Thursday, April 09, 2020

Developmental Disorders: Few Specific Disorders and No Specific Brain Regions - ScienceDirect

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0960982220301925

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Kevin S. McGrew,  PhD
Educational Psychologist
Director
Institute for Applied Psychometrics (IAP)
www.themindhub.com
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Tuesday, April 07, 2020

Cognitive and brain development is independently influenced by socioeconomic status and polygenic scores for educational attainment | bioRxiv

Cognitive and brain development is independently influenced by socioeconomic status and polygenic scores for educational attainment | bioRxiv

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Kevin S. McGrew, PhD
Educational & School Psychologist
Director
Institute for Applied Psychometrics (IAP)
******************************************


General mental ability and specific abilities: Their relative importance for extrinsic career success. - PsycNET

https://psycnet-apa-org.ezp3.lib.umn.edu/record/2019-78958-001

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Kevin S. McGrew, PhD
Educational & School Psychologist
Director
Institute for Applied Psychometrics (IAP)
******************************************


Tuesday, March 31, 2020

The National Academies Press | Items in Cart

https://www.nap.edu/catalog/25703/brain-health-across-the-life-span-proceedings-of-a-workshop
https://cart.nap.edu/cart/cart.php?list=fs&action=buy%20it&record_id=25703&isbn=0-309-67261-9

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***********************************************
Kevin S. McGrew,  PhD
Educational Psychologist
Director
Institute for Applied Psychometrics (IAP)
www.themindhub.com
************************************************

Tuesday, March 24, 2020

PsyArXiv Preprints | Review of Modern Psychometrics with R

https://psyarxiv.com/msba7/


Sent from my iPhone

Best practices in gifted identification and assessment: Lessons from the WISC‐V - Silverman - - Psychology in the Schools - Wiley Online Library


https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/pits.22361

Abstract

School psychologists in today's schools have the unique opportunity—and responsibility—to guide identification for gifted programs. "Who is gifted?" remains a perennial question in the gifted education literature, not answered by group intelligence screeners that purportedly level the playing field for all. As the student body grows more diverse, there is increasing necessity to ensure that all students have equal access to gifted programs. Failure to identify and develop the advanced abilities of gifted children who are culturally diverse, economically deprived, highly gifted, or twice exceptional is justifiably viewed as a civil rights violation. The National Association for Gifted Children's 2018 position statement, "Use of the WISC‐V for Gifted and Twice Exceptional Identification," offers important considerations for identifying the gifted. Based on a national research study of 390 gifted children on the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, Fifth Edition (WISC‐V), the statement recommends that the traditional practice of mandating Full Scale intelligence quotient scores be abandoned. Instead, it embraces the use of any one of six expanded index scores that are better measures of abstract reasoning for selecting students for gifted provisions. As gifted children are oftentimes asynchronous, alternate index scores are less biased and better able to document the strengths of all gifted children. What is learned from the WISC‐V can be applied by school psychologists to improve the choice of comprehensive individual intelligence tests, brief intelligence tests, and the body of evidence gifted children must exhibit.


Sent from my iPhone

A primer on assessing intelligence in laboratory studies - ScienceDirect


https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0160289620300180

Abstract

This paper is an attempt to provide a brief guide to major conceptual and statistical problems that are unique to the study of individual differences in intelligence and various intellectual abilities, in the context of laboratory experimental studies, and to suggest strategies to successfully navigate these problems. Such studies are generally designed so that the goal is to evaluate the relationships between individual differences in basic task performance or related markers on the one hand, and individual differences in intellectual abilities on the other hand. Issues discussed in this paper include: restriction-of-range in talent, method variance and facet theory; speed vs. power; regression to the mean; extreme-groups designs; difference scores; differences in correlations; significant vs. meaningful correlations; factor- pure tests; and criterion variables. A list of representative "do" and "don't" recommendations is provided to help guide the design and evaluation of laboratory studies.



Sent from my iPhone

Saturday, March 14, 2020

Sleep and intelligence: critical review and future directions - ScienceDirect

Sleep and intelligence: critical review and future directions - ScienceDirect
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2352154620300097


General cognitive ability — or intelligence — is a key psychological phenotype. Individual differences in intelligence may either cause or be a consequence of individual differences in the macrostructure of sleep, such as timing or duration. Furthermore, biological measures of sleep, especially highly trait-like sleep EEG oscillations may provide insights about the biological underpinnings of intelligence. Here we review the current state of research on the association between sleep measures and intelligence. We concluded that the macrostructure of sleep has a small but consistent correlation with intelligence, which is possibly moderated by age. Sleep spindle amplitude and possibly other sleep EEG measures are biomarkers of intelligence. We close by discussing methodological pitfalls of the field, and give recommendations for future directions.

******************************************
Kevin S. McGrew, PhD
Educational & School Psychologist
Director
Institute for Applied Psychometrics (IAP)
******************************************


Thursday, March 12, 2020

Sunday, March 08, 2020

Worry alters speed-accuracy tradeoffs but does not impair sustained attention

Worry alters speed-accuracy tradeoffs but does not impair sustained attention
https://flip.it/mtUd3z

******************************************
Kevin S. McGrew, PhD
Educational & School Psychologist
Director
Institute for Applied Psychometrics (IAP)
******************************************


Saturday, March 07, 2020

The factor structure of cognitive functioning in cognitively healthy participants: A meta-analysis and meta-analysis of individual participant data. - PsycNET

The factor structure of cognitive functioning in cognitively healthy participants: A meta-analysis and meta-analysis of individual participant data. - PsycNET
https://psycnet.apa.org/record/2020-07834-001

The CHC model strikes again!!!

Citation

Agelink van Rentergem, J. A., de Vent, N. R., Schmand, B. A., Murre, J. M. J., Staaks, J. P. C., & Huizenga, H. M. (2020). The factor structure of cognitive functioning in cognitively healthy participants: A meta-analysis and meta-analysis of individual participant data. Neuropsychology Review. Advance online publication. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11065-019-09423-6

Abstract

AbstractMany neuropsychologists are of the opinion that the multitude of cognitive tests may be grouped into a much smaller number of cognitive domains. However, there is little consensus on how many domains exist, what these domains are, nor on which cognitive tests belong to which domain. This incertitude can be solved by factor analysis, provided that the analysis includes a broad range of cognitive tests that have been administered to a very large number of people. In this article, two such factor analyses were performed, each combining multiple studies. However, because it was not possible to obtain complete multivariate data on more than the most common test variables in the field, not all possible domains were examined here. The first analysis was a factor meta-analysis of correlation matrices combining data of 60,398 healthy participants from 52 studies. Several models from the literature were fitted, of which a version based on the Cattell-Horn-Carroll (CHC) model was found to describe the correlations better than the others. The second analysis was a factor analysis of the Advanced Neuropsychological Diagnostics Infrastructure (ANDI) database, combining scores of 11,881 participants from 54 Dutch and Belgian studies not included in the first meta-analysis. Again, the model fit was better for the CHC model than for other models. Therefore, we conclude that the CHC model best characterizes both cognitive domains and which test belongs to each domain. Therefore, although originally developed in the intelligence literature, the CHC model deserves more attention in neuropsychology. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved)


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Kevin S. McGrew, PhD
Educational & School Psychologist
Director
Institute for Applied Psychometrics (IAP)
******************************************


Thursday, March 05, 2020

Book Nook: General and Specific Mental Abilities - McFarland (Ed)-


 

Book Description

The history of testing mental abilities has seen the dominance of two contrasting approaches, psychometrics and neuropsychology. These two traditions have different theories and methodologies, but overlap considerably in the tests they use. Historically, psychometrics has emphasized the primacy of a general factor, while neuropsychology has emphasized specific abilities that are dissociable. This issue about the nature of human mental abilities is important for many practical concerns. Questions such as gender, ethnic, and age-related differences in mental abilities are relatively easy to address if they are due to a single dominant trait. Presumably such a trait can be measured with any collection of complex cognitive tests. If there are many specific mental abilities, these would be much harder to measure and associated social issues would be more difficult to resolve. The relative importance of general and specific abilities also has implications for educational practices. This book includes the diverse opinions of experts from several fields including psychometrics, neuropsychology, speech language and hearing, and applied psychology.

Saturday, February 29, 2020

Spatial ability (Gv) and math (Gq; Gf-RQ): A meta-analysis






Fang Xie & Li Zhang  & Xu Chen & Ziqiang Xin


Abstract

The relationship between spatial and mathematical ability is controversial. Thus, the current study conducted a meta-analysis of 73 studies, with 263 effect sizes to explore the relationship between spatial and mathematical ability. Furthermore, we explored potential factors that moderate this relationship. Results showed that the relationship between mathematical and spatial ability was not simply linear. Specifically, logical reasoning had a stronger association with spatial ability than numerical or arithmetic ability with spatial ability. Intrinsic-dynamic, intrinsic-static, extrinsic-dynamic, extrinsic-static spatial ability, and visual–spatial memory showed comparable associations with mathematical ability. The association between spatial and mathematical ability showed no differences between children, adolescents, and adults and no differences between typically developing individuals and individuals with developmental disabilities. The implications of these findings for theory and practice are discussed.

Keywords Spatial ability . Mathematical ability . Meta-analysis . robumeta package . Spatial training.


Implications for Theory and Practice

“Our study can shed light on our understanding of the relationship between spatial and mathematical abilities. The relationship between spatial and mathematical abilities is not simply linear. Our moderation analyses suggested that logical reasoning was more strongly associated with spatial ability than numerical and arithmetical ability. As such, when examin-ing the mechanism of the association between spatial and mathematical ability, each domain of mathematical ability should be separately examined. The current study has important educational implications. Although we did not prove the causal relationship between spatial and mathematical ability, our findings might provide some pedagogical suggestions about how to train spatial ability to improve children's mathematical abilities. Notably, a recent intervention study by Sorby et al. (2018) demonstrated the positive effect of spatial interventions on STEM-related skills, and several studies have shown that spatial training can improve mathematical achievement (Cheng and Mix 2014; Clements et al. 2011; Sorby and Baartmans 2000). Firstly, our findings shed light on what kind of spatial ability training should be chosen. The current study indicated that different domains of spatial ability are associated with mathemat-ical ability to a similar degree. Therefore, training in other domains of spatial ability, not just intrinsic-dynamic spatial abilities (Cheng and Mix 2014; Clements et al. 2011; Taylor and Hutton 2013), should be encouraged in educational practice. Further, our findings shed light on when to begin spatial ability training. This study showed that the close association between spatial and mathematical abilities exists in childhood and adolescence. Therefore, spatial training can be beneficial for both children and adolescents. For children, spatial training can be rooted in the real world to develop direct experience by using regular activities such as paper folding, paper cutting (Burte et al. 2017), and Lego construction (Nath and Szücs 2014). For adoles-cents, it is better to carry out spatial training through comprehensive courses involving theory and practice in a series of spatial skills (Miller and Halpern 2013; Patkin and Dayan 2013; Sorby et al. 2013).”

Educational Psychology Review

Ethical Practice in Forensic Psychology: A Guide for Mental Health Professionals, Second Edition

Ethical Practice in Forensic Psychology: A Guide for Mental Health Professionals, Second Edition
https://www.apa.org/pubs/books/4312028?tab=4



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Kevin S. McGrew, PhD
Educational & School Psychologist
Director
Institute for Applied Psychometrics (IAP)
******************************************


Friday, February 28, 2020

Fluid intelligence is associated with cortical volume and white matter tract integrity within multiple-demand system across adult lifespan - ScienceDirect

Fluid intelligence is associated with cortical volume and white matter tract integrity within multiple-demand system across adult lifespan - ScienceDirect
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S105381192030063X

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Kevin S. McGrew, PhD
Educational & School Psychologist
Director
Institute for Applied Psychometrics (IAP)
******************************************


Sunday, February 16, 2020

Flawed science? Two efforts launched to improve scientific validity of psychological test evidence in court https://forensicpsychologist.blogspot.com/2020/02/flawed-science-two-efforts-launched-to.html

Flawed science? Two efforts launched to improve scientific validity of psychological test evidence in court https://forensicpsychologist.blogspot.com/2020/02/flawed-science-two-efforts-launched-to.html

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Kevin S. McGrew, PhD
Educational & School Psychologist
Director
Institute for Applied Psychometrics (IAP)
******************************************


Spatial navigation ability predicts progression of dementia symptomatology

Spatial navigation ability predicts progression of dementia symptomatology
https://flip.it/eV9Piy

******************************************
Kevin S. McGrew, PhD
Educational & School Psychologist
Director
Institute for Applied Psychometrics (IAP)
******************************************


Friday, February 14, 2020

Neurocognitive Psychometrics of Intelligence: How Measurement Advancements Unveiled the Role of Mental Speed in Intelligence Differences - Anna-Lena Schubert, Gidon T. Frischkorn,

Neurocognitive Psychometrics of Intelligence: How Measurement Advancements Unveiled the Role of Mental Speed in Intelligence Differences - Anna-Lena Schubert, Gidon T. Frischkorn,
https://flip.it/6TxoL5

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Kevin S. McGrew, PhD
Educational & School Psychologist
Director
Institute for Applied Psychometrics (IAP)
******************************************


Thursday, February 13, 2020

The neural code of intelligence: From correlation to causation - ScienceDirect


The neural code of intelligence: From correlation to causation - ScienceDirect
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S1571064519301563?via%3Dihub

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Kevin S. McGrew, PhD
Educational & School Psychologist
Director
Institute for Applied Psychometrics (IAP)
******************************************


Monday, February 10, 2020

Why Boredom Is Interesting - Erin C. Westgate, 2020

Why Boredom Is Interesting - Erin C. Westgate, 2020
https://flip.it/v6oiHr

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***********************************************
Kevin S. McGrew,  PhD
Educational Psychologist
Director
Institute for Applied Psychometrics (IAP)
www.themindhub.com
************************************************

Tuesday, January 28, 2020

Understanding, educating, and supporting children with specific learning disabilities: 50 years of science and practice. - PsycNET

https://psycnet-apa-org.ezp2.lib.umn.edu/record/2019-25332-001

Grigorenko, E. L., Compton, D. L., Fuchs, L. S., Wagner, R. K., Willcutt, E. G., & Fletcher, J. M. (2020). Understanding, educating, and supporting children with specific learning disabilities: 50 years of science and practice. American Psychologist, 75(1), 37–51. https://doi-org.ezp2.lib.umn.edu/10.1037/amp0000452

Abstract

Specific learning disabilities (SLDs) are highly relevant to the science and practice of psychology, both historically and currently, exemplifying the integration of interdisciplinary approaches to human conditions. They can be manifested as primary conditions—as difficulties in acquiring specific academic skills—or as secondary conditions, comorbid to other developmental disorders such as attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. In this synthesis of historical and contemporary trends in research and practice, we mark the 50th anniversary of the recognition of SLDs as a disability in the United States. Specifically, we address the manifestations, occurrence, identification, comorbidity, etiology, and treatment of SLDs, emphasizing the integration of information from the interdisciplinary fields of psychology, education, psychiatry, genetics, and cognitive neuroscience. SLDs, exemplified here by specific word reading, reading comprehension, mathematics, and written expression disabilities, represent spectrum disorders, each occurring in approximately 5% to 15% of the school-aged population. In addition to risk for academic deficiencies and related functional social, emotional, and behavioral difficulties, those with SLDs often have poorer long-term social and vocational outcomes. Given the high rate of occurrence of SLDs and their lifelong negative impact on functioning if not treated, it is important to establish and maintain effective prevention, surveillance, and treatment systems involving professionals from various disciplines trained to minimize the risk and maximize the protective factors for SLDs. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved)


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Kevin S. McGrew, PhD
Educational & School Psychologist
Director
Institute for Applied Psychometrics (IAP)
******************************************


The Neglected Intelligence Course: Needs and Suggested Solutions - Jared Z. Burton, Russell T. Warne,



The Neglected Intelligence Course: Needs and Suggested Solutions - Jared Z. Burton, Russell T. Warne,
https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/0098628320901381

Intelligence is a well-studied construct in psychology that has correlational relationships with many educational, employment, and health outcomes. However, prior research indicates that incorrect beliefs about intelligence are widespread. In an effort to discern the degree to which the psychology curriculum is responsible for these inaccuracies, we collected course descriptions and catalog information from 303 American colleges and universities. We found that college courses dedicated to mainstream intelligence science are rare. Because the lack of intelligence education within psychology is a plausible contributor to incorrect beliefs about intelligence, we present an outline for a college-level course on intelligence. We also provide advice for implementing a course, including course readings and advice for handling controversies.


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Kevin S. McGrew, PhD
Educational & School Psychologist
Director
Institute for Applied Psychometrics (IAP)
******************************************


Saturday, January 25, 2020

Measuring emotional and personal intelligence. - PsycNET


https://psycnet.apa.org/record/2019-20160-015

Citation

Caruso, D. R., Mayer, J. D., Bryan, V., Phillips, K. G., & Salovey, P. (2019). Measuring emotional and personal intelligence. In M. W. Gallagher & S. J. Lopez (Eds.), Positive psychological assessment: A handbook of models and measures (p. 233–245). American Psychological Association. https://doi.org/10.1037/0000138-015

Abstract

In this chapter, we describe two types of intelligence centered on reasoning about people that we regard as important elements of individuals' positive psychology. Emotional intelligence and personal intelligence are mental abilities related to but partially distinct from general mental ability (i.e., IQ). People use their emotional intelligence (EI) to understand people's emotions and the emotional information around them and their personal intelligence (PI) to understand personality-related information. We begin by placing EI and PI within the pantheon of other forms of intelligence and at the same time distinguish them from other forms of intelligence, such as spatial or quantitative. We classify EI and PI as "people-centered" intelligences versus more traditional "thing-oriented" intelligences (Mayer, 2018; Mayer & Skimmyhorn, 2017). We also explore how EI and PI are measured and provide examples of how they can be applied in our lives. EI and PI—defined and measured as an ability—may be considered to be broad intelligences along with other intelligences such as verbal or spatial. These new intelligences can assist us in identifying abilities that are related to "people" outcomes such as relationship quality and well-being. The future of people-centered intelligence holds a great deal of promise as the concept is developed further and advances in measurement are achieved. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved)



Sent from my iPhone

Convergent creative thinking performance is associated with white matter structures: Evidence from a large sample study - ScienceDirect



Convergent creative thinking performance is associated with white matter structures: Evidence from a large sample study - ScienceDirect
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1053811920300641

Abstract

In laboratory settings, creativity is measured using tasks of divergent as well as convergent thinking. It has been suggested that brain connectivity is important for creativity. In the present study, we investigated the associations of convergent thinking performance of compound Remote Associates Test (CRAT) with fractional anisotropy (FA) in diffusion tensor imaging and regional white matter (WM) volume (rWMV) in voxel-based morphometry in a large sample of healthy young adults (360 males and 280 females; mean age: 20.9 years, SD = 1.6). We showed that CRAT performance was positively correlated with WM pathway property (i.e., FA) in the left fronto-occipital fasciculus and the left inferior longitudinal fasciculus, which play important roles in processing of language and concept. Further, CRAT performance was negatively correlated with rWMV in the widespread frontal temporal subcortical and cerebellar WM areas, suggesting the unique association of convergent thinking with WM connectivity.

Keywords

Convergent thinking
Remote associates
Structural connectivity
Voxel-based morphometry
Diffusion tensor imaging

******************************************
Kevin S. McGrew, PhD
Educational & School Psychologist
Director
Institute for Applied Psychometrics (IAP)
******************************************


Thursday, January 23, 2020

General mental ability and specific abilities: Their relative importance for extrinsic career success. - PsycNET

https://psycnet.apa.org/record/2019-78958-001

Citation

Lang, J. W. B., & Kell, H. J. (2019). General mental ability and specific abilities: Their relative importance for extrinsic career success. Journal of Applied Psychology. Advance online publication. https://doi.org/10.1037/apl0000472

Abstract

Recent research on the role of general mental ability (GMA) and specific abilities in work-related outcomes has shown that the results differ depending on the theoretical and conceptual approach that researchers use. While earlier research has typically assumed that GMA causes the specific abilities and has thus used incremental validity analysis, more recent research has explored the implications of treating GMA and specific abilities as equals (differing only in breadth and not subordination) and has used relative importance analysis. In this article, we extend this work to the prediction of extrinsic career success operationalized as pay, income, and the attainment of jobs with high prestige. Results, based on a large national sample, revealed that GMA and specific abilities measured in school were good predictors of job prestige measured after 11 years, pay measured after 11 years, and income 51 years later toward the end of the participants' work lives. With 1 exception, GMA was a dominant predictor in incremental validity analyses. However, in relative importance analyses, the majority of the explained variance was explained by specific abilities, and GMA was not more important than single specific abilities in relative importance analyses. Visuospatial, verbal, and mathematical abilities all had substantial variance shares and were also more important than GMA in some of the analyses. Implications for the interpretation of cognitive ability data and facilitating people's success in their careers are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved)



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***********************************************
Kevin S. McGrew,  PhD
Educational Psychologist
Director
Institute for Applied Psychometrics (IAP)
www.themindhub.com
************************************************

Thursday, January 16, 2020

This is your child's brain on books: Scans show benefit of reading vs. screen time

This is your child's brain on books: Scans show benefit of reading vs. screen time
https://flip.it/rrjPv7

******************************************
Kevin S. McGrew, PhD
Educational & School Psychologist
Director
Institute for Applied Psychometrics (IAP)
******************************************


Thursday, January 09, 2020

Default network contributions to episodic and semantic processing during divergent creative thinking: A representational similarity analysis



Default network contributions to episodic and semantic processing during divergent creative thinking: A representational similarity analysis
https://flip.it/PkSmQI

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***********************************************
Kevin S. McGrew,  PhD
Educational Psychologist
Director
Institute for Applied Psychometrics (IAP)
www.themindhub.com
************************************************