Sunday, November 30, 2008

Beyond IQ Project: Ed Psych article abstracts

A recent issue of the Journal of Educational Psychology (2008, Vol. 100, 8) had a number of articles dealing with constructs included in the Beyond IQ projects Model of Academic Competence and Motivation (MACMM). Below are the iAbstracts (images captured and emailed from myiPhone). If any reader would like to read one of the articles (I would provide a copy of the pdf file), in exchange for a guest blog post summary to this bog, please contact the blogmaster (

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Give SAT-M at age 13?

Interesting research summary post @ PSYCH CENTRAL regarding predictive
validity of SAT-M at age 13. I'll have to track down the article for
a closer review.

Sent from KMcGrew iPhone (IQMobile)

Saturday, November 29, 2008

Overflowing brain- limits of working memory

Thanks to SHARP BRAINS for the tip on new interesting book that
appears to focus on the importance of controlled attention on working
memory during learning

Sent from KMcGrew iPhone (IQMobile)

Tuesday, November 25, 2008

Neuroscience core concepts

Looks like very informative educational material at the site.

Sent from KMcGrew iPhone (IQMobile)

IQs Corner Recent Literature of Interest 11-25-08

This weeks "recent literature" of interest is now available. Click here to access.

Dissertation Dish: CHC theory and neuropsychological assessment instruments

Neuropsychological assessment and the Cattell-Horn-Carroll (CHC) cognitive abilities model by Hoelzle, James B., Ph.D., The University of Toledo, 2008, 215 pages; AAT 3328214

  • This study determined whether popular neuropsychological measures evaluate Cattell-Horn-Carroll (CHC) broad and narrow cognitive abilities. A thorough literature review was conducted to identify relevant datasets that would permit factor analyses of targeted instruments. Seventy-seven datasets were obtained and analyzed, or reanalyzed, to ensure methodological consistency across samples. Many factor solutions included dimensions that reflected broad CHC ability constructs, which suggests it is possible to integrate aspects of neuropsychological assessment and the CHC theory. Overall, the project is relevant to assessment practice because it connects neuropsychological tests with CHC theory, and thus facilitates accurate interpretation of performances across different measures. It ultimately brings clinical practice and cognitive theory closer together.
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More on exercise and Alzheimers

Sent from KMcGrew iPhone (IQMobile)

Sunday, November 23, 2008

iPhone mobile blogging: What, why, how

Mobile blogging. iBlogging. iPhone blogging. What am I doing?

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Readers of my two professional blogs (IQs Corner; the IQ Brain Clock) may have noticed a significant change (enhancement in my mind) over the past few months. I've been using my relatively new 2G iPhone (what I believe is really the first real personal computer) to conduct mobile blogging...or what I sometimes call iBlogging or iPhone blogging.

Why am I doing this?

Simple. I currently subscribe (via RSS feeds) to 70+ other blogs. I use the RSS feed service Bloglines to monitor the posts from these blogs. What this means is that I receive real time notification that new posts have been made to any of the 70+ monitored blogs. A little colored asterisk shows on top of the Bloglines icon in my Windows computer tray (bottom right corner). It tells me that at least one new story has arrived. Typically it means there are dozens of new posts across the various blogs I monitor. I monitor all these other blogs in an attempt to stay abreast of emerging developments in my major areas of professional interest..and to pass links to these posts along to my readers.

Before I initiated mobile blogging, I checked my Bloglines information once a day. I tried to cull posts that I thought were of interest to the readers of my two professional blogs. After a while this became to daunting a task....I frequently would be faced with 200-300 posts...and I would scroll through the various titles and synopses looking for something useful. Many times the sheer volume resulted in me simply deleting them all..and promising to do a more thorough read the next day. It simply became to hard to stay on top of this volumn of information. And....if I was traveling......fugghet about it!!!!!!!!!

Then I purchased an iPhone and learned that I could monitor my Bloglines RSS feeds any time I had down time (waiting in line; during morning coffee; sitting on the BR throne; etc.) via the iPhone (either via the Edge network or any wifi signal). I learned that if I checked it regularly I was only faced with a fraction of the posted stories to review...and I could quickly do so directly on the iPhone screen...without having to boot up a computer. I could quickly cull the wheat from the chaffee. More importantly, I could instantly send information about a potentially interesting blog post to any of my blogs from the iPhone (in combination with a service provided by Blogger for cell-phone based blog posts). My readers could get up-to-date notification of previously ignored interesting posts...simply because I was making efficient use of all the various down time minutes in a typical day.

As a result, I realized that iBlogging could be a great supplement to my regular posts. I even started a personal Mobile IQ blog that I run almost exclusively from my iPhone.

The price for now being able to flag interesting posts from other blogs and share them routinely (and quickly) is that these posts are very brief and often look instead of embedding a hypertext URL link in a word or phrase, the available technology only allows me to email the complete URL to my its full and, often extended glory. I can type a brief message to accompany the "quickie" post via the keyboard on my iPhone...but it is not easy. So my pass-along ("look what I found...maybe you will find it interesting") posts are short, sweet, and often don't look that professional or neat. The only other option was to simply stop these FYI I could no longer keep up. So....I hope my readers recognize that they are getting more information (monitoring the pulse of the mind blogsphere) in a more timely manner....but at the expense of visual asthetics.

How is it done?

The screen shots in this message will help me demonstrate how easy this is. actually is very quick and easy. I can spot an interesting story/post during one of my Bloglines peeks...and in less than a minute flag it and email the URL (with a possible few comments) to be posted at one of my blogs. It is really quite amazing. Let me show you how.

This first screen image is of the first screen of my iPhone. MoBloglines is the icon I click on to see what new posts may have arrived since I last checked.

When I click on the Bloglines icon I see something like the screen below. It shows me that of the 73 different blogs I monitor.....there have been 16 different posts since I last checked (and cleared the system). The screen tells me that Mind Hacks (a great blog) has one new post. So I tap "Mind Hacks" with my finger.

I then see something like the following image. I can see the title of the blog post ("The perils of not....") and can read the first few sentences or paragraphs of the post.....which is enough to decide if I want to go to the complete story or simply check it off and move on to checking the next blog post alert. For this example post....I decided to click on the "the perils of not..." title...which instantly takes me to the Mind Hacks blog site where I can view the original post...all on my iPhone screen.

This is the Mind Hacks blog....and the particular story post. I read the post in greater depth....and sometimes follow links to other web pages or blogs. But, at this point I typically decide whether the readers of my blogs might be interested in this story. If not...I move on and leave it. If I think it may be interesting to my readers, I then initiate a relatively quick "copy and paste" routine (available on the web) that puts the URL to the Mind Hacks page you see in the image in an email message (on my iPhone-----I've still not had to boot up any computer..yippeeee) that I instantly send to a special email address (from Blogger) that immediately posts it to the appropriate blog...along with any text I may have added. Instant FYI dissemination.

I won't bore most readers withe the copy/paste steps involved. Interested folks can view the screens below to see the steps I need to complete...all that go very quickly. They are possible due to a neat little web-app called iCOPY.

Those not interested in the details should skip the next three images. Do not past not collect $ 200.00.

Here is the final product. This is my iPhone email all ready to go. In this example I'm ready to send the post to "Blog Posts IQ" which is the email contact name for the Blogger email address I use to email posts to IQs Corner. As you see.....all it is is a URL....that readers can click on and then go to the Mind Hacks blog post of interest. I often typically type a few comments before the hyperlink...but not always. Frequently I try to convey what the URL is about in the "subject" of the email. Click here if you want to see the actual result.

Thats it!!!!!!!!! It is very quick and efficient. Other variations include me not sending an actual URL, but instead capturing a screen shot image of the post (click here to see an example) and emailing that directly to my blogs...skipping the iCOPY steps.

Technology is wonderful. I hope this post explains why some of my posts to my blogs may not look as polished as they should....and won't compare to those I write off-line or via dedicated blogger software. The goal is to monitor the blogsphere for my readers and provide FYI posts as quickly and often as the expense of glitz.

Trying to stay ahead of and benefit from the technology curve.

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IQ pipeline #1: Intelligence articles

Below is the current list of manuscripts published in the latest issue (Vol 36, No. 6; 2008) of Intelligence. Some very interesting reading coming. If any reader see's a manuscript they are dying to read, and would be interested in securing a pdf copy now, in exchange for writing a guest blog post here at IQ's me via my email -

The geography of IQ
Garry A. Gelade

Sex differences in latent cognitive abilities ages 6 to 59: Evidence from the Woodcock–Johnson III tests of cognitive abilities
Timothy Z. Keith, Matthew R. Reynolds, Puja G. Patel, Kristen P. Ridley

Does test anxiety induce measurement bias in cognitive ability tests?
Charlie L. Reeve, Silvia Bonaccio

Do twins have lower cognitive ability than singletons?
Dinand Webbink, Danielle Posthuma, Dorret I. Boomsma, Eco J.C. de Geus, Peter M. Visscher

Childhood intelligence predicts voter turnout, voting preferences, and political involvement in adulthood: The 1970 British Cohort Study
Ian J. Deary, G. David Batty, Catharine R. Gale

A note on sex differences in mental rotation in different age groups
Christian Geiser, Wolfgang Lehmann, Michael Eid

Intellectual competence and academic performance: Preliminary validation of a model
Tomas Chamorro-Premuzic, Adriane Arteche

Investigating the ‘g’-saturation of various stratum-two factors using automatic item generation
Martin E. Arendasy, Andreas Hergovich, Markus Sommer

Working memory and intelligence are highly related constructs, but why?
Roberto Colom, Francisco J. Abad, Mª Ángeles Quiroga, Pei Chun Shih, Carmen Flores-Mendoza

Neural substrates of the Topology Test to measure fluid reasoning: An fMRI study
Hiromi Masunaga, Ryuta Kawashima, John L. Horn, Yuko Sassa, Atsushi Sekiguchi

Beauty and intelligence may – or may not – be related
Kevin Denny

Domain-specific and domain-general learning factors are expressed in genetically heterogeneous CD-1 mice
Stefan Kolata, Kenneth Light, Louis D. Matzel

Intelligence and birth order in boys and girls
Dorret I. Boomsma, Toos C.E.M. van Beijsterveld, A. Leo Beem, Rosa A. Hoekstra, Tinca J.C. Polderman, Meike Bartels

Stereotype threat as validity threat: The anxiety–sex–threat interaction
Ana R. Delgado, Gerardo Prieto

Which working memory functions predict intelligence?
Klaus Oberauer, Heinz-Martin Süß, Oliver Wilhelm, Werner W. Wittmann

Recruitment modeling: An analysis and an application to the study of male–female differences in intelligence
Earl Hunt, Tara Madhyastha

Inspection Time: A biomarker for cognitive decline
Tess Gregory, Ted Nettelbeck, Sara Howard, Carlene Wilson

Working memory, visual–spatial-intelligence and their relationship to problem-solving
Markus Bühner, Stephan Kröner, Matthias Ziegler

Survey of opinions on the primacy of g and social consequences of ability testing: A comparison of expert and non-expert views
Charlie L. Reeve, Jennifer E. Charles

Recently-derived variants of brain-size genes ASPM, MCPH1, CDK5RAP and BRCA1 not associated with general cognition, reading or language
Timothy C. Bates, Michelle Luciano, Penelope A. Lind, Margaret J. Wright, Grant W. Montgomery, Nicholas G. Martin

Science in elementary school: Generalist genes and school environments
Claire M.A. Haworth, Yulia Kovas, Philip S. Dale, Robert Plomin

The quest for item types based on information processing: An analysis of Raven's Advanced Progressive Matrices, with a consideration of gender differences
François Vigneau, Douglas A. Bors

IQ, cultural values, and the technological achievement of nations
Garry A. Gelade

SAT and ACT predict college GPA after removing g
Thomas R. Coyle, David R. Pillow

An ethnographic approach to studying practical intelligence: A Review of Gang Leader for a Day .S. Venkatesh, Editor, Gang leader for a day, Penguin, New York (2008) ISBN 978-1594201509.731
Robert J. Sternberg

Richard Lynn and Tatu Vanhanen, IQ and global inequality , Washington Summit Publishers, Augusta, GA (2006) (Pp. xx+400), ISBN:978-1-59368-025-1 (hard cover) 978-1-59368-024-4 (paperback).
Michael A. McDaniel

Behavioral Genetics, 5th Edition, Robert Plomin, John C. DeFries, Gerald E. McClearn, Peter McGuffin, New York, NY: Worth Publishers, ISBN-10: 1-4292-0577-6, ISBN-13: 978-1-4292-057, XVIII introductory pages, 505 text pages.
Wendy Johnson
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Post to demo iPhone blogging-more to come

Sent from KMcGrew iPhone (IQMobile)

Saturday, November 22, 2008

Einstein was correct

I think Einstein could of told us so.

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Today's big picture: Trait complexes-IQ+personality+interests

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I love authors/researchers who can synthesize research via big picture figures, diagrams, or models. One such researcher is P. Ackerman, who has completed excellent research on the relations between intelligence, personality and interests (primarily in adult populations). Above is one of his nice figures that demonstrates the interesting concept of "trait complexes" (similar to Richard Snows work on "aptitudes." His work is very consistent with my attempts to take a big picture look at school aptitude via the Beyond IQ Project.

If you want to learn more about Ackerman's research, take a peak at two articles (selected from many...he is very prolific---article 1; article 2)

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Beyond IQ Byte # 5: Intrinsic motivation

Here is Byte # 5 from the Beyond IQ project, a project that outlines a proposed Model of Academic Competence and Motivation (MACM). Today's construct spotlight is on "achievement goal orientation."

Intrinsic Motivation

When a person engages in an activity because they are interested in and enjoy the activity (e.g., they perform the activity for the sake of doing it—for the enjoyment, fun or pleasure) and not because the activity will produce a reward or result in the avoidance of a negative consequence.

Intrinsic motivation describes an individual who engages in an activity because they are interested in and enjoy the activity (e.g., they perform the activity for the sake of doing it—for the enjoyment, fun, or pleasure) and not because the activity will produce a reward or result in the avoidance of a negative consequence (Eccles & Wigfield, 2002; Grolnick, Gurland, Jacob, & Decourcey, 2002; Linnenbrink & Pintrich, 2002a; Snow et al., 1996; Standage, Duda, & Ntoumanis, 2003). The converse (extrinsic motivation) is present when an individual engages in an activity for other (e.g., reward) or instrumental reasons (e.g., means to an end). Intrinsic motivation “energizes important growth- fostering behaviors, such as seeking out challenges, exercising skills, and pursuing one’s interests (Deci & Ryan, 1985)” (Reeve, Nix, & Hamm, 2003, p. 375). As such, intrinsic motivation is frequently mentioned as a causal contributor to self-determination. High intrinsic motivation orientation is often considered as an indicator of the highest levels of self- determination (d'Ailly, 2003; Reeve et al., 2003; Standage et al., 2003).

Early motivation research suggested that intrinsic motivation was not trait-like in nature, but rather, was situation-specific and alterable (Harter, 1981). This “state” interpretation of intrinsic motivation suggests that a student’s intrinsic motivation is amenable to environmental manipulation. Researchers are now treating intrinsic motivation as less of a situation-specific state and more of a trait-like characteristic (Eccles & Wigfield, 2002). The highly correlated components of the trait-intrinsic motivation (as would be described in an academic context) are: (a) academic learning driven by curiosity and interest; (b) a preference for hard or challenging academic tasks; and (c) a striving for competence and independent mastery (Eccles & Wigfield, 2002; Harter, 1981; Newman, 2000). Of the 3 characteristics, the first (curiosity- driven learning) is the core concept of intrinsic motivation.

Educational Implications:
The intrinsic motivation literature (Covington & Dray, 2002; Eccles & Wigfield, 2002; Gresham &Elliott, 1984; Grolnick et al., 2002; Newman, 2000; Wehmeyer, 1996; Wehmeyer, 1999) suggests the following general implications:

Intrinsic motivation has been argued to be of particular salience for students with disabilities given that, historically, the special education delivery service model has been grounded primarily in efforts to identify and remediate student deficits.

High levels of trait-like intrinsic motivation have been associated with a variety of positive student behaviors and educational outcomes. It is hypothesized that high intrinsic motivation helps students care about their learning, which subsequently increases their striving towards high achievement. High intrinsic motivation has also been associated with positive emotional experiences, higher levels of cognitive engagement, lower levels of anxiety, higher perceptions of competence, and a higher use of a variety of positive self- regulatory behaviors (e.g., adaptive help-seeking, learning strategies, meta-cognitive strategies). Clearly, students low in intrinsic motivation are at risk for educational failure.

According to stage-environment fit theory, when students enter a developmental stage characterized by a greater need for autonomy (e.g., pre-adolescence), the typical educational environment actually reduces opportunities for self-initiated behavior and independent thinking vis-à-vis a greater emphasis on external (e.g., teacher) control. The result can be a reduction in subject matter interest and intrinsic motivation. A logical extension is that education/learning environments should strive to provide the best possible “fit” between a student's learning environment and their developmental and level of intrinsic motivation.

According to stage-environment fit theory and research, the use of normative grading (an emphasis on tangible rewards that are limited in quantity), during a time when a student is entering a stage characterized by a need for autonomy, may produce increased social comparison and feelings of competitiveness. The net result is a hypothesized reduction in intrinsic motivation.

Absolute evaluation or grading standards, which increase the explicit link between degree of expended effort and achievement rewards, tend to increase a student’s sense of intrinsic motivation. Merit-based grading systems are postulated to be more desirable when a student transitions into a stage characterized by the need for more autonomy and independence.

Additional learning environment characteristics associated with higher levels of intrinsic motivation include (Grolnick et al., 2002):
  • Learning tasks should be optimally challenging—“just above the current level of ability” (Grolnick, 2002, p. 155).
  • Learning should minimize excessive use of “rewards” which tend to shift the focus from an internal to external cause of behavior.
  • Learning environments that provide for autonomy, involvement, and support in a non-controlling manner (in contrast to an environment with strong external controls) are associated with students who display greater intrinsic motivation, which in turn influences the development of more self-regulated learning via internalization.
Learning environments should minimize external (adult) pressure to behave in particular ways and to solve problems for others (e.g., for teacher, mom, or dad). A focus on helping students to solve problems and tasks for themselves (with support) is more desirable. Students should not be motivated to perform out of sense of obligation or coercion (Wehmeyer, 1992).

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Thursday, November 20, 2008

Techpsych blog - staying current technology for learning

Check out the Techpsych blog, a sister blog to one I've been reading daily for a good year - Interactive Multimedia Technology.  As written at the site, Techpsych:
  • "is for psychologists, teachers, related professionals, parents, technologists, and others interested in using technology more effectively for learning and communication. This is a place to share resources, links, what works, "how-tos", and lessons learned along the way. Enter a term or phrase in the search box to find what interests you!"
If you want to stay current on emerging technologies, esp. those related to learning and education, these are two "must" blogs.  I'm going to add Techpsych to my blogroll.

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Wednesday, November 19, 2008

iBlog feature: WIRED SCIENCE

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What the blogmaster is reading now

What smarter people may live longer

Nice brief summary if Ian Dearys longitudinal research that offers
hypotheses to explain why smarter people live longer. Check it out at

Sent from KMcGrew iPhone (IQMobile)

IQs Corner Recent Literature of Interest 11-19-08

This weeks "recent literature" of interest is now available. Click here to access.

ISIR conference program ready - stay abreast with the latest intelligence research

The final program for the upcoming ISIR (International Society for Intelligence Research) is now available at the ISIR web page. It looks like a tremendous conference. It is in Decatur, GA this year. Consider attending and rubbing elbows with the leading intelligence scholars from around the world.

Tuesday, November 18, 2008

I can draw on my iPhone

Jumping brain

Just in time for Xmas. (double click on image to enlarge)

Dissertation dish: Two CHC or WJ III related dissertations

A comparison of teachers' and school psychologists' understanding of the cognitive abilities underlying basic academic tasks by Petruccelli, Meredith Lohr, Ph.D., Temple University, 2008, 162 pages; AAT 3319970

  • The Cattell-Horn-Carroll Theory of cognitive functioning is a well-validated framework for intelligence. Cross-battery assessment is a means utilizing CHC theory in practice. School psychologists write recommendations with the assumption that teachers understand the cognitive abilities underlying basic academic tasks in the same way. Theoretically, the more similar the understanding of these two groups, the greater the likelihood of appropriate referrals and intervention fidelity. Teacher perceptions of their students' cognitive abilities impact the referrals that they make and intervention strategies that they implement. In this study, teachers and school psychologists were asked to sort basic academic tasks into the CHC broad abilities.
  • The central research questions being asked are as follows: Are school psychologists and teachers equally proficient at identifying the broad cognitive ability demands of a basic academic task? How do the responses of the participants compare to the theoretical model presented? Do teachers and school psychologists become better at identifying the cognitive demands of a task with experience or higher levels of training?
  • In order to answer the first research question, MANOVAs were performed. There was a significant overall difference between groups on their responses. While teachers and school psychologists differed significantly on five of the eight CHC broad ability scales. School psychologists were only significantly better at consistently identifying the basic academic tasks that utilized Fluid Reasoning.
  • To answer the second research question, principal components factor analysis was performed. The factors created displayed limited similarity to the theoretical factors. Pearson correlations between the theoretical factors and the factors created through factor analysis revealed multiple positive correlations that accounted for more than 10% of the variance. The theoretical scales that were more significantly correlated were Fluid Reasoning, Auditory Processing, and Processing Speed.
  • To answer the third research question, Pearson correlations were calculated. This analysis revealed that neither group develops a better understanding of the cognitive abilities required to perform academic tasks with experience. Level of education is not related to accuracy for teachers on any of the items. Level of education is significantly correlated with accuracy in identifying tasks that require Visual Processing for school psychologists.

The relationship between aspects of cognitive functioning and academic skills in a clinically referred population
by Garcia, Jessica, Ph.D., Nova Southeastern University, 2008, 86 pages; AAT 3325542


  • This research involves an examination of the relationship between performance on academic achievement tasks and performance on measures of cognitive functioning, including components of intelligence, memory, and attention. The purpose of this study was to determine what cognitive factors predicted performance on measures of academic achievement above and beyond other cognitive variables. While previous research has demonstrated a relationship between intelligence and academic skill acquisition, the present research examined which cognitive factors uniquely predicted scores on different areas of academic functioning as assessed by the Letter Word Identification, Reading Fluency, Calculation, and Math Fluency subtests of the Woodcock Johnson Tests of Achievement, Third Edition. The components of intelligence, based upon the factor structure of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth Edition, as well as the Verbal and Visual Memory Indices of the Wide Range Assessment of Memory and Learning-Second Edition and the omission and commission errors of the Conner's Continuous Performance Test-Second Edition were utilized as measures of cognitive functioning. Four linear, standard multiple regressions were conducted with all independent variables entered into the analysis simultaneously. Results revealed that performance on the WISC-IV Perceptual Reasoning Index significantly predicted scores on a measure of math calculation above and beyond other cognitive variables. Furthermore, performance on the WISC-IV Processing Speed Index, significantly predicted scores on measures of reading fluency and math fluency above and beyond other cognitive variables. No cognitive variables uniquely predicted word reading when all cognitive variables were considered simultaneously
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Sunday, November 16, 2008

iBlog feature: Developing Intelligence

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This is an amazing blog. Very well written but tends to be technical-- great source for serious readers of intelligence research. A must read for the serious scholar.

IQs Corner tops in Google search

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I did a Google search for "IQs Corner" and bingo---my blog came up first and was all over the first page of results. Thanks to all my readers for making this happen.

Vintage brain maps

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New feature: iBlog feature

I'm going to use the screen capture feature of my iPhone to send
graphic pictures of some of the favorite intelligence and neuroscience
blogs that I monitor daily via RSS feeds.

The first is MIND HACKS.

Friday, November 14, 2008

Featured site: ISIR

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A must web resource for any serious intelligence scholar. Check out the great ISIR program in Dec.

IQs Corner Recent Literature of Interest 11-14-08

This weeks "recent literature" of interest is now available. Click here to access.

IQ Research bytes # 6: Friday PM intelligence factor analysis fest

Friday afternoon factor analysis fest!

  • I just posted information on a CFA study examining the constructs of broad cognitive processing speed (Gs) and sustained attention (SA). A few other factor-analysis based articles caught my eye in my e-inbox.
  • Blaga et al. have an "in press" study in the journal Intelligence that examined the continuity of the structure of cognitive development from infancy to preschool with a longitudinal research design. Support was found for strong continuity of cognitive development. To learn more...
  • Also in press in Intelligence is a very intriguing article by Demetriou et al. that attempts to go beyond the hot research topic/hypothesis that fluid reasoning (Gf) or g (general intelligence) may be strongly influenced by working memory (Gsm-MW) and indirectly by broad cognitive processing speed, Gs (the developmental cascade hypothesis). Their study suggests a hierarchical organization of sub-processes (speed of processing or Gs, perceptual discrimination, perceptual control, conceptual control, working memory, information integration) that are causally related in a sequence that explains Gf or g. To learn more...

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Processing speed (Gs) measures = sustained attention measures ?

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Do processing speed (Gs) measures = sustained attention (SA) measures?

According to a recent CFA study of 199 college students, traditional paper-and-pencil measures of broad cognitive speed (Gs) and sustained attention (SA) may not be measuring different constructs given the shared speeded performance constraint. However, broad decision speed (Gt), as measured by computerized tests, does appear to represent a construct separate from Gs/SA--although the difference could be related to method factor variance (paper/pencil vs computer).

According to Krumm et al. (2008), SA and Gs (which they refer to as mental speed-MS) are theoretically conceptualized to represent distinct constructs. "Individual difference research has always distinguished between MS and SA measures (see Stankov, 1988)."

"Sustained attention (SA) may be defined as the 'ability to allocate processing resources for quite a time (up to some minutes) to a specific task demand while ignoring new stimuli that also demand attention' (Schweizer, 2005, p. 46). Similarly, Hoffmann (1993) describes SA as the ability to devotedly apply oneself to a task while ignoring distractions."

The authors point out that although SA and Gs are conceptually distinct cognitive constructs, they are typically assessed with very similar tasks--simple cognitive tasks where "performance largely relies on the participants’ speed of task processing (i.e., how quickly and correctly one can perform the simple cognitive tasks)."

The CFA results found a near unity (.97) correlation between SA and Gs (see figure above).

It is suggested that clinicians and researchers may need to pursue new approaches to differentiating the measurement of SA and Gs. Furthermore, these findings suggest that the clinical interpretation of Gs tests on individually administered intelligence batteries may be confounded by sustained attention. Most clinicians and books on intelligence test interpretation have typically made this point---and have suggested that sustained attention may be measured by tests that typically are interpreted to measure Gs-like abilities---e.g., perceptual speed (P). It is possible that sustained attention may play a larger role on traditional paper-and-pencil tests than previously recognized.

Of course, caveats are necessary. This study is limited to a young adult age range and 199 subjects. It would be nice to see simlar studies across the entire age range.

Krumm, S, Schmidt-Atzert, L., Michalczyk, K. & Danthiir, V. (2008). Speeded Paper-Pencil Sustained Attention and Mental Speed Tests: Can Performances Be Discriminated?J ournal of Individual Differences, 29,p. 205–216

  • Abstract. Mental speed (MS) and sustained attention (SA) are theoretically distinct constructs. However, tests of MS are very similar to SA tests that use time pressure as an impeding condition. The performance in such tasks largely relies on the participants’ speed of task processing (i.e., how quickly and correctly one can perform the simple cognitive tasks). The present study examined whether SA and MS are empirically the same or different constructs. To this end, 24 paper-pencil and computerized tests were administered to 199 students. SA turned out to be highly related toMS task classes: substitution and perceptual speed. Furthermore, SA showed a very close relationship with the paper-pencil MS factor. The correlation between SA and computerized speed was considerably lower but still high. In a higher-order general speed factor model, SA had the highest loading on the higher-order factor; the higher-order factor explained 88% of SA variance. It is argued that SA (as operationalized with tests using time pressure as an impeding condition) and MS cannot be differentiated, at the level of broad constructs. Implications for neuropsychological assessment and future research are discussed.

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Wednesday, November 12, 2008

IQs Corner APA book nook: PsycCRITIQUES - Volume 53, Issue 46 is now available online

Sent from KMcGrew iPhone (IQMobile)

November 12, 2008
Volume 53, Issue 46

Book Reviews
1. Moral Psychology
Author: Walter Sinnott-Armstrong (Ed.)
Reviewers: Diane Marano, Dianne Fabii, and Daniel Hart

2. Women Street Hustlers: Who They Are and How They Survive
Author: Barbara A. Rockell
Reviewer: Tanya Telfair Sharpe

3. Eating Disorders
Authors: Stephen W. Touyz, Janet Polivy, and Phillipa Hay
Reviewer: James M. Hepburn

4. Beyond the Good Death: The Anthropology of Modern Dying
Author: James W. Green
Reviewer: John Edward Ruark

5. Loneliness: Human Nature and the Need for Social Connection
Authors: John T. Cacioppo and William Patrick
Reviewer: Brent A. Mattingly

6. Revolution in Mind: The Creation of Psychoanalysis
Author: George Makari
Reviewer: Steven Ward

7. Drug Abuse: Concepts, Prevention, and Cessation
Authors: Steve Sussman and Susan L. Ames
Reviewer: John S. Wodarski

8. The Hidden World of Autism: Writing and Art by Children with High-Functioning Autism
Author: Rebecca Chilvers
Reviewer: Mardi Allen

Film Review
9. Awake
Director: Joby Harold
Reviewer: Etzel Cardeña

Tuesday, November 11, 2008

I'm pleased to announce, courtesy of Simply Headlines, that it is now possible to receive notification of posts to IQ's Corner Blog via your email. Click on the icon under the "Receive via email" heading (just under the IQs Corner logo) and you will be directed to a sign up page. You will then receive copies of posts via your email.

Monday, November 10, 2008

Friday, November 07, 2008

The free on-line WMF Human Cognitive Abilities (HCA) archive project was updated today. An overview of the project, with a direct link to the archive, can be found at the Woodcock-Muñoz Foundation web page (click on "Current Woodcock-Muñoz Foundation Human Cognitive Abilities Archive") .

Request for assistance: The HCA project needs help tracking down copies of old journal articles, dissertations, etc. for a number of datasets being archive. Please visit the "master bibliography/inventory" section of this archive and visit the on-line dataset/reference file. When viewing the on-line working inventory, manuscripts/references featured in the color red are those we are currently having trouble locating. If you have access to either a paper or e-copy of any of the designated "fugitive" documents, and would be willing to provide them to WMF to copy/scan (we would cover the costs), please contact Dr. Kevin McGrew at the email address listed at the site.

Please join the WMF HCA listserv to receive routine email updates regarding the WMF HCA project.

All posts regarding this project can be found here.

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Early music training and cognitive abilities

Interesting post at the MINDBLOG.

Sent from KMcGrew iPhone (IQMobile)

Tuesday, November 04, 2008

Woodcock-Munoz Foundation (WMF) Update

The Woodcock-Munoz Foundation (WMF) is pleased to announce a significant revision of its website. A number of new projects are listed under the various programs (e.g., Dissertation Abstracts Project; direct link to Human Cognitive Abilities project; to name but a few). Under the Instructional Materials Grants program you can view assessment course syllabi from universities that have been awarded instructional materials grants. And, stay tuned for future publications and materials from WMF Press.

Kudos to Beth Stanford for making this all possible.

Briefly, the mission of the "The Woodcock-Muñoz Foundation (WMF) is a private, non-profit operating foundation that supports the advancement of contemporary cognitive assessment. The WMF engages in programs of instructional support to professional preparation programs, research concerning the abilities of individuals with diagnosed exceptionalities, and closely-related educational and research projects."

Conflict of interest note - I, Kevin McGrew, am the WMF Research Director

Monday, November 03, 2008