Tuesday, November 24, 2020

Are individual differences in attention control related to working memory capacity? A latent variable mega-analysis. - PsycNET

And yet more good research implicating attentional control (AC under Gwm in CHC taxonomy) as central to human intelligence.

Are individual differences in attention control related to working memory capacity? A latent variable mega-analysis. - PsycNET 
https://psycnet.apa.org/record/2020-86314-001

Citation
Unsworth, N., Miller, A. L., & Robison, M. K. (2020). Are individual differences in attention control related to working memory capacity? A latent variable mega-analysis. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General.Advance online publication. https://doi.org/10.1037/xge0001000

Abstract
The current study examined whether there are coherent individual differences in attention control abilities and whether they are related to variation in working memory capacity. Data were pooled from multiple studies over 12 years of data collection. Mega-analyses on the combined data set suggested that most of the attention control measures had adequate reliabilities and were weakly to moderately related to one another. A number of latent variable mega-analyses suggested that the attention control measures loaded onto a broad attention control factor and this factor was consistently related to working memory capacity. Furthermore, working memory capacity was generally related to each individual attention control measure. These results provide important evidence for the notion that there is a coherent attention control factor and this factor is related to working memory capacity consistent with much prior research. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved)

******************************************
Kevin S. McGrew, PhD
Educational & School Psychologist
Director
Institute for Applied Psychometrics (IAP)
https://www.themindhub.com
******************************************

Saturday, November 07, 2020

More support for the Gs—>Gwm—>—Gf/ Gc developmental cascade model as per CHC taxonomy

 More support for the developmental cascade model


Speed of processing, control of processing, working memory and crystallized and fluid intelligence: Evidence for a developmental cascade 

Anna Tourva, George Spanoudis
 
Keywords: Fluid intelligence Crystallized intelligence Working memory Speed of processing Executive attention Developmental-cascade model 

A B S T R A C T  

The present study investigated the causal relations among age, speed of processing, control of processing, working memory and intelligence, fluid and crystallized. 158 participants aged from 7 to 18 years old completed a large battery of tests measuring latent factors of speed, control of processing and working memory. Intelligence was assessed using the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence. Structural equation modeling was performed to determine whether there is a cognitive-developmental cascade in which age-related increases in processing speed lead to improvements in control of processing that leads to increases in working memory, and whether improved working memory, in turn, leads to increases in both fluid and crystallized intelligence. Several alternative models of a different cascade order of the above factors were also tested. The results of the present study provide evidence of a cognitive-developmental cascade, confirming that this model describes cognitive development during childhood and adolescence.  

Click images to enlarge.








Development and psychometric properties of rubrics for assessing social-emotional skills in youth - ScienceDirect

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0191491X20301863 
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0191491X20301863?via%3Dihub

Paper from excellent group of scholars doing critical work on "BEYOND IQ" factors.

******************************************
Kevin S. McGrew, PhD
Educational & School Psychologist
Director
Institute for Applied Psychometrics (IAP)
https://www.themindhub.com
******************************************

Friday, November 06, 2020

Toward a hierarchical model of social cognition: A neuroimaging meta-analysis and integrative review of empathy and theory of mind-file under Gei per CHC taxonomy.

 Toward a hierarchical model of social cognition: A neuroimaging meta-analysis and integrative review of empathy and theory of mind. 
https://psycnet.apa.org/fulltext/2020-82377-001.html
Toward a Hierarchical Model of Social Cognition: A Neuroimaging Meta-Analysis and Integrative Review of Empathy and Theory of Mind
Matthias Schurz email the authorJoaquim RaduaMatthias G. TholenLara MaliskeDaniel S. MarguliesRogier B. MarsJerome SalletPhilipp Kanske
Author Affiliationsauthor affiliations hide/reveal  
Schurz, M., Radua, J., Tholen, M. G., Maliske, L., Margulies, D. S., Mars, R. B., . . . Kanske, P. (2020). Toward a hierarchical model of social cognition: A neuroimaging meta-analysis and integrative review of empathy and theory of mind. Psychological Bulletin. Advance online publication. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/bul0000303
Abstract

Along with the increased interest in and volume of social cognition research, there has been higher awareness of a lack of agreement on the concepts and taxonomy used to study social processes. Two central concepts in the field, empathy and Theory of Mind (ToM), have been identified as overlapping umbrella terms for different processes of limited convergence. Here, we review and integrate evidence of brain activation, brain organization, and behavior into a coherent model of social-cognitive processes. We start with a meta-analytic clusteringof neuroimaging data across different social-cognitive tasks. Results show that understanding others' mental states can be described by a multilevel model of hierarchical structure, similar to models in intelligence and personality research. A higher level describes more broad and abstract classes of functioning, whereas a lower one explains how functions are applied to concrete contexts given by particular stimulus and task formats. Specifically, the higher level of our model suggests 3 groups of neurocognitive processes: (a) predominantly cognitive processes, which are engaged when mentalizing requires self-generated cognition decoupled from the physical world; (b) more affectiveprocesses, which are engaged when we witness emotions in others based on shared emotional, motor, and somatosensory representations; (c) combined processes, which engage cognitive and affective functions in parallel. We discuss how these processes are explained by an underlying principal gradient of structural brain organization. Finally, we validate the model by a review of empathy and ToM task interrelations found in behavioral studies.
Public Significance Statement

Empathy and Theory of Mind are important human capacities for understanding others. Here, we present a meta-analysis of neuroimaging data from 4,207 participants, which shows that these abilities can be deconstructed into specific and partially shared neurocognitive subprocesses. Our findings provide systematic, large-scale support for the hypothesis that understanding others' mental states can be described by a multilevel model of hierarchical structure, similar to models in intelligence and personality research.


******************************************
Kevin S. McGrew, PhD
Educational & School Psychologist
Director
Institute for Applied Psychometrics (IAP)
https://www.themindhub.com
******************************************

Monday, November 02, 2020

Intelligence and creativity share a common cognitive and neural basis. -File under P-FIT, g, creativity, Glr, Gf, Gc, Gc, brain networks

A most excellent study.  


https://doi.apa.org/doiLanding?doi=10.1037%2Fxge0000958

Frith, E., Elbich, D. B., Christensen, A. P., Rosenberg, M. D., Chen, Q., Kane, M. J., Silvia, P. J., Seli, P., & Beaty, R. E. (2020). Intelligence and creativity share a common cognitive and neural basis. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General. Advance online publication. https://doi.org/10.1037/xge0000958

Are intelligence and creativity distinct abilities, or do they rely on the same cognitive and neural systems? We sought to quantify the extent to which intelligence and creative cognition overlap in brain and behavior by combining machine learning of fMRI data and latent variable modeling of cognitive ability data in a sample of young adults (N = 186) who completed a battery of intelligence and creative thinking tasks. The study had 3 analytic goals: (a) to assess contributions of specific facets of intelligence (e.g., fluid and crystallized intelligence) and general intelligence to creative ability (i.e., divergent thinking originality), (b) to model whole-brain functional connectivity networks that predict intelligence facets and creative ability, and (c) to quantify the degree to which these predictive networks overlap in the brain. Using structural equation modeling, we found moderate to large correlations between intelligence facets and creative ability, as well as a large correlation between general intelligence and creative ability (r = .63). Using connectome-based predictive modeling, we found that functional brain networks that predict intelligence facets overlap to varying degrees with a network that predicts creative ability, particularly within the prefrontal cortex of the executive control network. Notably, a network that predicted general intelligence shared 46% of its functional connections with a network that predicted creative ability—including connections linking executive control and salience/ventral attention networks—suggesting that intelligence and creative thinking rely on similar neural and cognitive systems. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved)




******************************************************
Kevin McGrew, PhD
Educational Psychologist
Director, Institute for Applied Psychometrics
IAP
www.themindhub.com
******************************************************

Tuesday, October 20, 2020

The comparative analysis of intelligence. - PsycNET

 The comparative analysis of intelligence. - PsycNET 
https://psycnet.apa.org/record/2020-77459-001


Flaim, Mary Blaisdell, Aaron P.
Citation
Flaim, M., & Blaisdell, A. P. (2020). The comparative analysis of intelligence. Psychological Bulletin. Advance online publication. https://doi.org/10.1037/bul0000306

Abstract
The study of intelligence in humans has been ongoing for over 100 years, including the underlying structure, predictive validity, related cognitive measures, and source of differences. One of the key findings in intelligence research is the uniform positive correlations among cognitive tasks. This has been replicated with every cognitive test battery in humans. Nevertheless, many other aspects of intelligence research have revealed contradictory lines of evidence. Recently, cognitive test batteries have been developed for animals to examine similarities to humans in cognitive structure. The results are inconsistent, but there is evidence for some similarities. This article reviews the way intelligence and related cognitive abilities are assessed in humans and animals and suggests a different way of devising test batteries for maximizing between-species comparisons. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved)

******************************************
Kevin S. McGrew, PhD
Educational & School Psychologist
Director
Institute for Applied Psychometrics (IAP)
https://www.themindhub.com
******************************************

Monday, October 19, 2020

Exercise and fluid intelligence (Gf)



******************************************************
Kevin McGrew, PhD
Educational Psychologist
Director, Institute for Applied Psychometrics
IAP
www.themindhub.com
******************************************************

Friday, October 02, 2020

Rhythmic timing in aging adults: On the role of cognitive functioning and structural brain integrity. - PsycNET

https://psycnet.apa.org/record/2020-73180-001

Rhythmic timing in aging adults: On the role of cognitive functioning and structural brain integrity.


First PostingDatabase: APA PsycArticles



Schirmer, Annett Romero-Garcia, Rafael Chiu, Man Hey Escoffier, Nicolas Penney, Trevor B. Goh, Benjamin Suckling, John Tan, Jasmine Feng, Lei

Citation

Schirmer, A., Romero-Garcia, R., Chiu, M. H., Escoffier, N., Penney, T. B., Goh, B., Suckling, J., Tan, J., & Feng, L. (2020). Rhythmic timing in aging adults: On the role of cognitive functioning and structural brain integrity. Psychology and Aging. Advance online publication. https://doi.org/10.1037/pag0000575

Abstract

Here we asked whether impaired timing in older adults results from an aging clock or a more general brain and cognitive decline. Healthy aging adults (N = 70, aged 62–83 years) tapped to the beat of a periodic and a syncopated rhythm. Analyses focused on performance differences between rhythms (periodic-syncopated), which reduced the impact of timing unrelated processes. Apart from tapping, participants completed a cognitive assessment and neuroimaging of gray matter volume (GMV) and fractional anisotropy (FA) globally as well as regionally (cortical: auditory, premotor, paracentral; subcortical: putamen, caudate, cerebellum). The rhythm difference showed no significant age effects for tapping asynchrony and an age-related decrease for tapping consistency. Additionally, age reduced cognitive functioning, global GMV/FA, and, beyond this, auditory GMV. Irrespective of age, the rhythm difference in tapping asynchrony was linked, not to GMV, but to caudal, premotor, and paracentral FA after controlling for global FA. Tapping consistency was associated with global rather than regional brain integrity. Additionally, age differences in tapping consistency were mediated by a decline in global brain integrity as well as cognitive functioning. Together these results agree with previous proposals differentiating between timing accuracy and reliability and suggest that aging largely preserves the former but not the latter. Whereas timing accuracy may depend on an internal clock supported by robust striatocortical circuitry, timing reliability may depend on global brain and cognitive functioning, which show a pronounced age-related decline. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved)



******************************************************
Kevin McGrew, PhD
Educational Psychologist
Director, Institute for Applied Psychometrics
IAP
www.themindhub.com
******************************************************

Friday, September 18, 2020

Teleassessment with children and adolescents during the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic and beyond: Practice and policy implications.

 Teleassessment with children and adolescents during the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic and beyond: Practice and policy implications. 
https://psycnet.apa.org/fulltext/2020-69507-001.html

Abstract

Due to physical distancing guidelines, the closure of nonessential businesses, and the closure of public schools, the role of telehealth for the delivery of psychological services for children has never been more debated. However, the transition to teleassessment is more complicated for some types of assessment than others. For instance, the remote administration of achievement and intelligence testsis a relatively recent adaptation of telehealth, and despite recommendations for rapid adoption by some policymakers and publishing companies, caution and careful consideration of individual and contextual variables and the existing research literature, as well as measurement, cultural and linguistic, and legal and ethical issues, is warranted. The decision to use remotely administered achievement and intelligence tests is best made on a case-by-case basis after consideration of these factors. We discuss each of these issues as well as implications for practice and policy, as well as issue provisional guidance for consideration for publishing companies interested in these endeavors moving forward.
Public Significance Statement

The current review describes a number of factors that may reduce the accuracy of standardized tests, like intelligence tests, when they are given remotely. Additionally, it highlights the importance of considering the purpose of assessment, client cultural and linguistic background, as well as ethical and legal decision making, on the use and interpretation of standardized test results

******************************************
Kevin S. McGrew, PhD
Educational & School Psychologist
Director
Institute for Applied Psychometrics (IAP)
https://www.themindhub.com
******************************************

Differential patterns of growth in reading and math skills during elementary school. - PsycNET

 Differential patterns of growth in reading and math skills during elementary school. - PsycNET 
https://psycnet.apa.org/record/2020-68825-001

Abstract
This study investigated developmental trajectories of reading and math using latent-growth-curve analyses across multiple academic skills, measures, and multiple time periods within a single sample. Reading-related growth was marked by significant individual differences during the early elementary-school period and nonsignificant individual differences during the late elementary-school period. For math-related skills, nonsignificant individual differences were present for early math growth and significant individual differences were present in late elementary-school. No clear pattern of cumulative, compensatory, or stable development emerged for either reading-related or math skills. These differing growth patterns highlight developmental complexities and suggest domain-specific differences in achievement growth that are potentially associated with contextual factors. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved)

******************************************
Kevin S. McGrew, PhD
Educational & School Psychologist
Director
Institute for Applied Psychometrics (IAP)
https://www.themindhub.com
******************************************

Tuesday, September 15, 2020

Grit: A Concept Analysis: Issues in Mental Health Nursing: Vol 0, No 0

FYI.  Recent meta-analysis suggests grit may be more or less isomorphic with Big 5 personality trait of conscientious.  Some jingle jangle fallacy afoot. 

 Grit: A Concept Analysis: Issues in Mental Health Nursing: Vol 0, No 0 
https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/01612840.2020.1814913

Abstract
The concept of grit, defined as having passion and perseverance for long-term goals, has gained significant recognition in recent years. The idea that being gritty is ultimately more important than innate talent to achieve goals has widespread appeal. This review examined the concept of grit to clarify relationships between constructs and identify future opportunities for research. A systematic search across five databases including CINAHL, PsycINFO, PubMed, Scopus and Web of Science yielded 422 records. After screening and assessment for eligibility, 42 articles were retained and reviewed using the Walker and Avant method for concept analysis. Results provided support for passion, perseverance and long-term goals as defining attributes of grit, along with an extensive nomological network of antecedents, consequences, and mediating and moderating variables. Positive thoughts, behaviours and habits appear to play a key preparatory role in achieving long-term goals. Grit was associated with reduced burnout and depression, improved performance and well-being. Further research is needed to understand the best practice approaches for developing grit at both an individual and collective level.

******************************************
Kevin S. McGrew, PhD
Educational & School Psychologist
Director
Institute for Applied Psychometrics (IAP)
https://www.themindhub.com
******************************************

Tuesday, September 08, 2020

Wednesday, August 05, 2020

Welcome to Channel g. Dr. Andrew Conway on Intelligence. Stay tuned

Welcome to Channel g
https://www.psychologytoday.com/us/blog/channel-g/202008/welcome-channel-g

******************************************
Kevin S. McGrew, PhD
Educational & School Psychologist
Director
Institute for Applied Psychometrics (IAP)
https://www.themindhub.com
******************************************

Monday, August 03, 2020

The Neuropsychological Norms for the U.S.-Mexico Border Region in Spanish (NP-NUMBRS) Project: Overview and considerations for life span research and evidence-based practice: The Clinical Neuropsychologist: Vol 0, No 0

 The Neuropsychological Norms for the U.S.-Mexico Border Region in Spanish (NP-NUMBRS) Project: Overview and considerations for life span research and evidence-based practice: The Clinical Neuropsychologist: Vol 0, No 0 
https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/13854046.2020.1794046

Objective

This paper summarizes the findings of the Neuropsychological Norms for the U.S.-Mexico Border Region in Spanish (NP-NUMBRS) Project and offers a roadmap for future research.

Methods

The NP-NUMBRS project represents the largest and most comprehensive co-normed neuropsychological battery to date for native Spanish-speaking healthy adults from the U.S. (California/Arizona)-Mexico borderland region (N = 254; ages 19–60 years). These norms provide demographic adjustments for tests across numerous domains (i.e., verbal fluency, processing speed, attention/working memory, executive function, episodic memory [learning and delayed recall], visuospatial, and fine motor skills).

Conclusions

This project: 1) shows that the NP-NUMBRS norms consistently outperformed previously published norms for English-speaking non-Hispanic (White and African-American) adults in identifying impairment; 2) explores the role of Spanish-English bilingualism in test performance; and 3) provides support for the diagnostic validity of these norms in detecting HIV-associated neurocognitive impairment. Study limitations include the limited assessment of sociocultural variables and generalizability (e.g., other Latina/o populations, age limit [19 − 60 years]). Future research is needed to: 1) investigate these norms with U.S.-dwelling Spanish-speakers of non-Mexican heritage and other clinical subpopulations; 2) expand coverage of cognitive domains (e.g. language, visuospatial); 3) develop large normative datasets for children and older Latina/o populations; 4) examine how sociocultural factors impact performance (e.g., bilingualism, acculturation); 5) investigate these norms' diagnostic and ecological validity; and 6) develop norms for neurocognitive change across time. It is hoped that the NP-NUMBRS norms will aid researchers and clinicians working with U.S.-dwelling Spanish-speakers from the U.S.-Mexico borderland to conduct research and evidence-based neuropsychological evaluations in a more culturally responsive and ethical manner.

Tuesday, July 14, 2020

Evidence for a unitary structure of spatial cognition (Gv) beyond general intelligence (g)

A very convincing study supporting a general unitary, but multidimensional, spatial Gv factor. Click here for Open Access copy.

Evidence for a unitary structure of spatial cognition beyond general intelligence

Margherita Malanchini, Kaili Rimfeld, Nicholas G. Shakeshaft, Andrew McMillan, Kerry L. Schofield, Maja Rodic, Valerio Rossi, Yulia Kovas, Philip S. Dale, Elliot M. Tucker-Drob,mand Robert Plomin

Abstract 

Performance in everyday spatial orientation tasks (e.g., map reading and navigation) has been considered functionally separate from performance on more abstract object-based spatial abilities (e.g., mental rotation and visualization). However, few studies have examined the link between spatial orientation and object-based spatial skills, and even fewer have done so including a wide range of spatial tests. To examine this issue and more generally to test the structure of spatial ability, we used a novel gamified battery to assess six tests of spatial orientation in a virtual environment and examined their association with ten object-based spatial tests, as well as their links to general cognitive ability (g). We further estimated the role of genetic and environmental factors in underlying variation and covariation in these spatial tests. Participants (N = 2660; aged 19–22) were part of the Twins Early Development Study. The six tests of spatial orientation clustered into a single ‘Navigation' factor that was 64% heritable. Examining the structure of spatial ability across all 16 tests, three, substantially correlated, factors emerged: Navigation, Object Manipulation, and Visualization. These, in turn, loaded strongly onto a general factor of Spatial Ability, which was highly heritable (84%). A large portion (45%) of this high heritability was independent of g. The results point towards the existence of a common genetic network that supports all spatial abilities. 

Click on image to enlarge.





Saturday, July 04, 2020

Distinct rhythmic abilities align with phonological awareness and rapid naming in school-age children | SpringerLink




https://link-springer-com.ezp3.lib.umn.edu/article/10.1007/s10339-020-00984-6


Abstract

Difficulty in performing rhythmic tasks often co-occurs with literacy difficulties. Motivated by evidence showing that people can vary in their performance across different rhythmic tasks, we asked whether two rhythmic skills identified as distinct in school-age children and young adults would reveal similar or different relationships with two literacy skills known to be important for successful reading development. We addressed our question by focusing on 55 typically developing children (ages 5–8). Results show that drumming to a beat predicted the variability of rapid naming but not of phonological awareness, whereas tapping rhythmic patterns predicted phonological awareness, but not rapid naming. Our finding suggests that rhythmic interventions can be tailored to address PA and RAN deficits specifically in reading disabled children.



******************************************************
Kevin McGrew, PhD
Educational Psychologist
Director, Institute for Applied Psychometrics
IAP
www.themindhub.com
******************************************************

Friday, July 03, 2020

Effects of spatial training on mathematics in first and sixth grade children. - PsycNET

 Effects of spatial training on mathematics in first and sixth grade children. - PsycNET 
https://psycnet.apa.org/record/2020-47006-001

Abstract
A pretest-training-posttest design assessed whether training to improve spatial skills also improved mathematics performance in elementary-aged children. First grade students (mean age = 7 years, n = 134) and sixth grade students (mean age = 12 years, n = 124) completed training in 1 of 2 spatial skills—spatial visualization or form perception/VSWM—or in a nonspatial control condition that featured language arts training. Spatial training led to better overall mathematics performance in both grades, and the gains were significantly greater than for language arts training. The same effects were found regardless of spatial training type, or the type of mathematics tested. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved)

In-class attention, spatial ability, and mathematics anxiety predict across-grade gains in adolescents’ mathematics achievement. - PsycNET


 In-class attention, spatial ability, and mathematics anxiety predict across-grade gains in adolescents' mathematics achievement. - PsycNET 
https://psycnet.apa.org/record/2020-47007-001

Geary, D. C., Hoard, M. K., Nugent, L., & Scofield, J. E. (2020). In-class attention, spatial ability, and mathematics anxiety predict across-grade gains in adolescents' mathematics achievement. Journal of Educational Psychology. Advance online publication. https://doi.org/10.1037/edu0000487

Abstract
Identifying meaningful cognitive and noncognitive predictors of mathematical competence is critical for developing targeted interventions for students struggling with mathematics. Here, 317 students' short-term verbal memory, verbal and visuospatial working memory, complex spatial abilities, intelligence, and mathematics attitudes and anxiety were assessed, and their teachers reported on their attentive behavior in 7th-grade mathematics classrooms. Bayesian regression models revealed that complex spatial abilities and in-class attention were the most plausible predictors of 7th-grade mathematics, but not word reading achievement, controlling for prior mathematics achievement. These results were confirmed with multilevel models that revealed interactions between these factors and prior achievement. The largest gains were among students with strong mathematical competencies in 6th grade, and average or better in-class attention in 7th grade as well as above average spatial abilities. High mathematics anxiety was associated with lower attention and through this indirectly influenced achievement gains. These results have implications for how to best target interventions for students at risk for long-term difficulties with mathematics. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved)

Tuesday, June 23, 2020

Early Detection of Dyslexia Risk: Development of Brief, Teacher-Administered Screens - Jack M. Fletcher, David J. Francis, Barbara R. Foorman, Christopher Schatschneider,

Early Detection of Dyslexia Risk: Development of Brief, Teacher-Administered Screens - Jack M. Fletcher, David J. Francis, Barbara R. Foorman, Christopher Schatschneider,
https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/0731948720931870

******************************************
Kevin S. McGrew, PhD
Educational & School Psychologist
Director
Institute for Applied Psychometrics (IAP)
******************************************


Saturday, June 20, 2020

On the nonlinear association between intelligence and openness: Not much of an effect beyond an average IQ - ScienceDirect

 On the nonlinear association between intelligence and openness: Not much of an effect beyond an average IQ - ScienceDirect 
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0191886920303585

Abstract
The linear association between intelligence and openness has been estimated at r ≈ 0.20 to 0.30. However, little research has examined the possibility of a nonlinear effect between the two dimensions. Consequently, task-based intelligence and self-reported openness data were collected from 371 participants (UK community sample). We found that the association was nonlinear, i.e., the positive effect was no longer observed beyond an IQ of ≈ 105. Furthermore, across the 10 openness items, four evidenced positive, linear effects with intelligence, all of which were epistemic openness items. By comparison, several experiential openness items showed inverted U-shaped effects. It is concluded that, beyond relatively low to moderate levels of intelligence, general intelligence may be unrelated to global openness, especially if need for cognition is considered distinct from openness.

Why grandiose narcissists care so much about intelligence?....hmm..sound like anyone we know?

Current Directions in Psychological Science - Volume 29, Number 3, Jun 01, 2020 
https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/full/10.1177/0963721420917152

Abstract 

Grandiose narcissists typically pursue agentic goals, such as social status, competence, and autonomy. We argue that because high intelligence is a key asset for the attainment of such agentic goals, the concept of intelligence should play a prominent role in grandiose narcissists' self-regulation and social behavior. We review the relevant literature and report evidence in support of this claim. Grandiose narcissists consider intelligence to be an important resource that leads to benefits across life domains, they tend to maintain and defend illusory positive intellectual self-views, and they are extremely motivated to appear intelligent to other people. Thus, even though grandiose narcissism is essentially unrelated to objectively assessed intelligence, intelligence nevertheless plays an important role in the way grandiose narcissists think, feel, and behave. We discuss potential implications for social relationships and point toward avenues for future research.

Keywords agency, grandiose narcissism, intelligence, narcissism


Conclusion

Maintaining feelings of competence, autonomy, and con-trol is an important goal for grandiose narcissists. Because intelligence is helpful for the attainment of these goals, it plays a significant role in the way narcissists' think, feel, and behave. Narcissists consider intelligence to be an important asset that leads to benefits in the social world. They are highly motivated to maintain a grandiose self-view with regard to intelligence, which enables them to feel good; they defend this self-view against criticism and want to appear smart to other peo-ple. We hope that by taking narcissists' preoccupation with the concept of intelligence into account, research-ers, practitioners, and laypersons might be able to better understand why narcissistic bosses, ex-lovers, or presi-dents behave the way they do..

Friday, June 19, 2020

Comparing and combining retrieval practice and concept mapping. - PsycNET

File under Gr intervention as per CHC taxonomy

 Comparing and combining retrieval practice and concept mapping. - PsycNET 
https://psycnet.apa.org/record/2020-43443-001

Citation
O'Day, G. M., & Karpicke, J. D. (2020). Comparing and combining retrieval practice and concept mapping. Journal of Educational Psychology. Advance online publication. https://doi.org/10.1037/edu0000486

Abstract
Retrieval practice enhances the learning of educational materials, and prior work has shown that practicing retrieval can enhance learning as much as or more than creating concept maps. Few studies have combined retrieval practice with other learning activities, and no prior work has explored whether concept mapping and retrieval practice might produce especially robust effects when the two activities are combined. In two experiments, students studied educational texts and practiced retrieval (by freely recalling the texts), created concept maps, or completed both activities. In the combined-activity condition, students studied and created concept maps prior to practicing retrieval. On a 1-week delayed assessment, practicing retrieval enhanced learning relative to creating concept maps. Surprisingly, combining concept mapping and retrieval practice failed to produce any benefit over retrieval practice without concept mapping, even though students in the combined condition spent substantially more time engaged with the materials than did students in single-activity conditions. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved)

Saturday, June 13, 2020

Sex differences in inductive reasoning: A research synthesis using meta-analytic techniques - ScienceDirect

Abstract

Meta-analyses concerning sex differences in measures of fluid ability have been limited to discussions of sex differences in the Raven's Progressive Matrices, a measure of inductive reasoning. This study synthesized data concerning sex differences on several different types of inductive reasoning tests in order to assess the evidence for an overall sex difference in manifest scores, as well as whether the magnitude of the sex difference may vary depending on certain test characteristics such as stimuli and item type. Meta-analytic techniques were used to summarize data concerning sex differences in inductive reasoning from 98 studies reporting data from 96,957 adults with mean ages 18 to 64 years. The overall summary effect size was g = +0.13 (range −0.54 to +0.68), however there was significant variation in the magnitude, and in some cases direction, of the effect size in measures of inductive reasoning. Some implications of this variation in the effect size of the sex difference across tests are discussed in light of theoretical interpretations and practical uses.

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0191886920301483


******************************************************
Kevin McGrew, PhD
Educational Psychologist
Director, Institute for Applied Psychometrics
IAP
www.themindhub.com
******************************************************

Friday, June 12, 2020

COVID-19 and digital inequalities: Reciprocal impacts and mitigation strategies - ScienceDirect

Highlights


The COVID-19 pandemic is increasing digital inequalities.

Digital inequalities are increasing the vulnerability to the COVID-19 virus and to the consequences of the crisis.

The impact of digital inequalities on COVID-19 vulnerability should be central in the governmental responses.

Actionability-focused mitigation strategies targeting the individuals and the messages are proposed.


https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0747563220301771 
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0747563220301771?via%3Dihub

******************************************
Kevin S. McGrew, PhD
Educational & School Psychologist
Director
Institute for Applied Psychometrics (IAP)
******************************************


Friday, June 05, 2020

Researchers study alternative training tools designed to improve Soldier performance — Interactive Metronome

https://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2020-06/uarl-rsa060420.php


******************************************************
Kevin McGrew, PhD
Educational Psychologist
Director, Institute for Applied Psychometrics
IAP
www.themindhub.com
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Saturday, May 30, 2020

Are gifted students more emotionally intelligent than their non-gifted peers? A meta-analysis: High Ability Studies: Vol 0, No 0

ABSTRACT
This Meta-Analysis investigated the relationship between emotional intelligence (EI) and giftedness. The study focused on whether gifted learners possessed higher levels of EI when compared with their non-gifted peers. Furthermore, it sought to determine if gifted males and gifted females differed in their EI abilities. A search of published and unpublished studies in English and Arabic from 1990 to 2018 resulted in 21 studies that compared gifted with non-gifted students, and 11 studies that compared gifted males with gifted females in their EI ability. Using a random-effect model, the results showed that gifted students outperformed non-gifted students on EI, g = 0.226, SE =.036, 95% CI [0.155, 0.297], p <.001. Furthermore, gifted females significantly surpassed gifted males in regrades to their emotional intelligence, g = 0.164, SE =.046, 95% CI [0.074, 0.255], p <.001. Multiple regression analyses showed that age, gender, EI measures, and EI skills significantly explained 18% of the variability in the mean effect between gifted vs. non-gifted students; whereas the age and EI skills moderators significantly explained 49% of the variation in the mean effect between gifted male and gifted female students. Implications and future directions were discussed.
KEYWORDS: Giftednon-giftedemotional intelligencegender differencesmeta-analysis


https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/13598139.2020.1770704?journalCode=chas20

Multidimensional Malingering Criteria for Neuropsychological Assessment: A 20-Year Update of the Malingered Neuropsychological Dysfunction Criteria | Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology | Oxford Academic

Multidimensional Malingering Criteria for Neuropsychological Assessment: A 20-Year Update of the Malingered Neuropsychological Dysfunction Criteria | Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology | Oxford Academic
https://academic.oup.com/acn/advance-article/doi/10.1093/arclin/acaa019/5830790

Thursday, May 21, 2020

White matter matters—Gf and white matter connectivity

A neuromarker of individual general fluid intelligence from the white-matter functional connectome.  Link.

Jiao Li1, Bharat B. Biswal, Yao Meng, Siqi Yang, Xujun Duan, Qian Cui, Huafu Chen, and Wei Liao

Abstract

Neuroimaging studies have uncovered the neural roots of individual differences in human general fluid intelligence (Gf). Gf is characterized by the function of specific neural circuits in brain gray-matter; however, the association between Gf and neural function in brain white-matter (WM) remains unclear. Given reliable detection of blood-oxygen-level-dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging (BOLD-fMRI) signals in WM, we used a functional, rather than an anatomical, neuromarker in WM to identify individual Gf. We collected longitudinal BOLD-fMRI data (in total three times, ~11 months between time 1 and time 2, and ~29 months between time 1 and time 3) in normal volunteers at rest, and identified WM functional connectomes that predicted the individual Gf at time 1 (n = 326). From internal validation analyses, we demonstrated that the constructed predictive model at time 1 predicted an individual's Gf from WM functional connectomes at time 2 (time 1 ∩ time 2: n = 105) and further at time 3 (time 1 ∩ time 3: n = 83). From external validation analyses, we demonstrated that the predictive model from time 1 was generalized to unseen individuals from another center (n = 53). From anatomical aspects, WM functional connectivity showing high predictive power predominantly included the superior longitudinal fasciculus system, deep frontal WM, and ventral frontoparietal tracts. These results thus demonstrated that WM functional connectomes offer a novel applicable neuromarker of Gf and supplement the gray-matter connectomes to explore brain–behavior relationships.

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Intelligence and Adaptive Behavior: A Meta-Analysis: School Psychology Review: Vol 0, No 0

Intelligence and Adaptive Behavior: A Meta-Analysis: School Psychology Review: Vol 0, No 0
https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/2372966X.2020.1717374?journalCode=uspr20

Tuesday, May 19, 2020

Comparing Math LD Diagnostic Rates Obtained Using LDAC and DSM-5 Criteria: Implications for the Field - Meadow Schroeder, Michelle A. Drefs, Michael Zwiers,

Comparing Math LD Diagnostic Rates Obtained Using LDAC and DSM-5 Criteria: Implications for the Field - Meadow Schroeder, Michelle A. Drefs, Michael Zwiers,
https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/0829573520915366

******************************************
Kevin S. McGrew, PhD
Educational & School Psychologist
Director
Institute for Applied Psychometrics (IAP)
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Brain Regions Identified as Being Associated with Verbal Reasoning through the Use of Imaging Regression via Internal Variation: Journal of the American Statistical Association: Vol 0, No ja

Brain Regions Identified as Being Associated with Verbal Reasoning through the Use of Imaging Regression via Internal Variation: Journal of the American Statistical Association: Vol 0, No ja
https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/01621459.2020.1766468?scroll=top&needAccess=true

******************************************
Kevin S. McGrew, PhD
Educational & School Psychologist
Director
Institute for Applied Psychometrics (IAP)
******************************************


The role of frontal and parietal cortex in the performance of gifted and average adolescents in a mental rotation task

The role of frontal and parietal cortex in the performance of gifted and average adolescents in a mental rotation task
https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0232660

******************************************
Kevin S. McGrew, PhD
Educational & School Psychologist
Director
Institute for Applied Psychometrics (IAP)
******************************************


A neuromarker of individual general fluid intelligence from the white-matter functional connectome | Translational Psychiatry

A neuromarker of individual general fluid intelligence from the white-matter functional connectome | Translational Psychiatry
https://www.nature.com/articles/s41398-020-0829-3

Monday, May 18, 2020

Fwd: leading brains is out! Edition of 18 May 2020

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From: Paper.li <noreply@paper.li>
Date: May 18, 2020, 8:52 AM -0500
To: iap@earthlink.net
Subject: leading brains is out! Edition of 18 May 2020

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leading brains
Your neuro update
Published by
Andy Habermacher
18 May 2020
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