Monday, September 13, 2021

Achievement Motivation: What We Know and Where We Are Going | Annual Review of Developmental Psychology

Achievement Motivation: What We Know and Where We Are Going | Annual Review of Developmental Psychology
https://www.annualreviews.org/doi/abs/10.1146/annurev-devpsych-050720-103500

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Kevin S. McGrew, PhD
Educational & School Psychologist
Director
Institute for Applied Psychometrics (IAP)
https://www.themindhub.com
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Monday, August 30, 2021

Déjà vu All Over Again: A Unitary Biological Mechanism for Intelligence Is (Probably) Untenable

https://www.mdpi.com/2079-3200/8/2/24

Abstract
Nearly a century ago, Spearman proposed that "specific factors can be regarded as the 'nuts and bolts' of cognitive performance…, while the general factor is the mental energy available to power the specific engines". Geary (2018; 2019) takes Spearman's analogy of "mental energy" quite literally and doubles-down on the notion by proposing that a unitary energy source, the mitochondria, explains variations in both cognitive function and health-related outcomes. This idea is reminiscent of many earlier attempts to describe a low-level biological determinant of general intelligence. While Geary does an admirable job developing an innovative theory with specific and testable predictions, this new theory suffers many of the shortcomings of previous attempts at similar goals. We argue that Geary's theory is generally implausible, and does not map well onto known psychological and genetic properties of intelligence or its relationship to health and fitness. While Geary's theory serves as an elegant model of "what could be", it is less successful as a description of "what is". View Full-Text
Keywords: intelligenceprocessing speedattentionworking memoryheritability

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Kevin S. McGrew, PhD
Educational & School Psychologist
Director
Institute for Applied Psychometrics (IAP)
https://www.themindhub.com
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Sunday, August 15, 2021

Frontiers | Neuropsychological Development of Cool and Hot Executive Functions Between 6 and 12 Years of Age: A Systematic Review | Psychology

 Frontiers | Neuropsychological Development of Cool and Hot Executive Functions Between 6 and 12 Years of Age: A Systematic Review | Psychology 
https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fpsyg.2021.687337/full

Neuropsychological Development of Cool and Hot Executive Functions Between 6 and 12 Years of Age: A Systematic Review
Previous studies on the development of executive functions (EFs) in middle childhood have traditionally focused on cognitive, or "cool," EFs: working memory, inhibitory control and cognitive flexibility. However, knowledge of the development of socio-emotional, or "hot," EFs, such as delay of gratification, decision-making and theory of mind, is more limited. The main aims of this systematic review were to characterize the typical development of both the primary cool and hot EFs in middle childhood, and to identify the main tools for evaluating EFs as a whole. We conducted a systematic search on studies of cognitive and socio-emotional EFs published in the last 5 years in Pubmed, PsycInfo, and WoS databases. Of 44 studies selected, we found a variety of tasks measuring cool EFs, while measures of hot EFs were limited. Nevertheless, the available data suggest that cool and hot components follow distinct, but related, developmental trajectories during middle childhood

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Kevin S. McGrew, PhD
Educational & School Psychologist
Director
Institute for Applied Psychometrics (IAP)
https://www.themindhub.com
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Saturday, August 14, 2021

Explaining the high working memory capacity of gifted children: Contributions of processing skills and executive control - ScienceDirect

 Explaining the high working memory capacity of gifted children: Contributions of processing skills and executive control - ScienceDirect 
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0001691821001086?via%3Dihub

Explaining the high working memory capacity of gifted children: Contributions of processing skills and executive control.
Intellectually gifted children tend to demonstrate especially high working memory capacity, an ability that holds a critical role in intellectual functioning. What could explain the differences in working memory performance between intellectually gifted and nongifted children? We investigated this issue by measuring working memory capacity with complex spans in a sample of 55 gifted and 55 nongifted children. Based on prior studies, we expected the higher working memory capacity of intellectually gifted children to be driven by more effective executive control, as measured using the Attention Network Test. The findings confirmed that intellectually gifted children had higher working memory capacity than typical children, as well as more effective executive attention. Surprisingly, however, working memory differences between groups were not mediated by differences in executive attention. Instead, it appears that gifted children resolve problems faster in the processing phase of the working memory task, which leaves them more time to refresh to-be-remembered items. This faster problem solving speed mediated their advantage in working memory capacity. Importantly, this effect was specific to speed on complex problems: low-level processing speed, as measured with the Attention Network Test, did not contribute to the higher working memory capacity of gifted children. 

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Kevin S. McGrew, PhD
Educational & School Psychologist
Director
Institute for Applied Psychometrics (IAP)
https://www.themindhub.com
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Friday, August 13, 2021

When academic achievement (also) reflects personality: Using the personality-achievement saturation hypothesis (PASH) to explain differential associations between achievement measures and personality traits. - PsycNET

 When academic achievement (also) reflects personality: Using the personality-achievement saturation hypothesis (PASH) to explain differential associations between achievement measures and personality traits. - PsycNET 
https://psycnet.apa.org/record/2021-74431-001

Citation
Hübner, N., Spengler, M., Nagengast, B., Borghans, L., Schils, T., & Trautwein, U. (2021). When academic achievement (also) reflects personality: Using the personality-achievement saturation hypothesis (PASH) to explain differential associations between achievement measures and personality traits. Journal of Educational Psychology. Advance online publication. https://doi.org/10.1037/edu0000571

Abstract
Students' academic achievement is a key predictor of various life outcomes and is commonly used for selection as well as for educational monitoring and accountability. With regard to achievement indicators, a differentiation has traditionally been drawn between grades and standardized tests. There is initial, albeit inconclusive, evidence that these indicators might differentially reflect students' personality as encapsulated in the Big Five personality traits as well as measures of cognitive abilities. In this article, we propose the personality-achievement saturation hypothesis (PASH) as an overarching model that describes the association between achievement indicators and personality. The PASH suggests that the differentiation between grades and tests is too simplistic and that associations between personality and achievement instead vary across five main features of the achievement measures that are used: level of standardization, relevance for the student, curricular validity, instructional sensitivity, and cognitive ability saturation. On the basis of findings from prior studies, we focused in particular on conscientiousness and openness to test the PASH. We used data from three large-scale studies (total N = 14,953) and aggregated our findings across these studies. In line with the PASH, the Big Five trait of conscientiousness was most strongly related to measures that were less standardized and less saturated with cognitive ability but higher on curriculum validity, relevance, and instructional sensitivity. In addition, openness was most strongly related to measures that were higher on standardization and cognitive ability saturation but lower on relevance, curriculum validity, and instructional sensitivity in English. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved)

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Kevin S. McGrew, PhD
Educational & School Psychologist
Director
Institute for Applied Psychometrics (IAP)
https://www.themindhub.com
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Connections between mathematics and reading development: Numerical cognition mediates relations between foundational competencies and later academic outcomes. - PsycNET

 Connections between mathematics and reading development: Numerical cognition mediates relations between foundational competencies and later academic outcomes. - PsycNET 
https://psycnet.apa.org/record/2021-74878-001

Citation
Spencer, M., Fuchs, L. S., Geary, D. C., & Fuchs, D. (2021). Connections between mathematics and reading development: Numerical cognition mediates relations between foundational competencies and later academic outcomes. Journal of Educational Psychology. Advance online publication. https://doi.org/10.1037/edu0000670

Abstract
We examined longitudinal relations between 1st-grade cognitive predictors (early nonverbal reasoning, processing speed, listening comprehension, working memory, calculation skill, word-problem solving, word-reading fluency, attentive behavior, and numerical cognition) and 2nd-grade academic outcomes (calculations, word-problem solving, and word reading) in 370 children (Mage = 6.55 years, SDage = 0.33 years at the start of the study) who were identified as at-risk or not-at-risk for mathematics disability. Path analysis mediation models revealed that numerical cognition, assessed at an intermediary timepoint, mediated the effects of processing speed, working memory, calculation skill, word-problem solving, and attentive behavior on all 3 outcomes. Findings indicate that multiple early domain-general cognitive abilities are related to later mathematics and reading outcomes and that numerical cognition processes, which may track ease of forming symbol-concept associations, predict later performance across both academic domains. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved)

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Kevin S. McGrew, PhD
Educational & School Psychologist
Director
Institute for Applied Psychometrics (IAP)
https://www.themindhub.com
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Tuesday, August 10, 2021

General intelligence and the dark triad: A meta-analysis. - PsycNET

 General intelligence and the dark triad: A meta-analysis. - PsycNET 
https://psycnet.apa.org/record/2021-71827-001

Citation
Michels, M. (2021). General intelligence and the dark triad: A meta-analysis. Journal of Individual Differences.Advance online publication. https://doi.org/10.1027/1614-0001/a000352

Abstract
The dark triad of personality (D3)—consisting of psychopathy, Machiavellianism, and narcissism—is a set of socially aversive personality traits. All three traits encompass disagreeable behavior and a particular disregard for the well-being of others, but also a tendency to strategic and deceptive manipulation of social environments in order to attain one′s goals. To exercise these complex manipulations effectively it seems beneficial to have high cognitive abilities. Therefore, a meta-analysis was conducted to examine possible relationships between intelligence and the dark triad. A total of 143 studies were identified to estimate the strength of relationships between the D3 and general, verbal, and nonverbal intelligence. The results indicate that none of the constructs of the dark triad are meaningfully related to intelligence. However, there was a small negative correlation between intelligence and Factor 2 psychopathy. The substantial heterogeneity regarding the observed effect sizes could not be explained with meta-regression for the most part. There was no evidence for a publication bias. In total, the results challenge the notion that the dark triad is an adaptive set of personality traits that enables individuals to effectively manipulate their social surroundings. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved)

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Kevin S. McGrew, PhD
Educational & School Psychologist
Director
Institute for Applied Psychometrics (IAP)
https://www.themindhub.com
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Saturday, August 07, 2021

Recent developments, current challenges, and future directions in electrophysiological approaches to studying intelligence - ScienceDirect

 Recent developments, current challenges, and future directions in electrophysiological approaches to studying intelligence - ScienceDirect 
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0160289621000532


Abstract

EEG studies represent an important sub-discipline in the field of intelligence research and have significant potential to advance the theoretical understanding and practical applications of the construct. This commentary reviews key themes and major developments in the field from the last several decades, and outlines open questions and future directions for the next phase of research. Two main areas of progress in recent years relate to (1) improvements in study design and psychometric approaches, and (2) increased integration with cognitive psychology and neuroscience. In turn, these advances have clarified several themes and pressing issues. These include: The need to establish the replicability and effect sizes of key effects, the need to explicitly attend to the distinction between trait- and task-related sources of variance in correlations between intelligence and EEG variables, the need to systematically identify and test moderators of those relationships, the need for greater use of formal modeling at the level of measurement and theory, and the need for continued integration of theoretical advances from related disciplines. We argue that an increased focus on these issues can yield rapid progress in this area over the coming years. The commentary concludes with suggestions for both immediate priorities and long-term directions in basic and applied EEG research on intelligence.



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Kevin S. McGrew, PhD
Educational & School Psychologist
Director
Institute for Applied Psychometrics (IAP)
https://www.themindhub.com
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Friday, August 06, 2021

Parsing information flow in speeded cognitive tasks: The role of g in perception and decision time. - PsycNET

Parsing information flow in speeded cognitive tasks: The role of g in perception and decision time. - PsycNET
https://psycnet.apa.org/record/2021-72829-001

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Kevin S. McGrew, PhD
Educational & School Psychologist
Director
Institute for Applied Psychometrics (IAP)
https://www.themindhub.com
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Thursday, August 05, 2021

Full artiThe relation between working memory, number sense, and mathematics throughout primary education in children with and without mathematical difficulties

Number sense and working memory contribute to mathematical development throughout primary school. However, it is still unclear how the contributions of each of these predictors may change across development and whether the cognitive contribution is the same for children with and without mathematical difficulties. The aim of the two studies in this paper was to shed light on these topics. In a cross-sectional design, a typically developing group of children (study 1; N = 459, Grades 1-4) and a group with mathematical difficulties (study 2; N = 61, Grades 4-6) completed a battery of number sense and working memory tests, as well as a measure of arithmetic competence. Results of study 1 indicated that number sense was important in first grade, while working memory gained importance in second grade, before predictive value of both predictors waned. Number sense and working memory supported mathematics development independently from one another from Grade 1. Analysis of task demands showed that typically developing children rely on comprehension and visualization of quantity-to-number associations in early development. Later in development, pupils rely on comparing larger numerals and working memory until automatization. Children with mathematical difficulties were less able to employ number sense during mathematical operations, and thus might remain dependent on their working memory resources during arithmetic tasks. This suggests that children with mathematical difficulties need aid to employ working memory for mathematics from an early age to be able to automatize mathematical abilities later in development.

 Full article: The relation between working memory, number sense, and mathematics throughout primary education in children with and without mathematical difficulties 
https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/09297049.2021.1959905

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Kevin S. McGrew, PhD
Educational & School Psychologist
Director
Institute for Applied Psychometrics (IAP)
https://www.themindhub.com
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Thursday, July 29, 2021

Myths and misconceptions about intelligence: A study of 35 myths - ScienceDirect

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0191886921003895 
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0191886921003895?via%3Dihub

Abstract This study is concerned with the extent to which people believe in, and endorse, various myths about intelligence and intelligence testing. It examined the prevalence of myths about intelligence as set out in a recent book (Warne, 2020). Participants (N = 275) completed a questionnaire in which they rated the extent to which they thought various statements/facts about intelligence were essentially true or false. In all, eighteen of these myths were rated as true (definitely or partly), two as definitely false and six probably false by the majority of the participants. There were no significant demographic or personality correlates of the total correct score (determined by rating the myth as false). The discussion considers why, in this important area of psychology, myths, misconceptions and ignorance seem so difficult to dispel. Limitations of this, and similar, studies are noted, and implications are discussed.

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Kevin S. McGrew,  PhD
Educational Psychologist
Director
Institute for Applied Psychometrics (IAP)
www.themindhub.com
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