Saturday, August 11, 2018

Beyond IQ: Mining the “no-mans-land” between Intelligence and IQ: Journal of Intelligence special issue

I am pleased to see the Journal of Intelligence addressing the integration of non-cognitive variables (personality; self-beliefs; motivational constructs; often called the “no-mans land” between intelligence and personality— I believe this catchy phrase was first used by Stankov) with intellectual constructs to better understanding human performance. I have had a long-standing interest in such comprehensive models as reflected by my articulation of the Model of Academic Competence and Motivation (MACM) and repeated posting of “beyond IQ” information at my blogs.

Joel Schneider and I briefly touched in this topic in our soon to be published CHC intelligence theory update chapter. Below is the select text and some awesome figures crafted by Joel.

Our simplified conceptual structure of knowledge abilities is presented in Figure 3.10. At the center of overlapping knowledge domains is general knowledge—knowledge and skills considered important for any member of the population to know (e.g., literacy, numeracy, self-care, budgeting, civics, etiquette, and much more). The bulk of each knowledge domain is the province of specialists, but some portion is considered important for all members of society to know. Drawing inspiration from F. L. Schmidt (2011, 2014), we posit that interests and experience drive acquisition of domain-specific knowledge.

In Schmidt's model, individual differences in general knowledge are driven largely by individual differences in fluid intelligence and general interest in learning, also known as typical intellectual engagement (Goff & Ackerman, 1992). In contrast, individual differences in domain-specific knowledge are more driven by domain-specific in-terests, and also by the “tilt” of one's specific abilities (Coyle, Purcell, Snyder, & Richmond, 2014; Pässler, Beinicke, & Hell, 2015). In Figure 3.11, we present a simplified hypothetical synthesis of several ability models in which abilities, interests, and personality traits predict general and specific knowledge (Ackerman, 1996a, 1996b, 2000; Ackerman, Bowen, Beier, & Kanfer, 2001; Ackerman & Heggestad, 1997; Ackerman & Rolfhus, 1999; Fry & Hale, 1996; Goff & Ackerman, 1992; Kail, 2007; Kane et al., 2004; Rolfhus & Ackerman, 1999; Schmidt, 2011, 2014; Schneider et al., 2016; Schneider & Newman, 2015; Woodcock, 1993; Ziegler, Danay, Heene, Asendorpf, & Bühner, 2012).


Click on images to enlarge.







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Friday, August 10, 2018

Study: Brain training games could be used to assess cognitive abilities, replace the Mini-Mental State Exam (MMSE)



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Study: Brain training games could be used to assess cognitive abilities, replace the Mini-Mental State Exam (MMSE)
// SharpBrains

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The Use of Mobile Games to Assess Cognitive Function of Elderly with and without Cognitive Impairment (Journal of Alzheimer's Disease):

Abstract: In the past few years numerous mobile games have been developed to train the brain. There is a lack of information about the relation between the scores obtained in these games and the cognitive abilities of the patients. The aim of this study was to determine whether or not mobile games can be used to assess cognitive abilities of elderly. Twenty healthy young adults, 29 old patients with cognitive impairments (Mini-Mental State Exam (MMSE) [20- 24]) and 27-aged controls participated in this study. Scores obtained in 7 mobile games were correlated with MMSE and the Addenbrooke's Cognitive Evaluation revised (ACE-R). Statistically significant differences were found for all games between patients with cognitive impairments and the aged controls. Correlations between the average scores of the games and the MMSE and ACE-R are significant (R = 0.72 [p < 0.001] and R = 0.81 [p < 0.001], respectively). Scores of cognitive mobile games could be used as an alternative to MMSE and ACE-R to evaluate cognitive function of aged people with and without cognitive impairment at least when MMSE is higher than 20/30.

Study in context:


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******************************************************
Kevin McGrew, PhD
Educational Psychologist
Director, Institute for Applied Psychometrics
IAP
******************************************************

Saturday, August 04, 2018

Children's academic attainment is linked to the global organization of the white matter connectome - Bathelt - - Developmental Science



Children's academic attainment is linked to the global organization of the white matter connectome - Bathelt - - Developmental Science
https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1111/desc.12662

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******************************************************
Kevin McGrew, PhD
Educational Psychologist
Director, Institute for Applied Psychometrics
IAP
******************************************************

Tuesday, July 31, 2018

Flynn Effect Reference Project update 07-31-18


The Flynn Effect Reference Project document has just been updated.  It now includes 302 references.  Access can be found at this prior post (click here)

Thursday, July 19, 2018

When Mind Wandering is a Strategy, Not a Disadvantage




Searching for the fundamental mental processes that cut across diagnostic categories, driving confusion and distress



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Searching for the fundamental mental processes that cut across diagnostic categories, driving confusion and distress
// BPS Research Digest

GettyImages-667879250.jpg
A new paper in Journal of Clinical Psychology is the just the latest to take a trans-diagnostic approach to mental health

By Alex Fradera

The number of psychiatric diagnoses keep on growing, with perhaps ten times as many categories now as there were 50 years ago. This may in part reflect our growing knowledge, which is welcome. But the sheer density of diagnoses makes it difficult for researchers or clinicians to see the wood for the trees, and it encourages them to settle into silos. It would be advantageous for clinical research and practice if we could introduce some elegance to our understanding. A recent movement in psychology and psychiatry is seeking to do exactly this. It follows evidence that, in the words of US psychologists Robert Kruger and Nicholas Eaton in their 2015 review, "many mental disorders are manifestations of relatively few core underlying dimensions." In the latest foray from this movement, the Journal of Clinical Psychology has published a review outlining another potential core feature: the repetitive occurrence of negative thoughts.

The proliferation of psychiatric diagnoses was baked in from the beginning. Modern psychiatry sought to apply the burgeoning medical model to the mind, treating madness as illness. Physical illnesses are considered as discrete categories, even if they produce overlapping symptoms like a fever, because we can point to their distinct microbial origins. 

This has influenced how we approach mental health, meaning someone struggling could be diagnosed with a phobia and also with an eating disorder and maybe separately with depression (and anxiety, and another eating disorder, and another phobia, and OCD…ad infinitum). We bracket these issues out as if they each originate from their own unique strain of mind bacteria. But mental disorders are rooted in dysfunctional mental processes, of which there are only so many. If we put aside the disease model and look for these processes, maybe we can get to a more solid and elegant foundation. 

One example would be internalising-externalising. In internalising disorders such as depression, OCD, anxiety and bulimia, the individual tends to draw problems inwards to an inappropriate degree; issues are suppressed or privately managed using ineffective or unhealthy strategies. Meanwhile, externalising disorders like pyromania, kleptomania, and conditions like oppositional defiant disorder or conduct disorder, all involve manifesting problematic thoughts or emotions by projecting them onto the world. 

According Kruger and Eaton's landmark review, these aren't just convenient labels: they may actually be more informative than the specific diagnoses. For instance, suicide risk may be better predicted by internalising in all its forms than a specific diagnosis like depression. Similarly, externalising behaviour of any kind is a strong predictor of other forms of externalising, suggesting that it might sometimes be useful to think of the problem as externalising, which can manifest in different ways depending on contextual factors. 

Still, this division is too simple to explain everything about mental health. But in interaction with some other features, perhaps we can start to arrive at a complete model that cuts across diagnostic categories while also capturing the richness of psychiatric conditions. What other relevant factors are there? We recently covered work that suggested another potential trans-diagnostic structure: meta-cognition, the ability to judge your cognitive ability. People who were more anxious or depressed showed more accuracy, but less confidence, in how they judged their performance on a mental task, whereas those who tended towards compulsive behaviour (such as those with schizophrenia or OCD) showed overconfidence and did less well. In our piece we described how this pattern can account for patterns of behaviour found in the real world, such as pessimism and jumping to conclusions, respectively.

Screenshot 2018-07-19 09.46.01.png

Now in the most recent example, Deanna Kaplan and her team at the University of Arizona suggest another trans-diagnostic feature: "maladaptive repetitive thought". This is found across many mental health disorders, typically accompanied by a sense that the thoughts are uncontrollable, a negative flavour, and a fixation on seeking rather than solving problems. Consider the ruminative thoughts that characterise depression, the worries that surge up in anxiety, and the obsessive thoughts that drive OCD. Kaplan's team suggest that these different manifestations should be thought of as variations on a key theme, often differing simply in whether the thoughts are focused on the past, present or future. 

The researchers note that their model helped them to draw connections to other related phenomena such as the problematic grief phenomenon of yearning, which pulls you into the past towards a desire that cannot be satisfied. They also see parallels in somatic hypervigilance, the constant monitoring of bodily sensations for any cause for alarm. Again, the same features come up: negative valence, uncontrollability, and seeking of problems, in this case in the present moment.

It's not news that unwelcome thoughts are a frequent feature of poor mental health. But as with the internalising and externalising dimensions, it's possible that grouping mental health problems that share repetitive thought processes could offer fresh way of looking at the root causes of people's difficulties. It could be that the core problems driving all psychological disorders are countable on our fingers – if so, and if we can identity these core processes, then it will be easier to understand how they develop, and to apply advances from one area of treatment to another, as well as to see when doing so would be ill-advised.

For example, consider how the three features of internalising/externalising, meta-cognitive judgment and repetitive thought processes could be used to organise our understanding of the recently proposed diagnostic category of maladaptive daydreaming, whereby people are compulsively drawn to their daydreams at the cost of their psychological health. This certainly seems to involve internalising, and could involve overconfident misjudgment of whether the daydreaming is beneficial. And what is a daydream if not an extended, imagistic form of thought (much like a yearning)?

I believe we may be on the verge of a real advance in psychiatry, akin to the turn from individual symptoms to mental syndromes we made one hundred years ago. By looking past surface issues and gripping the fundamental mental processes that drive confusion and distress, we might be better placed to remedy them.

Maladaptive repetitive thought as a transdiagnostic phenomenon and treatment target: An integrative review

Alex Fradera (@alexfradera) is Staff Writer at BPS Research Digest


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Wednesday, July 18, 2018

White matter matters: Changes in white matter tracts due to reading intervention

More research supporting “white matter matters”.




Rapid and widespread white matter plasticity during an intensive reading intervention

Nature Communications

Elizabeth Huber, Patrick M. Donnelly, Ariel Rokem & Jason D. Yeatman

ABSTRACT

White matter tissue properties are known to correlate with performance across domains ranging from reading to math, to executive function. Here, we use a longitudinal intervention design to examine experience-dependent growth in reading skills and white matter in grade school-aged, struggling readers. Diffusion MRI data were collected at regular intervals during an 8-week, intensive reading intervention. These measurements reveal large-scale changes throughout a collection of white matter tracts, in concert with growth in reading skill. Additionally, we identify tracts whose properties predict reading skill but remain fixed throughout the intervention, suggesting that some anatomical properties stably predict the ease with which a child learns to read, while others dynamically reflect the effects of experience. These results underscore the importance of considering recent experience when interpreting cross-sectional anatomy–behavior correlations. Widespread changes throughout the white matter may be a hallmark of rapid plasticity associated with an intensive learning experience.

Very interesting. The arcuate fasciculus tracts have also been implicated in higher order thinking (Gf) such as in the P-FIT model of intelligence. Also see white paper that implicates the AF in temporal processing “brain clock” timing interventions




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Monday, July 16, 2018

What is an applied psychometrician?

I wear a number of hats within the broad filed of educational psychology.  One is that of an applied psychometrician.  Whenever anyone asks what I do, I receive strange looks when that title rolls out of my mouth.  I then always need to provide a general explanation.

I've decided to take a little time and generate a brief explanation.  I hope this helps.

The online American Psychological Association (APA) Dictionary of Psychology defines psychometrics as: n. the branch of psychology concerned with the quantification and measurement of mental attributes, behavior, performance, and the like, as well as with the design, analysis, and improvement of the tests, questionnaires, and other instruments used in such measurement. Also called psychometric psychology; psychometry.

The definition can be understood from the two components of the word. Psycho refers to “psyche” or the human mind. Metrics refers to “measurement.” Thus, in simple terms, psychometrics means psychological measurement--it is the math and science behind psychological testing.  Applied psychometrics is concerned with the application of psychological theory, techniques, statistical methods, and psychological measurement to applied psychological test development, evaluation, and test interpretation. This compares to more pure or theoretical psychometrics which focuses on developing new measurement theories, methods, statistical procedures, etc. An applied psychometrician uses the various theories, tools and techniques developed by more theoretical psychometricians in the actual development, evaluation, and interpretation of psychological tests. By way of analogy, applied psychometrics is to theoretical psychometrics, as applied research is to pure research.

The principles of psychometric testing are very broad in their potential application., and have been applied to such areas as intelligence, personality, interest, attitudes, neuropsychological functioning, and diagnostic measures (Irwing & Hughes, 2018). As noted recently by Irwing and Hughes (2018), psychometrics is broad as “It applies to many more fields than psychology, indeed biomedical science, education, economics, communications theory, marketing, sociology, politics, business, and epidemiology amongst other disciplines, not only employ psychometric testing, but have also made important contributions to the subject” (p. 3).

Although there are many publications of relevance to the topic of test development and psychometrics, the most useful and important single source is “the Standards for Educational and Psychological Testing” (aka., the Joint Test Standards; American Educational Research Association [AERA], American Psychological Association [APA], National Council on Measurement in Education [NCME], 2014). The Joint Test Standards outline standards and guidelines for test developers, publishers, and users (psychologists) of tests. Given that the principles and theories of psychometrics are generic (they cut across all subdisciplines of psychology that use psychological tests), and there is a standard professionally accepted set of standards (the Joint Test Standards), an expert in applied psychometrics has the skills and expertise to evaluate the fundamental, universal or core measurement integrity (i.e., quality of norms, reliability, validity, etc.) of various psychological tests and measures (e.g., surveys, IQ tests, neuropsychological tests, personality tests), although sub-disciplinary expertise and training would be required to engage in expert interpretation by sub-disciplines. For example, expertise in brain development, functioning and brain-behavior relations would be necessary to use neuropsychological tests to make clinical judgements regarding brain dysfunction, type of brain disorders, etc. However, the basic psychometric characteristics of most all psychological and educational tests (e.g., neuropsychological, IQ, achievement, personality, interest, etc.) assessment can be evaluated by professionals with expertise in applied psychometrics.

American Educational Research Association, American Psychological Association, & National Council on Measurement in Education (2014). Standards for Educational and Psychological Testing. Washington, DC: Author.

 Irwing, P. & Hughes, D. J. (2018). Test development. In P. Irwing, T. Booth, & D. J. Hughes (Eds.), The Wiley Handbook of Psychometric Testing: A Multidisciplinary Reference on Survey, Scale and Test Development (pp. 3-49. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons

Sunday, July 15, 2018

Excellent conceptual suggestion for organizing mind wandering research



Trends in Cognitive Sciences, June 2018, Vol. 22, No. 6

ABSTRACT

As empirical research on mind-wandering accelerates, we draw attention to an emerging trend in how mind-wandering is conceptualized. Previously articulated definitions of mind-wandering differ from each other in important ways, yet they also maintain overlapping characteristics. This conceptual structure suggests that mind-wandering is best considered from a family-resemblances perspective, which entails treating it as a graded, heterogeneous construct and clearly measuring and describing the specific aspect(s) of mind-wandering that researchers are investigating. We believe that adopting this family-resemblances approach will increase conceptual and methodological connections among related phenomena in the mind-wandering family and encourage a more nuanced and precise understanding of the many varieties of mind-wandering.

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Saturday, July 14, 2018

Using Gt distribution parameters to predict executive functions in AHDH: Study consistent with Schneider & McGrew 2018 CHC update chapter

Interesting article consistent with what Joel Schneider and I discussed in our latest CHC Intelligence theory update chapter. Click here for info.

Using inspection time and ex-Gaussian parameters of reaction time to predict executive functions in children with ADHD. Intelligence, 69 (2018) 186–194.

Hilary Galloway-Long, Cynthia Huang-Pollock


A B S T R A C T

Slower and more variable performance in speeded reaction time tasks is a prominent cognitive signature among children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), and is often also negatively associated with executive functioning ability. In the current study, we utilize a visual inspection time task and an ex-Gaussian decomposition of the reaction time data from the same task to better understand which of several cognitive subprocesses (i.e., perceptual encoding, decision-making, or fine-motor output) may be responsible for these important relationships. Consistent with previous research, children with ADHD (n = 190; 68 girls) had longer/ slower SD and tau than non-ADHD peers (n = 76; 42 girls), but there were no group differences in inspection time, mu, or sigma. Smaller mu, greater sigma, longer tau, and slower inspection time together predicted worse performance on a latent executive function factor, but only tau partially mediated the relationship between ADHD symptomology and EF. These results suggest that the speed of information accumulation during the decision-making process may be an important mechanism that explains ADHD-related deficits in executive control.

Click image to enlarge.



Assessment Recommendations for Gt (from Schneider & McGrew, 2018)

To be published shortly in:




Tasks measuring Gt are not typically used in clinical settings (except perhaps in CPTs). With the increasing use of low-cost mobile computing devices (i.e., smartphones and iPads/other slate notebook computers), we predict that practical measures of Gt will soon be available for clinical use. Some potential clinical applications are already apparent. We present three examples.

Gregory, Nettelbeck, and Wilson (2009) demonstrated that initial level of and rate of changes in inspection time might serve as an important biomarker of aging. Briefly, a biomarker for the aging process “is a biological parameter, like blood pressure or visual acuity that measures a basic biological process of ageing and predicts later functional capabilities more effectively than can chronological age . . . a valid biomarker should predict a range of important age-related outcomes including cognitive functioning, everyday independence and mortality, in that order of salience” (p. 999). In a small sample of elderly individuals, initial inspection time level and rate of slowing (over repeated testing) was related to cognitive functioning and everyday competence. Repeated, relatively low-cost assessment of adults' inspection times might serve a useful function in cognitive aging research and serve as a routine measure (much like blood pressure) to detect possible early signs of cognitive decline.

Researchers have demonstrated how to harness the typical non-normal distributions of RT as a potential aid in diagnosis of certain clinical disorders. Most RT response distributions are not normally distributed in the classic sense. They are virtually always positively skewed, with most RTs falling at the faster end of the distribution. These distributions are called ex-Gaussian, which is a mathematical combination of Gaussian and exponential distributions. It can be characterized by the mean (m), the standard deviation (s),and an exponential function (t) that reflects the mean and standard deviation exponential component (Balota & Yap, 2011). (Don't worry; one does not need to under-stand this statistics-as-a-second-language brief description to appreciate the potential application.) The important finding is that “individuals carry with them their own characteristic RT distributions that are relatively stable over time” (p. 162). Thus, given the ease an efficiency with which RT tests could be repeatedly administered to individu-als (via smart devices and portable computers), it would be possible to readily obtain each person's RT distribution signature. Of most importance is the finding that all three RT distribution parameters are relatively stable, and t is very stable (e.g., test–retest correlations in the high .80s to low .90s). Furthermore, there is a robust relation between t and working memory performance that is consistent with the worst-performance rule (WPR) discovered in the intelligence literature. The WPR states that on repeated trial testing on cognitive tasks, the trials where a person does poorest (worst) are better predictors of intelligence than the best-performance trials (Coyle, 2003). It has been demonstrated, in keeping with the WPR, that the portion of each person's RT distribution representing the slowest RTs is strongly related to fluid intelligence and working memory.

In the not-too-distant future, assessment personal armed with portable smart devices or computers could test an individual repeatedly over time with RT paradigms. Then, via magical software or app algorithms, a person's RT distribution signature could be obtained (and compared against the normative distribution) to gain insights into the person's general intelligence, Gf, or working memory over time. This could have im-portant applications in monitoring of age-related cognitive changes, responses to medication for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) or other disorders, the effectiveness of brain fitness programs, and so forth. Finally, using the same general RT paradigms and metrics, research has indicated that it may be possible to differentiate children with ADHD from typically developing children (Kofler et al., 2013) and children with ADHD from those with dyslexia (Gooch, Snowling, & Hulme, 2012), based on the RT variability—not the mean level of performance. It is also possible that RT variability might simply be a general marker for a number of underlying neurocognitive disorders.

We have the technology. We have the capability to build portable, low-cost assessment technology based on Gt assessment paradigms. With more efficient and better assessments than before, build it . . . and they (assessment professionals) will come.


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Thursday, July 12, 2018

Great psychometric resource: The Wiley Handbook of Psychometric Testing.

I just received my two volume set of this excellent resource on psychometric testing.  There are not many good books that cover such a broad array of psychometric measurement issues.  This is not what I would call "easy reading."  This is more like a "must have" resource book to have "at the ready" when seeking to understand contemporary psychometric test development issues.

Sunday, July 08, 2018

Practice or retest effects in measures of working memory capacity (Gwm): A meta-analysis

Retest effects in working memory capacity tests: A meta-analysis
Jana Scharfen, Katrin Jansen, Heinz Holling. Article link

© Psychonomic Society, Inc. 2018

Abstract

The repeated administration of working memory capacity tests is common in clinical and research settings. For cognitive ability tests and different neuropsychological tests, meta-analyses have shown that they are prone to retest effects, which have to be accounted for when interpreting retest scores. Using a multilevel approach, this meta-analysis aims at showing the reproducibility of retest effects in working memory capacity tests for up to seven test administrations, and examines the impact of the length of the test-retest interval, test modality, equivalence of test forms and participant age on the size of retest effects. Furthermore, it is assessed whether the size of retest effects depends on the test paradigm. An extensive literature search revealed 234 effect sizes from 95 samples and 68 studies, in which healthy participants between 12 and 70 years repeatedly performed a working memory capacity test. Results yield a weighted average of g = 0.28 for retest effects from the first to the second test administration, and a significant increase in effect sizes was observed up to the fourth test administration. The length of the test-retest interval and publication year were found to moderate the size of retest effects. Retest effects differed between the paradigms of working memory capacity tests. These findings call for the development and use of appropriate experimental or statistical methods to address retest effects in working memory capacity tests.

Keywords Meta-analysis · Retest effect · Practice effect · Working memory



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Nice visual graphic of cognitive load theory

Waves move across the human brain to support memory



Waves move across the human brain to support memory
https://medicalxpress.com/news/2018-06-human-brain-memory.html

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Wednesday, July 04, 2018

How to keep your memory as you age: Annual Review of Psychology

Annual Review of Psychology: Successful Memory Aging. Article link.

Lars Nyberg and Sara Pudas

Abstract

For more than 50 years, psychologists, gerontologists, and, more recently, neuroscientists have considered the possibility of successful aging. How to define successful aging remains debated, but well-preserved age-sensitive cognitive functions, like episodic memory, is an often-suggested criterion. Evidence for successful memory aging comes from cross-sectional and lon-gitudinal studies showing that some older individuals display high and sta-ble levels of performance. Successful memory aging may be accomplished via multiple paths. One path is through brain maintenance, or relative lack of age-related brain pathology. Through another path, successful memory aging can be accomplished despite brain pathology by means of efficient compensatory and strategic processes. Genetic, epigenetic, and lifestyle fac-tors influence memory aging via both paths. Some of these factors can be promoted throughout the life course, which, at the individual as well as the societal level, can positively impact successful memory aging.

Click on image to enlarge.



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Sunday, June 24, 2018

Lack of group-to-individual generalizability is a threat to human subjects research




Something we all learned and have known at some point, but which we often forget when extrapolating from group-based research statistics/parameters to individuals.

Lack of group-to-individual generalizability is a threat to human subjects research. Article link in PNAS.

Aaron J. Fishera, John D. Medaglia and Bertus F. Jeronimus

ABSTRACT

Only for ergodic processes will inferences based on group-level data generalize to individual experience or behavior. Because human social and psychological processes typically have an in-dividually variable and time-varying nature, they are unlikely to be ergodic. In this paper, six studies with a repeated-measure design were used for symmetric comparisons of interindividual and intraindividual variation. Our results delineate the potential scope and impact of nonergodic data in human subjects research. Analyses across six samples (with 87–94 participants and an equal number of assessments per participant) showed some degree of agreement in central tendency estimates (mean) between groups and individuals across constructs and data collection paradigms. However, the variance around the expected value was two to four times larger within individuals than within groups. This suggests that literatures in social and medical sciences may overestimate the accuracy of aggregated statistical estimates. This observation could have serious consequences for how we understand the con-sistency between group and individual correlations, and the gen-eralizability of conclusions between domains. Researchers should explicitly test for equivalence of processes at the individual and group level across the social and medical sciences.

SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT

The current study quantified the degree to which group data are able to describe individual participants. We utilized in-tensive repeated-measures data—data that have been col-lected many times, across many individuals—to compare the distributions of bivariate correlations calculated within subjects vs. those calculated between subjects. Because the vast ma-jority of social and medical science research aggregates across subjects, we aimed to assess how closely such aggregations reflect their constituent individuals. We provide evidence that conclusions drawn from aggregated data may be worryingly imprecise. Specifically, the variance in individuals is up to four times larger than in groups. These data call for a focus on idi-ography and open science that may substantially alter best-practice guidelines in the medical and behavioral sciences.



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Constraints on Generality (COG): A Proposed Addition to All Empirical Papers - Daniel J. Simons, Yuichi Shoda, D. Stephen Lindsay, 2017



Constraints on Generality (COG): A Proposed Addition to All Empirical Papers - Daniel J. Simons, Yuichi Shoda, D. Stephen Lindsay, 2017
http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/1745691617708630

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Saturday, June 23, 2018

How to raise a societies average intelligence—education : A meta-analysis




How Much Does Education Improve Intelligence? A Meta-Analysis.
Psychological Science 1 –12. Article link.

Stuart J. Ritchie and Elliot M. Tucker-Drob

Abstract

Intelligence test scores and educational duration are positively correlated. This correlation could be interpreted in two ways: Students with greater propensity for intelligence go on to complete more education, or a longer education increases intelligence. We meta-analyzed three categories of quasiexperimental studies of educational effects on intelligence: those estimating education-intelligence associations after controlling for earlier intelligence, those using compulsory schooling policy changes as instrumental variables, and those using regression-discontinuity designs on school-entry age cutoffs. Across 142 effect sizes from 42 data sets involving over 600,000 participants, we found consistent evidence for beneficial effects of education on cognitive abilities of approximately 1 to 5 IQ points for an additional year of education. Moderator analyses indicated that the effects persisted across the life span and were present on all broad categories of cognitive ability studied. Education appears to be the most consistent, robust, and durable method yet to be identified for raising intelligence.

From summary

The results reported here indicate strong, consistent evidence for effects of education on intelligence. Although the effects—on the order of a few IQ points for a year of education—might be considered small, at the societal level they are potentially of great conse-quence. A crucial next step will be to uncover the mechanisms of these educational effects on intelligence in order to inform educational policy and practice.


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Wednesday, June 20, 2018

Mind wandering is fine in some situations, Harvard-based study says



******************************************************
Kevin McGrew, PhD
Educational Psychologist
Director, Institute for Applied Psychometrics
IAP
******************************************************

Wednesday, June 13, 2018

Do early life non-cognitive skills matter? A systematic review and meta-analysis of early life effects on academic achievement, psychosocial, language and cognitive, and health outcomes



Do early life non-cognitive skills matter? A systematic review and meta-analysis of early life effects on academic achievement, psychosocial, language and cognitive, and health outcomes
https://www.biorxiv.org/content/early/2017/03/10/115691

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******************************************************
Kevin McGrew, PhD
Educational Psychologist
Director, Institute for Applied Psychometrics
IAP
******************************************************

Saturday, June 09, 2018

Mental rotation and fluid intelligence: A brain potential analysis

File under Gv and Gf

Mental rotation and fluid intelligence: A brain potential analysis
Intelligence 69 (2018) 146–157. Article link.

Vincenzo Varrialea, Maurits W. van der Molenb, Vilfredo De Pascalis


ABSTRACT

The current study examined the relation between mental rotation and fluid intelligence using performance measures augmented with brain potential indices. Participants took a Raven's Progressive Matrices Test and performed on a mental rotation task presenting upright and rotated letter stimuli (60°, 120° or 180°) in normal and mirror image requiring a response execution or inhibition depending on instructions. The performance results showed that the linear slope relating performance accuracy, but not speed, to the angular rotation of the stimuli was related to individual differences in fluid intelligence. For upright stimuli, P3 amplitude recorded at frontal and central areas was positively associated with fluid intelligence scores. The mental rotation process was related to a negative shift of the brain potential recorded over the parietal cortex. The linear function relating the amplitude of the rotation-related negativity to rotation angle was associated with fluid intelligence. The slope was more pronounced for high- relative to low-ability participants suggesting that the former flexibly adjust their expenditure of mental effort to the mental rotation demands while the latter ones are less proficient in doing so.


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Rapid and widespread white matter plasticity during an intensive reading intervention



Rapid and widespread white matter plasticity during an intensive reading intervention
https://www.nature.com/articles/s41467-018-04627-5

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Tuesday, June 05, 2018

21 factors that can impact working memory: A formative list and taxonomy

An interesting list and logically based taxonomy in need of empirical validation.


Why Is Working Memory Performance Unstable? A Review of 21 Factors
Rachael N. Blasiman, Christopher A. Wasa

Europe's Journal of Psychology, 2018, Vol. 14(1), 188–231, doi:10.5964/ejop.v14i1.1472

Abstract

In this paper, we systematically reviewed twenty-one factors that have been shown to either vary with or influence performance on working memory (WM) tasks. Specifically, we review previous work on the influence of intelligence, gender, age, personality, mental illnesses/ medical conditions, dieting, craving, stress/anxiety, emotion/motivation, stereotype threat, temperature, mindfulness training, practice, bilingualism, musical training, altitude/hypoxia, sleep, exercise, diet, psychoactive substances, and brain stimulation on WM performance. In addition to a review of the literature, we suggest several frameworks for classifying these factors, identify shared mechanisms between several variables, and suggest areas requiring further investigation. This review critically examines the breadth of research investigating WM while synthesizing the results across related subfields in psychology.

Keywords: working memory, individual differences

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Sunday, June 03, 2018

Visualization, inductive reasoning, and memory span as components of fluid intelligence: Implications for technology education

File under CHC domains of Gf, Gwm, Gc and STEM

Visualization, inductive reasoning, and memory span as components of fluid intelligence: Implications for technology education. Article link.

Jeffrey Buckleya, Niall Seerya, Donal Cantyc, Lena Gumaelius

International Journal of Educational Research, 90 (2018) 64–77

ABSTRACT

The philosophy and epistemology of technology education are relatively unique as the subject largely focusses on acquiring task specific relevant knowledge rather than having an explicit epistemological discipline boundary. Additionally, there is a paucity of intelligence research in technology education. To support research on learning in technology education, this paper describes two studies which aimed to identify cognitive factors which are components of fluid intelligence. The results identify that a synthesis of visualization, short-term memory span and inductive reasoning can account for approximately 28% to 43% of the variance in fluid intelligence. A theoretical rationale for the importance of these factors in technology education is provided with a discussion for their future consideration in cognitive interventions.


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Saturday, June 02, 2018

Can emotional intelligence (Gei) be trained: A meta-analysis

Can emotional intelligence be trained? A meta-analysis

Please cite this article as: Mattingly, V., Human Resource Management Review (2018), https://doi.org/10.1016/j.hrmr.2018.03.002

Victoria Mattingly, Kurt Kraiger

Keywords: Emotional intelligence, Training Meta-analysis

A B S T R A C T

Human resource practitioners place value on selecting and training a more emotionally in-telligent workforce. Despite this, research has yet to systematically investigate whether emo-tional intelligence can in fact be trained. This study addresses this question by conducting a meta-analysis to assess the effect of training on emotional intelligence, and whether effects are mod-erated by substantive and methodological moderators. We identified a total of 58 published and unpublished studies that included an emotional intelligence training program using either a pre-post or treatment-control design. We calculated Cohen's d to estimate the effect of formal training on emotional intelligence scores. The results showed a moderate positive effect for training, regardless of design. Effect sizes were larger for published studies than dissertations. Effect sizes were relatively robust over gender of participants, and type of EI measure (ability v. mix-edmodel). Further, our effect sizes are in line with other meta-analytic studies of competency-based training programs. Implications for practice and future research on EI training are discussed.

See prior Gei posts here and here.


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Evidence of a Flynn Effect in Children's Human Figure Drawings (1902-1968).



Evidence of a Flynn Effect in Children's Human Figure Drawings (1902-1968).
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29799338

Sent from Flipboard



Friday, May 25, 2018

The Role of Executive Functions in Reading Comprehension - excellent overview of major models of reading comprehension

The Role of Executive Functions in Reading Comprehension. Article or link.

Reese Butterfuss and Panayiota Kendeou

ABSTRACT

Our goal in this paper is to understand the extent to which, and under what conditions, executive functions (EFs) play a role in reading comprehension processes. We begin with a brief review of core components of EF (inhibition, shifting, and updating) and reading comprehension. We then discuss the status of EFs in process models of reading comprehension. Next, we review and synthesize empirical evidence in the extant literature for the involvement of core components of EF in reading comprehension processes under different reading conditions and across different populations. In conclusion, we propose that EFs may help explain complex interactions between the reader, the text, and the discourse situation, and call for both existing and future models of reading comprehension to include EFs as explicit components.

Keywords Executive functions . Reading comprehension . Discourse processes


This article includes an excellent summary of the major models of reading comprehension. This post includes that select material.

The Status of Executive Functions in Models of Reading Comprehension

Reading comprehension is one of the most complex and important cognitive activities humans perform (Kendeou et al. 2016). Given its importance and complexity, researchers have sought to understand reading comprehension via the development and specification of a multitude of models and frameworks that account for various processes and mechanisms of reading.

Generally, reading comprehension refers to the construction of a mental representation of what the text is about (Kintsch and V an Dijk 1978). Although most models of reading comprehension converge on this general idea, the processes and assumptions by which readers construct such representations differ across models and frameworks. It is also important to note that a unified, comprehensive model of reading comprehension has yet to be established. McNamara and Magliano (2009) reviewed and compared one set of models, which are concerned primarily with the construction of the mental representation during reading: The Construction-Integration Model (Kintsch 1988), the Structure-Building Framework (Gernsbacher 1991), the Resonance Model (Albrecht and O'Brien 1993), the Event-Indexing Model (Zwaan et al. 1995), the Causal Network Model (Trabasso et al. 1989), the Constructionist Theory (Graesser et al. 1994), and the Landscape Model (van den Broek et al. 1999). In this review, we investigate the status of EFs in each of these models.

Among this set of models, the Construction-Integration (CI) model (Kintsch 1988) is perhaps the most comprehensive, and it is considered the best approximation to a true theory of reading comprehension (Kendeou and O'Brien 2017). According to the CI model, comprehension is the result of two processes, construction and integration. Construction refers to the activation of information in the text and background knowledge. There are four potential sources of activation: the current text input, the prior sentence, background knowledge, and prior text. As this information is activated, it is connected into a network of concepts. Integration refers to the continuous spread of activation within this network until activation settles. Activation sources from the construction process are iteratively integrated, and only those concepts that are connected to many others are maintained in the network. At the completion of reading, the result is a complete network or a mental representation of what the text is about. This mental representation has been termed the situation model. Even though the initial model makes no explicit reference to EFs, in a subsequent revision, Kintsch (1998) included a suppression mechanism in the CI model by adopting inhibitory links. Specifically, the CI model relies on links between information units to promote an appropriate representation of a text and inhibit inappropriate representations. In this context, facilitatory links connect related information units, and inhibitory (or negative) links connect conflicting or inappropriate information units. Inhibitory links serve to suppress or inhibit inappropriate representations (Kintsch 1998).

The Structure-Building Framework (Gernsbacher 1991) describes comprehension as the result of three processes. The first process, laying a foundation, involves using initial information from a text to lay the groundwork for a mental representation to be constructed. The second process, mapping, involves mapping information from the text onto that foundation to create structures. The third process, shifting, involves a shift to begin building a new structure when readers are unable to map information onto an existing structure. Irrelevant information that does not cohere with a current structure is suppressed. Thus, within the Structure-Building Framework, the suppression mechanism attempts to account for individual differences in comprehension ability. Specifically, the model posits that if incoming information is related to the current structure, then activation of that information is enhanced, resulting in its incorporation into the current structure. When information is not related to the current structure, then activation to that information is suppressed, or, alternatively, readers may shift and use that information to begin building a new structure. The suppression mechanism is the result of readers' ability to inhibit irrelevant information. This ability moderates reading comprehension in that skilled readers have a strong suppression mechanism and can therefore suppress irrelevant information, whereas less-skilled readers lack a strong suppression mechanism. As a result, less-skilled comprehenders' poor suppression ability may lead them to shift too often, which impairs comprehension because more information is competing for limited resources.

The Resonance Model (Myers and O'Brien 1998) attempts to account for factors that influence the activation of information during comprehension, particularly information that is no longer active in working memory. The model emphasizes automatic, memory-based retrieval mechanisms as fundamental assumptions. Specifically, the model assumes that information in working memory serves as a signal to all of memory, which activates information that resonates with the signal. Elements resonate as a function of the number of features that overlap with the contents of working memory. Even though the model has not explicitly incorporated any EFs, O'Brien et al. (1995) found that suppression was involved in processes relevant to the Resonance Model. Specifically, O'Brien et al. found that when an anaphoric phrase reactivated more than one potential antecedent from the text, the selected target antecedent was strengthened in long-term memory, whereas potential, but non-target, antecedents that interfered with the target antecedent were suppressed.

The Event-Indexing Model (Zwaan et al. 1995) was developed as an attempt to account more fully for processes involved with situation model construction of narrative texts. It operates under the assumption that readers monitor and establish coherence along five dimensions of continuity, and thus situation model construction: time, space, causality, motivation, and agents. Thus, within the event-indexing model, EFs such as shifting attention from one dimension to another as well as updating the construction of the situation model account for individual differences in comprehension ability. For example, Bohn-Gettler et al. (2011) found that there are developmental differences in children's ability to monitor the shifts in each of these dimensions.

The Causal Network Model (Trabasso et al. 1989) accounts for how readers generate causal inferences and represent causality during reading. Causal inferences are at the core of building a coherent representation of a story. Narrative elements can be categorized as either settings, events, goals, attempts, outcomes, or reactions. Also, there are assumed to be four types of causal relations: enabling, psychological, motivational, and physical. The model also provided a discourse analysis tool, Causal Network Analysis, to identify the causal structure that underlies story constituents. Overall, the model accounts for the importance of causal relations in memory for the text, but makes no assumptions about specific EFs. The Constructionist theory (Graesser et al. 1994) attempts to account for factors that predict inference generation during reading. The theory emphasizes the role of top-down, strategic processes in the construction of meaning, what has been termed Bsearch after meaning.^ Three assumptions define search after meaning. The first is the reader goal assumption, which suggests that readers construct meaning in accordance with their reading goals. The second is the coherence assumption, which suggests that readers construct meaning at both local and global levels. The third is the explanation assumption, which suggests that readers are driven to construct meaning that explains events they read. Even though the theory makes no concrete assumptions about EFs, it is reasonable to assume that shifting attention likely exerts an influence on the top-down, strategic processes that govern search after meaning.

Lastly, the Landscape Model (van den Broek et al. 1999) simulates the fluctuation of concept activation during reading. The Landscape Model is similar to the CI Model in that it assumes the same four sources of activation. The model also includes two important mechanisms, cohort activation and coherence-based retrieval. Cohort activation assumes that when a concept is activated, all other concepts that are also activated become associated with it (McClelland and Rumelhart 1985). Coherence-based retrieval assumes that the activation of text elements is in accordance with the readers' standards of coherence. In turn, standards of coherence refer to readers' implicit or explicit criteria for comprehension. Even though the Landscape Model makes no concrete assumptions about EFs, it is reasonable to assume that shifting likely exerts an influence on readers' standards of coherence, directing attention to information that aligns with readers' standards.



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File under evidence-based instructional interventions: Studying and Constructing Concept Maps: a Meta-Analysis

Studying and Constructing Concept Maps: a Meta-Analysis. Article link.

Noah L. Schroeder, John C. Nesbit, Carlos J. Anguiano & Olusola O. Adesope



Abstract A concept map is a node-link diagram in which each node represents a concept and each link identifies the relationship between the two concepts it connects. We investigated how using concept maps influences learning by synthesizing the results of 142 independent effect sizes (n = 11,814). A random-effects model meta-analysis revealed that learning with concept and knowledge maps produced a moderate, statistically significant effect (g = 0.58, p < 0.001). A moderator analysis revealed that creating concept maps (g = 0.72, p < 0.001) was associated with greater benefit relative to respective comparison conditions than studying concept maps (g = 0.43, p < 0.001). Additional moderator analyses indicated learning with concept maps was superior to other instructional comparison conditions, and was effective across science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) and non-STEM knowledge domains. Further moderator analyses, as well as implications for theory and practice, are provided.

Keywords Concept map . Knowledge map . Meta-analysis . cmap . kmap



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Saturday, May 19, 2018

The Relation between Intelligence and Adaptive Behavior: A Meta-Analysis 

Very important meta-analysis of AB IQ relation. Primary finding on target with prior informal synthesis by McGrew (2015)

The Relation between Intelligence and Adaptive Behavior: A Meta-Analysis   
 
Ryan M. Alexander 
 
ABSTRACT 
 
Intelligence tests and adaptive behavior scales measure vital aspects of the multidimensional nature of human functioning. Assessment of each is a required component in the diagnosis or identification of intellectual disability, and both are frequently used conjointly in the assessment and identification of other developmental disabilities. The present study investigated the population correlation between intelligence and adaptive behavior using psychometric meta-analysis. The main analysis included 148 samples with 16,468 participants overall. Following correction for sampling error, measurement error, and range departure, analysis resulted in an estimated population correlation of ρ = .51. Moderator analyses indicated that the relation between intelligence and adaptive behavior tended to decrease as IQ increased, was strongest for very young children, and varied by disability type, adaptive measure respondent, and IQ measure used. Additionally, curvilinear regression analysis of adaptive behavior composite scores onto full scale IQ scores from datasets used to report the correlation between the Wechsler Intelligence Scales for Children- Fifth edition and Vineland-II scores in the WISC-V manuals indicated a curvilinear relation—adaptive behavior scores had little relation with IQ scores below 50 (WISC-V scores do not go below 45), from which there was positive relation up until an IQ of approximately 100, at which point and beyond the relation flattened out. Practical implications of varying correlation magnitudes between intelligence and adaptive behavior are discussed (viz., how the size of the correlation affects eligibility rates for intellectual disability).
 
Other Key Findings Reported
 
McGrew (2012) augmented Harrison's data-set and conducted an informal analysis including a total of 60 correlations, describing the distributional characteristics observed in the literature regarding the relation. He concluded that a reasonable estimate of the correlation is approximately .50, but made no attempt to explore factors potentially influencing the strength of the relation.
 
Results from the present study corroborate the conclusions of Harrison (1987) and McGrew (2012) that the IQ/adaptive behavior relation is moderate, indicating distinct yet related constructs. The results showed indeed that the correlation is likely to be stronger at lower IQ levels—a trend that spans the entire ID range, not just the severe range. The estimated true mean population is .51, and study artifacts such as sampling error, measurement error, and range departure resulted in somewhat attenuated findings in individual studies (a difference of about .05 between observed and estimated true correlations overall).
 
 
The present study found the estimated true population mean correlation to be .51, meaning that adaptive behavior and intelligence share 26% common variance. In practical terms, this magnitude of relation suggests that an individual's IQ score and adaptive behavior composite score will not always be commensurate and will frequently diverge, and not by a trivial amount. Using the formula Ŷ = Ȳ + ρ (X - X ̅ ), where Ŷ is the predicted adaptive behavior composite score, Ȳ  is the mean adaptive behavior score in the population, ρ  is the correlation between adaptive behavior and intelligence, X is the observed IQ score for an individual, and X ̅ is the mean IQ score, and accounting for regression to the mean, the predicted adaptive behavior composite score corresponding to an IQ score of 70, given a correlation of .51, would be 85 —a score that is a full standard deviation above an adaptive behavior composite score of 70, the cut score recommended by some entities to meet ID eligibility requirements. With a correlation of .51, and accounting for regression to the mean, an IQ score of 41 would be needed in order to have a predicted adaptive behavior composite score of 70. Considering that approximately 85% of individuals with ID have reported IQ scores between 55 and 70±5 (Heflinger et al., 1987; Reschly, 1981), the eligibility implications, especially for those with less severe intellectual impairment, are alarming. In fact, derived from calculations by Lohman and Korb (2006), only 17% of individuals obtaining an IQ score of 70 or below would be expected to also obtain an adaptive behavior composite score of 70 or below when the correlation between the two is .50. 
 
 
The purpose of this study was to investigate the relation between IQ and adaptive behavior and variables moderating the relation using psychometric meta-analysis. The findings contributed in several ways to the current literature with regard to IQ and adaptive behavior. First, the estimated true mean population correlation between intelligence and adaptive behavior following correction for sampling error, measurement error, and range departure is moderate, indicating that intelligence and adaptive behavior are distinct, yet related, constructs. Second, IQ level has a moderating effect on the relation between IQ and adaptive behavior. The correlation is likely to be stronger at lower IQ levels, and weaker as IQ increases. Third, while not linear, age has an effect on the IQ/adaptive behavior relation. The population correlation is highest for very young children, and lowest for children between the ages of five and 12. Fourth, the magnitude of IQ/adaptive behavior correlations varies by disability type. The correlation is weakest for those without disability, and strongest for very young children with developmental delays. IQ/adaptive behavior correlations for those with ID are comparable to those with autism when not matched on IQ level. Fifth, the IQ/adaptive correlation when parents/caregivers serve as adaptive behavior respondents is comparable to when teachers act as respondents, but direct assessment of adaptive behavior results in a stronger correlation. Sixth, an individual's race does not significantly alter the correlation between IQ and adaptive behavior, but future research should evaluate the influence of race of the rater on adaptive behavior ratings. Seventh, the correlation between IQ and adaptive behavior varies depending on IQ measure used—the population correlation when Stanford-Binet scales are employed is significantly higher than when Wechsler scales are employed. And eighth, the correlation between IQ and adaptive behavior is not significantly different between adaptive behavior composite scores obtained from the Vineland, SIB, and ABAS families of adaptive behavior measures, which are among those that have been deemed appropriate for disability identification. Limitations of this study notwithstanding, it is the first to employ meta-analysis procedures and techniques to examine the correlation between intelligence and adaptive behavior and how moderators alter this relation. The results of this study provide information that can help guide practitioners, researchers, and policy makers with regard to the diagnosis or identification of intellectual and developmental disabilities.


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Thursday, May 17, 2018

Interactive Metronome study: Clapping in time parallels literacy and calls upon overlapping neural mechanisms in early readers

Clapping in time parallels literacy and calls upon overlapping neural mechanisms in early readers

Annals of the New York Academy Of Science. Article link here.

Link to complete paper at IM site.

Silvia Bonacina Jennifer Krizman Travis White‐Schwoch Nina Krau

Abstract

The auditory system is extremely precise in processing the temporal information of perceptual events and using these cues to coordinate action. Synchronizing movement to a steady beat relies on this bidirectional connection between sensory and motor systems, and activates many of the auditory and cognitive processes used when reading. Here, we use Interactive Metronome, a clinical intervention technology requiring an individual to clap her hands in time with a steady beat, to investigate whether the links between literacy and synchronization skills, previously established in older children, are also evident in children who are learning to read. We tested 64 typically developing children (ages 5–7 years) on their synchronization abilities, neurophysiological responses to speech in noise, and literacy skills. We found that children who have lower variability in synchronizing have higher phase consistency, higher stability, and more accurate envelope encoding—all neurophysiological response components linked to language skills. Moreover, performing the same task with visual feedback reveals links with literacy skills, notably processing speed, phonological processing, word reading, spelling, morphology, and syntax. These results suggest that rhythm skills and literacy call on overlapping neural mechanisms, supporting the idea that rhythm training may boost literacy in part by engaging sensory‐motor systems.


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Wednesday, May 16, 2018

MindHub Pub #3: WJ IV Norm-Based and Supplemental Clinical Test Groupings for “Intelligent” Intelligence Testing with the WJ IV



I am pleased to announce the availability of MindHub Pub #3 (WJ IV Norm-Based and Supplemental Clinical Test Groupings for "Intelligent" Intelligence Testing with the WJ IV).  Click the link to view or download.

The material in this document is based on my work during the development of the WJ IV as well as significant post-WJ IV publication analyses.  I have been completing considerable post-WJ IV data analysis in response to questions on listservs and to develop advanced and clinical interpretation information for convention presentations and workshops.  In the past I had the luxury of time to write professional books re: clinical "intelligent" intelligence testing with the WJ (1986) and WJ-R (1984).  I was unable to find time for the WJ III nor the WJ IV.  So much to do....so little time.

I have presented early versions of this material at conventions and workshops.  However, I never felt comfortable with the final product.  The most important reason for not distributing widely was my knowledge that the CHC model was in the process of responding to new research and insights--to be published this fall 2018 in a chapter by Joel Schneider and myself.  I only wanted this"supplemental grouping strategy" worksheet material (ala, Dr. Alan Kaufman's shared ability approach to test interpretation) to be made available once the revised CHC model had been described.  This event will occur this August with the publication of our chapter.  An early visual-graphic overview of the chapter, presented in a nifty animated YouTube video was released at this blog approximately a week ago.

So...enjoy the material.  This is not a book or article--more of a detailed PPT presentation.  It should be understandable to clinicians familiar with the WJ IV, CHC theory, and Kaufman's "intelligent" intelligence test interpretation approach.

Below is a sample worksheet--for Gc related tests.  Click on images to enlarge.




Higher intelligence related to more efficiently organized brains-bigger/larger/more not always better




Click on image to enlarge

Diffusion markers of dendritic density and arborization in gray matter predict differences in intelligence. Article link.

Erhan Genç, Christoph Fraenz, Caroline Schlüter, Patrick Friedrich, Rüdiger Hossiep, Manuel C. Voelkle, Josef M. Ling, Onur Güntürkün, & Rex E. Jung

Abstract

Previous research has demonstrated that individuals with higher intelligence are more likely to have larger gray matter volume in brain areas predominantly located in parieto-frontal regions. These findings were usually interpreted to mean that individuals with more cortical brain volume possess more neurons and thus exhibit more computational capacity during reasoning. In addition, neuroimaging studies have shown that intelligent individuals, despite their larger brains, tend to exhibit lower rates of brain activity during reasoning. However, the microstructural architecture underlying both observations remains unclear. By combining advanced multi-shell diffusion tensor imaging with a culture-fair matrix-reasoning test, we found that higher intelligence in healthy individuals is related to lower values of dendritic density and arborization. These results suggest that the neuronal circuitry associated with higher intelligence is organized in a sparse and efficient manner, fostering more directed information processing and less cortical activity during reasoning.

From discussion

Taken together, the results of the present study contribute to our understanding of human intelligence differences in two ways. First, our findings confirm an important observation from previous research, namely, that bigger brains with a higher number of neurons are associated with higher intelligence. Second, we demonstrate that higher intelligence is associated with cortical mantles with sparsely and well-organized dendritic arbor, thereby increasing processing speed and network efficiency. Importantly, the findings obtained from our experimental sample were confirmed by the analysis of an independent validation sample from the Human Connectome Project25



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Tuesday, May 08, 2018

Gates, Zuckerberg team up on new education initiative



Gates, Zuckerberg team up on new education initiative

From Education, a Flipboard topic

Tech moguls Bill Gates and Mark Zuckerberg said Tuesday they will team up to help develop new technologies for kids with trouble learning — an…

Read it on Flipboard

Read it on foxbusiness.com




NEUROSCIENCE & SOCIETY: Ethics, Law, and Technology Confrence - Neuroethics & Law Blog

NEUROSCIENCE & SOCIETY: Ethics, Law, and Technology Confrence - Neuroethics & Law Blog

NEUROSCIENCE & SOCIETY: Ethics, Law, and Technology Confrence

NEUROSCIENCE & SOCIETY: Ethics, Law, and Technology
24-25 August 2018
Sydney, NSW, Australia

Advances in brain scanning and intervention technologies are transforming our ability to observe, explain, and influence human thought and behaviour. Potential applications of such technologies (e.g. brain-based pain detection in civil lawsuits, medications to help criminal offenders become less impulsive, prediction of future behaviour through neuroimaging) and their ethical, clinical, legal, and societal implications, fuel important debates in neuroethics. However, many factors beyond the brain – factors targeted by different emerging technologies – also influence human thought and behaviour. Sequencing the human genome and gene-editing technologies like CRISPR Cas-9 offer novel ways to explain and influence human thought and behaviour. Analysis of data about our offline and online lives (e.g. from fitness trackers, how we interact with our smartphone apps, and our social media posts and profiles) also provide striking insights into our psychology. Such intimate information can be used to predict and influence our behaviour, including through bespoke advertising for goods and services that more effectively exploits our psychology and political campaigns that sway election results. Although such methods often border on manipulation, they are both difficult to detect and potentially impossible to resist. The use of such information to guide the design of online environments, artifacts, and smart cities lies at the less nefarious – and potentially even socially useful and morally praiseworthy – end of the spectrum vis à vis the potential applications of such emerging "moral technologies".

At this year's Neuroscience & Society conference we will investigate the ethical, clinical, legal, and societal implications of a wide range of moral technologies that target factors beyond, as well as within, the brain, in order to observe, explain, and influence human thought and behaviour. Topics will include, but are not limited to:

  • cognitive and moral enhancement
  • neurolaw and neuro-evidence
  • brain-computer interfaces
  • neuro-advertising
  • neuromorphic engineering and computing
  • mental privacy and surveillance
  • social media and behaviour prediction/influence
  • implicit bias and priming
  • technological influences on human behaviour
  • nudging, environment and technology design, and human behaviour
  • artificial intelligence and machine learning
  • technology and the self
  • (neuro)technology and society

We invite abstracts from scholars, scientists, technology designers, policy-makers, practitioners, clinicians and graduate students, interested in presenting talks or posters on any of the above or related topics.

Abstracts of 300 words should be emailed to Cynthia Forlini <cynthia.forlini@sydney.edu.au> in Microsoft Word format by Thursday, 31 May 2018. Submissions will be peer reviewed, and authors of successful submissions will be notified via email by Friday, 15 June 2018.

In addition to keynote presentations (to be announced shortly), contributed talks, and a poster session, the conference program will also include three sessions on the following topics:

  • highlights from- and information about enhancements to the Australian Neurolaw Database
  • book symposium on Neuro-Interventions and The Law: Regulating Human Mental Capacity
  • panel on the topic of remorse
For enquiries about matters other than abstract submission, please email Adrian Carter <adrian.carter@monash.edu.au> or Jeanette Kennett <jeanette.kennett@mq.edu.au>
Neuroscience & Society is supported by the ARC Centre of Excellence for Integrative Brain Function Neuroethics Program, and the Centre for Agency Values and Ethics at Macquarie University.