Thursday, December 18, 2014

127 scientists challenge the purported brain training "conse...

127 scientists challenge the purported brain training "consensus" released by Stanford Center for Longevity

sharpbrains.com  •  —"A group of 127 sci­en­tists sent an "open let­ter" to the Stan­ford Cen­ter for Longevity, today, in reac­tion to a recent state­ment by the cen­ter that was highly crit­i­cal of the emerg­ing …
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Journal Alert: Current Directions 23:6 now available online



From: APS Journals
Sent: ‎Thursday‎, ‎December‎ ‎18‎, ‎2014 ‎2‎:‎42‎ ‎PM
To: wj3chc@gmail.com



 
Current Directions in Psychological Science 

 

 

Current Directions in Psychological Science is a publication of the Association for Psychological Science.

 

 



Editor
Randall W. Engle
Georgia Institute of Technology

Advisory Board

Martha Ann Bell

Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University

 

Sheldon Cohen
Carnegie Mellon University
 
Mark D'Esposito

University of California, Berkeley  

 

Frank Durso 

Georgia Institute of Technology

 

Joseph P. Forgas

University of New South Wales, Australia

 

Chris Fraley 

University of Illinois

 

Susan Gathercole

MRC Cognition and Brain Sciences Unit, Cambridge

 

Isabel Gauthier

Vanderbilt University

 

Susan Mineka

Northwestern University

 

David Myers

Hope College

 

James Nairne

Purdue University

 

Howard Weiss

Georgia Institute of Technology

 

Steve West

Arizona State University  

 


 
   

 

        

 

 

 

 

 

Volume 23, Number 6   

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Current Directions in Psychological Science
The links below take you to the journal via the APS website. If not already logged in, you will be redirected to log-in using your last name (McGrew) and Member ID (105686).

Jennifer Hahn-Holbrook and Martie Haselton

The lifestyles of humans today are far different from lifestyles believed to have been typical throughout the ancient past. Hahn-Holbrook and Haselton review evidence suggesting that changes in humans' diet, breastfeeding duration, and level of exercise and sun exposure -- as well as in the amount of social support available to new mothers -- have created an evolutionary mismatch that may explain the increased incidence of postpartum depression seen in modern societies.

 


J. David Creswell and Emily K. Lindsay

Recent studies examining the impact of mindfulness training have shown exciting results suggesting that such training can improve a host of mental and psychological outcomes. Despite these promising findings, little is known about the mechanisms through which mindfulness influences health. Creswell and Lindsay propose -- and present support for -- the mindfulness stress buffering account as a way of explaining this connection. In this account, mindfulness influences mental and physical health through the reduction of stress reactivity responses.


James Rivière

According to traditional views of cognitive psychology, the main generator of situation-appropriate actions is the brain; however, this view is being challenged by embodied-cognition perspectives, which place more emphasis on the body's interaction with the world. Rivière describes what errors seen in childhood -- such as A-not-B errors, in which a child continues to search for an object in one location (A) after seeing it moved to another location (B) -- can tell us about the perceptual-motor mechanisms that influence decision-making processes.


Learning to Attend Selectively: The Dual Role of Intersensory Redundancy   

Lorraine E. Bahrick and Robert Lickliter

The ability to selectively direct attention to relevant information while ignoring irrelevant information is an important skill -- one at which adults are adept; however, young children are not good at selectively deploying their attention. Bahrick and Lickliter examine how this skill develops in infancy and early childhood. They discuss the intersensory-redundancy hypothesis, a framework for understanding what young children are most likely to attend to in specific situations and how children's attentional selectivity grows and changes over time.


Delroy L. Paulhus

Interest in dark personality traits, such as narcissism and Machiavellianism, has taken off in recent years. According to Paulhus, this expanded interest in aversive personalities has led to new advances and new challenges. Although researchers still struggle with the ethical implications involved in studying these types of dark traits, new advances have led to a better understanding of the separate and shared features of each personality, as well as its behavioral-genetic origins and its link to the larger personality and psychopathology literature.


Marital Quality and Health: Implications for Marriage in the 21st Century   

Theodore F. Robles

When couples get married, they often vow to stay together "for better or for worse" and "in sickness and in health." These are surprisingly relevant statements, as a wide body of research now shows that marriage quality can influence couples' physical health. Robles reviews findings from a recent meta-analysis examining this topic, showing how potential moderators -- such as social-cognitive and emotional processes, psychopathology, gender, and personality characteristics -- may explain the link between marriage and health.


The Duality of Human Nature: Coercion and Prosociality in Youths' Hierarchy Ascension and Social Success   

Patricia H. Hawley

Aggression in humans is often linked with negative outcomes, but research conducted in nonhuman animal species shows that aggression can be adaptive. Hawley examines aggression and prosocial behavior, reviewing research that shows that humans can be characterized by how they employ coercive (i.e., aggressive) and prosocial (i.e., cooperative) behavior in an effort to control resources and move up the social hierarchy. The findings show that even those who use aggressive tactics can be considered socially competent and attractive.


Koleen McCrink and John E. Opfer

Associations between spatial and numerical information -- such as thinking of a number line increasing in numeric value from left to right -- permeate our adult life, but how do these associations initially develop? McCrink and Opfer review research suggesting that children are born with a bias to link spatial and numerical information but that the way this association develops (e.g., spatially mapping smaller numbers on the left vs. on the right) is influenced by both motor and cultural experiences.


Health Neuroscience: Defining a New Field   

Kirk I. Erickson, J. David Creswell, Timothy D. Verstynen, and Peter J. Gianaros

The fields of health psychology and neuroscience have been advancing somewhat independently, but much can be learned about health by focusing on the brain and its role in physical health. Erickson and colleagues feel the time is ripe for the introduction of an integrative new field called heath neuroscience. The goal of this field is to identify the bidirectional brain-behavior and brain-physiology relationships that serve as determinants, markers, and consequences of health across the life span.


Kristof Dhont and Gordon Hodson

Past research examining the link between cognitive ability and prejudice has consistently found that lower cognitive ability predicts greater levels of prejudice. Dhont and Hodson explain why this might be so and propose a new conceptual framework -- the Cognitive Ability and Style to Evaluation model -- to advance and inspire research on the underpinnings of ideological belief systems and prejudice.


The Role of Personality in Sport and Physical Activity   

Mark S. Allen and Sylvain Laborde

Why do some people seem destined to be star athletes, while others have trouble getting off the couch? Allen and Laborde examine the ways personality traits influence and are influenced by physical activity and sport. Findings from this field of work suggest that personality traits, especially contentiousness and neuroticism, are important for predicting healthy and unhealthy physical behaviors and sport achievement across the life span.


The Role of Ambulatory Assessment in Psychological Science   

Timothy J. Trull and Ulrich Ebner-Priemer

Researchers often use retrospective measures or laboratory assessments to investigate psychological phenomena; however, these methods may not capture how people's emotions, thoughts, and behaviors unfold in daily life. Trull and Ebner-Priemer discuss ambulatory assessments as a way of studying people in their natural environment. The development of new technologies, such as wireless networks of body sensors and smartphones, provides promising future prospects for the use of this methodology in a wide range of research areas.

Ulrich Ebner-Priemer will be speaking in an Integrative Science Symposium at the inaugural International Convention of Psychological Science.


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Current Directions in Psychological Science is a publication of the Association for Psychological Science. Please contact APS by email or by telephone at +1 202.293.9300 with questions or comments.

 

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Wednesday, December 17, 2014

Article: How music class can spark language development


How music class can spark language development
http://www.psypost.org/2014/12/music-class-can-spark-language-development-30245

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Cognitive training data: Response letter



Homepage

cognitivetrainingdata.org  •  In October 2014, the Stanford Center on Longevity released a statement titled "A Consensus on the Brain Training Industry from the Scientific Community." However, the statement did not reflect a true …



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New Technology Advances Eye Tracking as Biomarker for Brain Function and Brain Injury




*************************************
Kevin McGrew, PhD.
Educational Psychologist
Director
Institute for Applied Psychometrics
www.themindhub.com
**************************************

Tuesday, December 16, 2014

Belguim CHC conference Feb 2015: New angles on intelligence: A closer look at the CHC model

New angles on intelligence! A closer look at the CHC model is  conference scheduled for February 5 and 6 at Thomas Moore college in Antwerp, Belguim.  Information can be found here.

Monday, December 15, 2014

neuronal networks and brain waves




*************************************
Kevin McGrew, PhD.
Educational Psychologist
Director
Institute for Applied Psychometrics
www.themindhub.com
**************************************

Sunday, December 14, 2014

Saturday, December 13, 2014

Sharing Dyscalculia and dyslexia in adults: Cognitive bases of comorbidity via BrowZine

Dyscalculia and dyslexia in adults: Cognitive bases of comorbidity
Wilson, Anna J.; Andrewes, Stuart G.; Struthers, Helena; Rowe, Victoria M.; Bogdanovic, Rajna; Waldie, Karen E.
Learning and Individual Differences, Vol. 37 – 2015: 118 - 132

10.1016/j.lindif.2014.11.017

University of Minnesota Users:
http://login.ezproxy.lib.umn.edu/login?url=http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1041608014002179

Non-University of Minnesota Users: (Full text may not be available)
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1041608014002179

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Sunday, December 07, 2014

The WJ IV Measurement of Auditory Processing (Ga): An online powerpoint slide show



The WJ IV Measurement of Auditory Processing (Ga) from Kevin McGrew

The WJ IV Cognitive and Oral Language include new measures of auditory processing (Ga) that are much more cognitively complex auditory measures of intelligence.  This short presentation provides an overview of the WJ IV Ga tests and presents evidence supporting the importance of Ga as a major component of human intelligence.

Saturday, December 06, 2014

Supreme Court Takes Case on Evidence of Intellectual Disability [feedly]



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Supreme Court Takes Case on Evidence of Intellectual Disability
// Crime and Consequences Blog

Kevan Brumfield murdered Police Corporal Betty Smothers in Baton Rouge, Louisiana in 1993.  He went on trial in 1995.  Six years earlier the Supreme Court decided in Penry v. Lynaugh that mental retardation (now called intellectual disability) is a mitigating factor that the jury must be allowed to consider but not a categorical exclusion.  Brumfield's lawyers put on no evidence of retardation, instead arguing other factors as mitigation, and he was sentenced to death.

Seven years after the trial, the Supreme Court decided in Atkins v. Virginia that retardation would be a categorical exclusion after all.  The high court did not apologize for its flip-flop.  On state collateral review, the trial judge denied the petition on the basis of the trial record.

What to do on federal habeas?  The deference standard of 28 U.S.C. §2254(d) allows a federal court to grant relief despite a state court's denial on the merits if the state court's "adjudication of the claim ... (2) resulted in a decision that was based on an unreasonable determination of the facts in light of the evidence presented in the State court proceeding." 

But what if the argument is that the state court's unreasonableness was in not allowing evidence, rather than assessment of evidence?  Can a rule to deal with that issue be crafted without opening the door to federal micromanagement of state collateral review or the wholesale relitigation that the AEDPA reforms were enacted to prevent?
And was the state court unreasonable in this case?  Brumfield's attorneys tell the Supreme Court, "defense counsel had no reason to argue mental retardation, particularly given that the trial took place before Atkins ...."  Nonsense.  Penry was the law at the time of trial, they had the right to put on mental retardation evidence as a mitigating circumstance, and retardation is a powerful mitigator.  (If it isn't, then Atkins was wrongly decided.)  There is language in some Supreme Court cases to the effect that retardation evidence can sometimes be a "two-edged sword," but it's hard to see that in this case.  Retardation is surely a more powerful mitigator than the stuff he was arguing.  From the certiorari petition for Brumfield:

Dr. Bolter concluded that, as a child, Petitioner appeared to have a conduct disorder, educational problems, and attention deficit disorder, and, as an adult, had more of an antisocial or sociopathic personality, continued attention difficulty, and a rapid rate of forgetting. See Pet. App. 122a-23a. Dr. Guin concluded that Brumfield's childhood was "very chaotic, [and] very complicated" and he had a non-supportive environment at home. See Pet. App. 124a.
Trial counsel passed on the powerful mitigator of retardation to avoid undercutting his "mitigating" evidence of "antisocial or sociopathic personality"?  Come off it.  Sociopathy is aggravating!

Even so, Atkins is different from Penry, and state collateral review courts should allow evidence of retardation in pre-Atkins cases when a sufficient preliminary showing of a substantial Atkins claim has been made, regardless of whether any retardation evidence was introduced at trial.  What to do when they do not?

Congress wasn't thinking about this situation when it enacted AEDPA.  It will take some doing to craft an acceptable answer and fit it into the statutory language.

The Supreme Court took up the case today in Brumfield v. Cain, No. 13-1433.

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Working memory and Gf shared variance



 
Saturday, December 6, 2014
11:20 AM
 


 

Article: Myth-conceptions: How myths about the brain are hampering teaching


Myth-conceptions: How myths about the brain are hampering teaching
http://www.psypost.org/2014/10/myth-conceptions-myths-brain-hampering-teaching-28746

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*********************************************
Kevin McGrew, PhD
Educational Psychologist 
Director
Institute for Applied Psychometrics
*********************************************

Article: Does Losing Handwriting In School Mean Losing Other Skills Too?