Saturday, November 13, 2021

Genetically informed, multilevel analysis of the Flynn Effect across four decades and three WISC versions - Giangrande - - Child Development - Wiley Online Library

https://srcd.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/cdev.13675

Abstract

This study investigated the systematic rise in cognitive ability scores over generations, known as the Flynn Effect, across middle childhood and early adolescence (7–15 years; 291 monozygotic pairs, 298 dizygotic pairs; 89% White). Leveraging the unique structure of the Louisville Twin Study (longitudinal data collected continuously from 1957 to 1999 using the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children [WISC], WISC–R, and WISC–III ed.), multilevel analyses revealed between-subjects Flynn Effects—as both decrease in mean scores upon test re-standardization and increase in mean scores across cohorts—as well as within-child Flynn Effects on cognitive growth across age. Overall gains equaled approximately three IQ points per decade. Novel genetically informed analyses suggested that individual sensitivity to the Flynn Effect was moderated by an interplay of genetic and environmental factors.

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Kevin S. McGrew, PhD
Educational & School Psychologist
Director
Institute for Applied Psychometrics (IAP)
https://www.themindhub.com
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Friday, November 12, 2021

The Structure of Intrinsic Motivation | Annual Review of Organizational Psychology and Organizational Behavior

 The Structure of Intrinsic Motivation | Annual Review of Organizational Psychology and Organizational Behavior 
https://www.annualreviews.org/doi/abs/10.1146/annurev-orgpsych-012420-091122

Abstract
Intrinsic motivation (IM) is key for persistence at work. When they are intrinsically motivated, people experience work activities as an end in itself, such that the activity and its goal collide. The result is increased interest and enjoyment of work activities. In this article, we review the current state of knowledge on IM, including studies within organizational, cognitive, and social psychology. We distinguish our structural perspective, which defines IM as the overlap between means and ends (e.g., the means-ends fusion model), from content-based approaches to study IM. We specifically discuss three questions: (a) What is IM and why does it matter, (b) how can individuals and organizations increase IM, and (c) what biases and misconceptions do employees and managers hold about IM?
Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Organizational Psychology and Organizational Behavior, Volume 9 is January 2022. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.

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Kevin S. McGrew, PhD
Educational & School Psychologist
Director
Institute for Applied Psychometrics (IAP)
https://www.themindhub.com
******************************************

Friday, October 29, 2021

For IQs Corner readers: The Cognitive-Affective-Motivation Model of Learning (CAMML): Standing on the Shoulders of Giants - Kevin S. McGrew, 2021

I'm pleased to share my new pub with my blog readers.

 The Cognitive-Affective-Motivation Model of Learning (CAMML): Standing on the Shoulders of Giants - Kevin S. McGrew, 2021 
https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/08295735211054270

The Cognitive-Affective-Motivation Model of Learning (CAMML): Standing on the Shoulders of Giants
Kevin S. McGrew
First Published October 25, 2021 Research Article 
https://doi.org/10.1177/08295735211054270

No Access

Abstract
The Cognitive-Affective-Motivation Model of Learning (CAMML) is a proposed framework for integrating contemporary motivation, affective (Big 5 personality) and cognitive (CHC theory) constructs in the practice of school psychologists (SPs). The central tenet of this article is that SPs need to integrate motivation alongside affective and cognitive constructs vis-à-vis an updated trilogy-of-the-mind (cognitive, conative, affective) model of intellectual functioning. CAMML builds on Richard Snow's seminal research on academic aptitudes—which are not synonymous with cognitive abilities. Learning aptitude complexes are academic domain-specific cognitive abilities and personal investment mechanisms (motivation and self-regulation) that collectively produce a student's readiness to learn in a specific domain. CAMML incorporates the "crossing the Rubicon" commitment pathway model of motivated self-regulated learning. It is recommended SPs take a fresh look at motivation theory, constructs, and research, embedded in the CAMML aptitude framework, by going back-to-the-future guided by the wisdom of giants from the field of cognition, intelligence, and educational psychology.
Keywords 
motivationself-regulated learningaptitudesdomain-specificaptitude complexescrossing the Rubicontaxonomiesindividual differencesreadinessCHC theoryBig 5Gf-Gc theory

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Kevin S. McGrew, PhD
Educational & School Psychologist
Director
Institute for Applied Psychometrics (IAP)
https://www.themindhub.com
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Relations among phonological processing skills and mathematics in children: A meta-analysis. - PsycNET

 Relations among phonological processing skills and mathematics in children: A meta-analysis. - PsycNET 
https://psycnet.apa.org/record/2021-98184-001

Citation
Yang, X., Yan, M., Ruan, Y., Ku, S. Y. Y., Lo, J. C. M., Peng, P., & McBride, C. (2021). Relations among phonological processing skills and mathematics in children: A meta-analysis. Journal of Educational Psychology. Advance online publication. https://doi.org/10.1037/edu0000710

Abstract
The present study presents a meta-analysis of the relations between phonological processing abilities and different mathematics subskills. Using a random-effects model with 94 studies (135 unique samples, 826 effect sizes), the present meta-analysis revealed a significant general association between phonological processing and mathematics (average r = .33, p < .001, 95% CI [.30, .36]). Phonological awareness (PA) and rapid automatized naming (RAN) showed stronger correlations with mathematics than phonological memory (PM) did. The correlations among phonological processing abilities and mathematics skills were generally stronger among younger children than among older children. PA and PM manifested larger effect sizes when correlated with mathematics accuracy than with mathematics fluency, whereas RAN yielded larger effect sizes when associated with mathematics fluency than with mathematics accuracy. Metastructural equation modeling results revealed that, after statistically controlling for domain-general abilities (i.e., vocabulary knowledge, executive functioning, and nonverbal intelligence), phonological processing still made a unique contribution to different mathematics subskills (βs = .20 ∼ .54). These results suggest that children may use phonological processing abilities as one mechanism through which to represent, manipulate, and retrieve mathematics knowledge. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved)

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Kevin S. McGrew, PhD
Educational & School Psychologist
Director
Institute for Applied Psychometrics (IAP)
https://www.themindhub.com
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Monday, October 25, 2021

On the prediction of human intelligence from neuroimaging: A systematic review of methods and reporting | bioRxiv


On the prediction of human intelligence from neuroimaging: A systematic review of methods and reporting | bioRxiv 
https://www.biorxiv.org/content/10.1101/2021.10.19.462649v1

Abstract
Human intelligence is one of the main objects of study in cognitive neuroscience. Reviews and meta-analyses have proved to be fundamental to establish and cement neuroscientific theories on intelligence. The prediction of intelligence using in vivo neuroimaging data and machine learning has become a widely accepted and replicated result. Here, we present a systematic review of this growing area of research, based on studies that employ structural, functional, and/or diffusion MRI to predict human intelligence in cognitively normal subjects using machine-learning. We performed a systematic assessment of methodological and reporting quality, using the PROBAST and TRIPOD assessment forms and 30 studies identified through a systematic search. We observed that fMRI is the most employed modality, resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) is the most studied predictor, and the Human Connectome Project is the most employed dataset. A meta-analysis revealed a significant difference between the performance obtained in the prediction of general and fluid intelligence from fMRI data, confirming that the quality of measurement moderates this association. The expected performance of studies predicting general intelligence from fMRI was estimated to be r = 0.42 (CI95% = [0.35, 0.50]) while for studies predicting fluid intelligence obtained from a single test, expected performance was estimated as r = 0.15 (CI95% = [0.13, 0.17]). We further enumerate some virtues and pitfalls we identified in the methods for the assessment of intelligence and machine learning. The lack of treatment of confounder variables, including kinship, and small sample sizes were two common occurrences in the literature which increased risk of bias. Reporting quality was fair across studies, although reporting of results and discussion could be vastly improved. We conclude that the current literature on the prediction of intelligence from neuroimaging data is reaching maturity. Performance has been reliably demonstrated, although extending findings to new populations is indispensable. Current results could be used by future works to foment new theories on the biological basis of intelligence differences.

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Kevin S. McGrew, PhD
Educational & School Psychologist
Director
Institute for Applied Psychometrics (IAP)
https://www.themindhub.com
******************************************

Sunday, October 03, 2021

‘Race-norming’ kept former NFL players from dementia diagnoses. Their families want answers.

 'Race-norming' kept former NFL players from dementia diagnoses. Their families want answers. 
https://www.washingtonpost.com/sports/2021/09/29/nfl-concussion-settlement-race-norming/

I believe this refers to demographically adjusted or Heaton neuropsych norms…which have occasionally been used inappropriately in Atkins ID death penalty cases.

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Kevin S. McGrew, PhD
Educational & School Psychologist
Director
Institute for Applied Psychometrics (IAP)
https://www.themindhub.com
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Thursday, September 30, 2021

A critical review of antecedents of psychological measurement: Is it necessary to revisit or reorganized the foundations Psychometry? | Journal of Basic and Applied Psychology Research

 A critical review of antecedents of psychological measurement: Is it necessary to revisit or reorganized the foundations Psychometry? | Journal of Basic and Applied Psychology Research 
https://repository.uaeh.edu.mx/revistas/index.php/jbapr/article/view/6774

The purpose of present essay was revisited and supplemented antecedents on psychological measurement and analyzed his foundations in a scientific perspective. This review includes since early great pioneers of measurement at the beginning of nineteen century to the principal contributions of psychometrics in the middle of twenty century. The researcher' knowledge on the Science History in general and the analysis of theories and methodological antecedents of their discipline are very important to an integral scientific' formation. The problems and challenges of science are showed an interdisciplinary approach that permits the comprehension of scientific concepts and methods, to improve and reorganized each discipline with a broad and new perspective. The roots of Psychometry included pioneers and contributors in Mathematical, Statistical, and Experimental Sciences, who's had persisted with creativity in the development of theories, methods, models, technics and procedures to construct psychological measurements in social and behavioral sciences. Since the Rasch' Model and the Item Response Theory, among others advances in multivariate statistics, the modern Psychometry have theories, models, applied strategies and methods to document validity and reliability evidence. Psychometrics today, counts with standards to guide best practices in test development and validation in behavioral sciences

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Kevin S. McGrew, PhD
Educational & School Psychologist
Director
Institute for Applied Psychometrics (IAP)
https://www.themindhub.com
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Tuesday, September 28, 2021

To predict the future, consider the past: Revisiting Carroll (1993) as a guide to the future of intelligence research - ScienceDirect

 To predict the future, consider the past: Revisiting Carroll (1993) as a guide to the future of intelligence research - ScienceDirect 
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0160289621000696

Abstract
There is a widely held consensus in the field of intelligence research that the broad factors identified by Cattell, Horn, and Carroll are an adequate summary of individual differences in human cognitive abilities. Most researchers would agree that the redundancy among these factors is best accounted for by an overarching general factor. We think the best way to acknowledge major accomplishments is to build upon them with the goal to challenge the status quo. Here we want to do so by discussing six broad ability factors that are either considered in Carroll's epochal book or could be candidates for future inclusions to the list of established cognitive ability factors: fluid intelligence, crystallized intelligence, cognitive speed, creativity, social and emotional intelligence, and collaborative problem solving. We conclude with four pleas: reunite correlational and experimental research, enrich construct interpretations, reunite educational and psychological measurement of maximal cognitive effort, and reconsider the sampling of indicators and content validity.

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Kevin S. McGrew, PhD
Educational & School Psychologist
Director
Institute for Applied Psychometrics (IAP)
https://www.themindhub.com
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Monday, September 13, 2021

Achievement Motivation: What We Know and Where We Are Going | Annual Review of Developmental Psychology

Achievement Motivation: What We Know and Where We Are Going | Annual Review of Developmental Psychology
https://www.annualreviews.org/doi/abs/10.1146/annurev-devpsych-050720-103500

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Kevin S. McGrew, PhD
Educational & School Psychologist
Director
Institute for Applied Psychometrics (IAP)
https://www.themindhub.com
******************************************

Monday, August 30, 2021

Déjà vu All Over Again: A Unitary Biological Mechanism for Intelligence Is (Probably) Untenable

https://www.mdpi.com/2079-3200/8/2/24

Abstract
Nearly a century ago, Spearman proposed that "specific factors can be regarded as the 'nuts and bolts' of cognitive performance…, while the general factor is the mental energy available to power the specific engines". Geary (2018; 2019) takes Spearman's analogy of "mental energy" quite literally and doubles-down on the notion by proposing that a unitary energy source, the mitochondria, explains variations in both cognitive function and health-related outcomes. This idea is reminiscent of many earlier attempts to describe a low-level biological determinant of general intelligence. While Geary does an admirable job developing an innovative theory with specific and testable predictions, this new theory suffers many of the shortcomings of previous attempts at similar goals. We argue that Geary's theory is generally implausible, and does not map well onto known psychological and genetic properties of intelligence or its relationship to health and fitness. While Geary's theory serves as an elegant model of "what could be", it is less successful as a description of "what is". View Full-Text
Keywords: intelligenceprocessing speedattentionworking memoryheritability

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Kevin S. McGrew, PhD
Educational & School Psychologist
Director
Institute for Applied Psychometrics (IAP)
https://www.themindhub.com
******************************************

Sunday, August 15, 2021

Frontiers | Neuropsychological Development of Cool and Hot Executive Functions Between 6 and 12 Years of Age: A Systematic Review | Psychology

 Frontiers | Neuropsychological Development of Cool and Hot Executive Functions Between 6 and 12 Years of Age: A Systematic Review | Psychology 
https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fpsyg.2021.687337/full

Neuropsychological Development of Cool and Hot Executive Functions Between 6 and 12 Years of Age: A Systematic Review
Previous studies on the development of executive functions (EFs) in middle childhood have traditionally focused on cognitive, or "cool," EFs: working memory, inhibitory control and cognitive flexibility. However, knowledge of the development of socio-emotional, or "hot," EFs, such as delay of gratification, decision-making and theory of mind, is more limited. The main aims of this systematic review were to characterize the typical development of both the primary cool and hot EFs in middle childhood, and to identify the main tools for evaluating EFs as a whole. We conducted a systematic search on studies of cognitive and socio-emotional EFs published in the last 5 years in Pubmed, PsycInfo, and WoS databases. Of 44 studies selected, we found a variety of tasks measuring cool EFs, while measures of hot EFs were limited. Nevertheless, the available data suggest that cool and hot components follow distinct, but related, developmental trajectories during middle childhood

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Kevin S. McGrew, PhD
Educational & School Psychologist
Director
Institute for Applied Psychometrics (IAP)
https://www.themindhub.com
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