of both the whole-brain and the task-relevant subnetwork). In contrast, faster processing speed on trials that require more automatic processing are correlated with shorter path length within the task-relevant subnetwork. Our findings reveal that differences in the way communication is modelled between shortest path length and navigation may be sensitive to processing of automatic and controlled responses, respectively. Further, our findings suggest that there is a relationship between the speed of cognitive processing and the structural constraints of the human brain network.

Wednesday, March 10, 2021

Twice-Exceptional Students: Review of Implications for Special and Inclusive Education - ProQuest

Twice-Exceptional Students: Review of Implications for Special and Inclusive Education - ProQuest
https://search.proquest.com/openview/d0866e35149e71cf9484c9e2cc0f35b9/1?pq-origsite=gscholar&cbl=2032405

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Kevin S. McGrew, PhD
Educational & School Psychologist
Director
Institute for Applied Psychometrics (IAP)
https://www.themindhub.com
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Tuesday, March 09, 2021

Rationale and Design of the National Neuropsychology Network | Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society | Cambridge Core

Rationale and Design of the National Neuropsychology Network | Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society | Cambridge Core
https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/journal-of-the-international-neuropsychological-society/article/abs/rationale-and-design-of-the-national-neuropsychology-network/FC3E4709E208CA3FA52E08D8FD05D799

Testing (quizzing) boosts classroom learning: A systematic and meta-analytic review. - PsycNET

 Testing (quizzing) boosts classroom learning: A systematic and meta-analytic review. - PsycNET 
https://psycnet.apa.org/record/2021-24563-001

Abstract
Over the last century hundreds of studies have demonstrated that testing is an effective intervention to enhance long-term retention of studied knowledge and facilitate mastery of new information, compared with restudying and many other learning strategies (e.g., concept mapping), a phenomenon termed the testing effect. How robust is this effect in applied settings beyond the laboratory? The current review integrated 48,478 students' data, extracted from 222 independent studies, to investigate the magnitude, boundary conditions, and psychological underpinnings of test-enhanced learning in the classroom. The results show that overall testing (quizzing) raises student academic achievement to a medium extent (g = 0.499). The magnitude of the effect is modulated by a variety of factors, including learning strategy in the control condition, test format consistency, material matching, provision of corrective feedback, number of test repetitions, test administration location and timepoint, treatment duration, and experimental design. The documented findings support 3 theories to account for the classroom testing effect: additional exposure, transfer-appropriate processing, and motivation. In addition to their implications for theory development, these results have practical significance for enhancing teaching practice and guiding education policy and highlight important directions for future research. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved)

Monday, March 01, 2021

Open Access Files - THE STANDARDS FOR EDUCATIONAL AND PSYCHOLOGICAL TESTING

https://www.testingstandards.net/open-access-files.html

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Kevin S. McGrew,  PhD
Educational Psychologist
Director
Institute for Applied Psychometrics (IAP)
www.themindhub.com
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