Monday, March 01, 2021

Open Access Files - THE STANDARDS FOR EDUCATIONAL AND PSYCHOLOGICAL TESTING

https://www.testingstandards.net/open-access-files.html

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Kevin S. McGrew,  PhD
Educational Psychologist
Director
Institute for Applied Psychometrics (IAP)
www.themindhub.com
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Saturday, February 27, 2021

Executive function-related functional connectomes predict intellectual abilities - ScienceDirect

 Executive function-related functional connectomes predict intellectual abilities - ScienceDirect 
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0160289621000118

Abstract
Executive functions (EFs) refer to a range of cognitive control and regulation processes that coordinate thoughts and actions in a goal-directed way and are regarded as a hallmark of intellectual abilities. However, most studies have used a single measurement to explore the relationship between EFs and intelligence, and there is a lack of robust evidence to demonstrate the link between EF-related neural substrates and intelligence under an integrative framework. To address this issue, we employed a large sample (primary dataset, n = 881; hold-out dataset, n = 181) from the Human Connectome Project, which included high-quality MRI data and multiple EF and intelligence measurements. Based on a machine learning framework, we examined the predictive effect of EF-related functional connectivity(FC) on fluid intelligence (Gf) and crystallized intelligence (Gc) using a connectome-based predictive model. The results showed that all types of EF-related FCs (i.e., EF-common, updating-, shifting-, and inhibition-specific FCs) predicted novel subjects' Gf and Gc in the primary dataset and successfully generalized to the hold-out dataset. Additionally, EF-related FCs appeared to demonstrate better performance in predicting Gc. Identified predictive FCs revealed the domain-general and domain-specific connectivity patterns of EFs, and the network hubs were mainly located in the default mode, cognitive control, salience, and visual networks. These findings facilitate our understanding of the relation between multiple EF domains and intelligence from the perspective of network neuroscience, suggesting that different intellectual abilities and EFs share similar neural bases to some extent, which allows the link between EFs and intelligence to be revisited.

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Kevin S. McGrew, PhD
Educational & School Psychologist
Director
Institute for Applied Psychometrics (IAP)
https://www.themindhub.com
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Tuesday, February 23, 2021

The structure of working memory during childhood: a systematic review: Journal of Cognitive Psychology: Vol 0, No 0

https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/20445911.2021.1887199

ABSTRACT
There are many working memory (WM) models, generally formulated and developed in adults. Controversies arise as to whether such models are adequate conceptualizations of WM in children. The aim of the present study is to perform a systematic review of studies that evaluate the structure of WM during childhood. Databases (PubMed, Scopus) and article reference lists were reviewed, identifying 264 studies and including 14 in the review. These include participants between 4 and 15 years of age, with typical development, and they evaluated the structure of WM using confirmatory factor analysis. Results show that from 4 to 6 years onwards a structure composed of a domain-general executive component together with two domain-specific storage components (verbal, visuospatial) is identified, generally being the best fitting model. Limitations and potential contributions of the reported results are discussed.

Monday, February 22, 2021

Dr. Farmers CPA remote assessment slides



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Kevin McGrew, PhD
Educational Psychologist
Director, Institute for Applied Psychometrics
IAP
www.themindhub.com
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Friday, February 12, 2021

Long-term stability of Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children–fifth edition scores in a clinical sample: Applied Neuropsychology: Child: Vol 0, No 0

 Long-term stability of Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children–fifth edition scores in a clinical sample: Applied Neuropsychology: Child: Vol 0, No 0 
https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/21622965.2021.1875827

Abstract
This study investigated the stability of Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children–Fifth Edition (WISC-V) scores for 225 children and adolescents from an outpatient neuropsychological clinic across, on average, a 2.6 year test-retest interval. WISC-V mean scores were relatively constant but subtest stability score coefficients were all below 0.80 (M = 0.66) and only the Verbal Comprehension Index (VCI), Visual Spatial Index (VSI), and omnibus Full Scale IQ (FSIQ) stability coefficients exceeded 0.80. Neither intraindividual subtest difference scores nor intraindividual composite difference scores were stable across time (M = 0.26 and 0.36, respectively). Rare and unusual subtest and composite score differences as well as subtest and index scatter at initial testing were unlikely to be repeated at retest (kappa = 0.03 to 0.49). It was concluded that VCI, VSI, and FSIQ scores might be sufficiently stable to support normative comparisons but that none of the intraindividual (i.e. idiographic, ipsative, or person-relative) measures were stable enough for confident clinical decision making.

Thursday, February 11, 2021

Valuing Educational Measurement - Sireci - - Educational Measurement: Issues and Practice - Wiley Online Library

 Valuing Educational Measurement - Sireci - - Educational Measurement: Issues and Practice - Wiley Online Library 
https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/emip.12415

Abstract

 The community  of educational measurement researchers and practitioners has made many positive contributions to education, but has also become complacent and lost the public trust. In this article, reasons for the lack of public trust in educational testing are described, and core values for educational measurement are proposed. Reasons for distrust of educational measurement include hypocritical practices that conflict with our professional standards, a biased and selected presentation of the history of testing, and inattention to social problems associated with educational measurement. The five core values proposed to help educational measurement serve education are: (a) everyone is capable of learning; (b) there are no differences in the capacity to learn across groups defined by race, ethnicity, or sex; (c) all educational tests are fallible to some degree; (d) educational tests can provide valuable information to improve student learning and certify competence; and (e) all uses of educational test scores must be sufficiently justified by validity evidence. The importance of these core values for improving the science and practice of educational measurement to benefit society is discussed.

Wednesday, February 10, 2021

Age-related nuances in knowledge assessment - ScienceDirect

 Age-related nuances in knowledge assessment - ScienceDirect 

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0160289621000106?dgcid=author

Interesting hierarchy of knowledge (Gc)https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0160289621000106?dgcid=author

Monday, February 08, 2021

Age and ability differentiation in children: A review and empirical investigation. - PsycNET

 Age and ability differentiation in children: A review and empirical investigation. - PsycNET 
https://psycnet.apa.org/record/2021-14006-001

Abstract
Differentiation hypotheses concern changes in the structural organization of cognitive abilities that depend on the level of general intelligence (ability differentiation) or age (developmental differentiation). Part 1 of this article presents a review of the literature on ability and developmental differentiation effects in children, revealing the need for studies that examine both effects simultaneously in this age group with appropriate statistical methods. Part 2 presents an empirical study in which nonlinear factor analytic models were applied to the standardization sample (N= 2,619 German elementary schoolchildren; 48% female; age: M = 8.8 years, SD = 1.2, range 6–12 years) of the THINK 1–4 intelligence test to investigate ability differentiation, developmental differentiation, and their interaction. The sample was nationally representative regarding age, gender, urbanization, and geographic location of residence but not regarding parents' education and migration background (overrepresentation of children with more educated parents, underrepresentation of children with migration background). The results showed no consistent evidence for the presence of differentiation effects or their interaction. Instead, different patterns were observed for figural, numerical, and verbal reasoning. Implications for the construction of intelligence tests, the assessment of intelligence in children, and for theories of cognitive development are discussed. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved)

Saturday, February 06, 2021

Retest Reliability of Integrated Speed–Accuracy Measures - Tamar Bakun Emesh, Dror Garbi, Alon Kaplan, Hila Zelicha, Anat Yaskolka Meir, Gal Tsaban, Ehud Rinott, Nachshon Meiran, 2021

Retest Reliability of Integrated Speed–Accuracy Measures - Tamar Bakun Emesh, Dror Garbi, Alon Kaplan, Hila Zelicha, Anat Yaskolka Meir, Gal Tsaban, Ehud Rinott, Nachshon Meiran, 2021
https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/1073191120985609