Thursday, April 19, 2018

The Flynn Effect and IQ Disparities Among Races, Ethnicities, and Nations: Are There Common Links? | Psychology Today

The Flynn Effect and IQ Disparities Among Races, Ethnicities, and Nations: Are There Common Links? | Psychology Today

The Flynn Effect and IQ Disparities Among Races, Ethnicities, and Nations: Are There Common Links?

Connecting the Flynn Effect to racial, ethnic, and national disparities in IQ

The 20th century witnessed a dramatic increase in IQ, as much as 3 points per decade (see Are you smarter than Aristotle? Part I). The fact that IQ scores increased so much in such a short amount of time has raised many issues about the nature of intelligence, and what intelligence tests are measuring. For instance, while an individual's IQ test performance within a particular generation tends to be relatively stable and is determined by a complex mix of nature and nurture, such dramatic increases across generations demonstrates the potent influence of the environment on the development of cognitive abilities.

Multiple researchers have proposed theories to explain the Flynn effect. One of the most elaborate is Dickens and Flynn's 'social multiplier effect'. Their proposed effect takes into account the importance of culture in influencing what particular forms of intelligence it educates, spotlights, and nurtures.

Source:

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I like to use breakdancing as an example (see IQ Bashing, The Flynn Effect, and Genes). Within a particular generation, really athletic individuals will tend to score higher on a wide variety of tests that require athleticism (a trait that is influenced both by genetic and environmental factors). Athletic individuals will tend to run faster, life heavier weights, swim faster, and probably even look better breakdancing. But imagine that breakdancing suddenly became an Olympic sport (I can only dream). In this imaginary world, society suddenly shifts interest in basketball to breakdancing. We drop more money into educating everyone in the fine art of the baby-freeze, the windmill, and the headstand. Breakdancing becomes a craze, appearing in grade school classrooms, on streets, and on all sorts of job applications. What would come about as a result?

This sort of situation would up the ante on breakdancing skills. Sure, those naturally inclined toward athleticism would still have a breakdancing advantage, but the average standard of breakdancing performance would be greatly increased. In order to remain competitive, aspiring breakdancers would have to step their game up and learn increasingly complex moves. Given enough generations with such high levels of breakdancing training, you would start to see a rise in mean scores on tests of breakdancing ability.

This breakdancing example also applies to the rise seen in IQ scores across generations. Within each generation, people who tend to do well on one test of cognitive ability will tend to do well on other tests that tap to some extent complex reasoning ability. But across generations, the particular types of tests that show the most dramatic increases indicate to a considerable degree our cultural priorities. The Flynn Effect serves as a reminder that when we give people more opportunities to prosper, more people do prosper. We've come quite a long way since the pre-industrial revolution in terms of our cultural emphasis on reading, writing, abstract reasoning, and scientific thinking. The Flynn Effect is a partial indicator of this progress (see Are you smarter than Aristole?: On the Flynn Effect and the Aristotle Paradox).

Over the years, various 'social multipliers' (Dickens & Flynn, 2006) have been proposed to account for the Flynn Effect, including increased nutrition, increased test familiarity, heterosis, increased scientific education, video games, TV show complexity, modernization, and more. Surely a combination of factors contributed to the rise. In this post, I want to focus though on a few changes over the course of the past 100 years that have particular implications for understanding race, ethnic, and national disparities in IQ. First let's look at literacy.

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Literacy involves the ability to write, read, and comprehend information of varying levels of complexity. It is estimated that there are 774 million illiterate adults in the world, 65% whom are women (UNESCO Institute for Statistics, 2007). In the United States alone, 5% of the adult population is completely nonliterate (Kirsch, Jungeblut, Jenkins, & Kolstad, 1993). Self-reported literacy skills of both White and Black populations of the U.S. have been increasing steadily since 1870, however (National Center for Education Statistics, 1993). One study showed that the IQ and literacy scores of Blacks increased in parallel from 1980 to 2000 (Dickens & Flynn, 2006).

The importance of being able to read for performance on an IQ test cannot be understated. Instead of measuring 'intelligence' in an illiterate test-taker, the test is measuring that person's inability to read. While 'intelligence' may certainly influence an individual's ability to read, society has a lot of influence on how many inhabitants even get the chance to read in the first place regardless of the intelligence level of any single individual. Therefore, reading skills may exert important effects on particular races and nationalities that have historically undergone much discrimination and as a result, limited opportunity for literacy development.

An enormous body of evidence collected over the past 50 years shows that different ethnicities and races within a country tend to show substantial differences in their average level of IQ. Some researchers argue that this gap is narrowing (Dickens & Flynn, 2006) whereas others argue that the IQ gap has remained stable (Murray, 2006). IQ test score discrepancies are also found between nations. For instance, sub-Saharan African countries have demonstrated statistically significantly lower IQs than other nations (Lynn, 2006, 2008). These findings have led some researchers to propose that such IQ gaps found across ethnicities, races, and nationalities suggests a difference in innate brain capacity (see Lynn & Vanhanen, 2006).

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Until recently, the phenomenon of the Flynn Effect, and IQ gaps found between different ethnicities, races, and nationalities have not been tied together. For the first time ever, Psychologist David F. Marks systematically analyzed the association between literacy skills and IQ across time, nationality, and race (Marks, 2010).

If increasing literacy were really explaining a number of seemingly different IQ trends, then you would expect to see a few things. First, within a population you should expect increased education of literacy skills to be associated with an increase in the average IQ of that population. Second, IQ gains should be most pronounced in the lower half of the IQ bell curve since this is the section of the population that prior to the education would have obtained relatively lower scores due to their inability to comprehend the intelligence test's instructions. With increased literacy, you should expect to see a change in the skewness of the IQ distribution from positive to negative as a result of higher rates of literacy in the lower half of the IQ distribution (but very little change in the top half of the distribution). You should also expect to see differences on the particular intelligence test subscales, with increased literacy showing the strongest effects on verbal tests of intelligence and minimal differences on other tests of intelligence. If all these predictions hold up, there would be support for the notion that secular IQ gains and race differences are not different phenomena but have a common origin in literacy.

To test these predictions, Marks looked at samples representative of whole populations (rather than individuals), and used ecological methods to calculate statistical associations between IQ and literacy rates across different countries. Were Marks' findings consistent with the predictions?

Strikingly, yes. He found that the higher the literacy rate of a population, the higher that population's mean IQ, and the higher that population's mean IQ, the higher the literacy rate of that population. When literacy rates declined, mean IQ also declined. Marks also found evidence for unequal improvements across the entire IQ spectrum: the greatest effects of increased literacy rates were on those in the lower half of the IQ distribution. Interestingly, he also found that both the Flynn Effect and racial/national IQ differences showed the largest effects of literacy on verbal tests of intelligence, with the perceptual tests of intelligence showing no consistent pattern.

It must be noted that literacy wasn't the only factor responsible for the Flynn effect. Adopting the Cattell-Horn-Carroll (C-H-C) framework (McGrew, 2005, 2009) Marks found that Visual processing (Gv) and Processing Speed (Gs) also made important contributions.

It should also be noted that Mark's findings only speak to populations (not individuals) and do not say much about causation. The findings can only definitively say that some not-yet-identified variable is causing both literacy and IQ scores to change. To really test for causation, future experimental studies should be conducted to look at the effect of literacy intervention on IQ scores in comparison with a control group not receiving literacy intervention and should also investigate intervening variables that affect both literacy and IQ. Still, the result that population level literacy changes with population IQ is suggestive that increased literacy is causing increased IQ.

Even though there is still much work to be done, their findings have some very strong implications for our understanding of the Flynn effect, the nature of intelligence, and the origin of race and secular differences in intelligence.

Source:

In Hernstein & Murray's 1994 book The bell curve: intelligence and class structure in American life, most of their controversial claims about IQ differences, ethnicity, and social issues came from the United States Department of Labor's National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. This survey includes the Armed Forces Qualifications Test, which was developed by the Department of Defense and measures the ability of potential recruits to learn how to perform military duties. Since many of Hernstein & Murray's conclusions were based on this test, it's important to really examine what that test measures.

Marks did just that by scanning the literature for datasets containing test estimates for populations of groups taking both the Armed Forces Qualifications Test and tests of literacy. One study on nine groups of soliders differing in job and reading ability found a correlation of .96 between the Armed Forces Qualifications Test and reading achievement (Sticht, Caylor, Kern, & Fox, 1972). Another study showed significant improvements among Black and Hispanic populations in their Armed Forces Qualifications Test scores between 1980 and 1992 while Whites only showed a slight decrement (Kilburn, Hanser, & Klerman, 1998). Another study obtained reading scores for 17-year olds for those same ethnic groups and dates (Campbell et al., 2000) and found a correlation of .997 between reading scores and Armed Forces Qualifications Test scores. This nearly perfect correlation was based on six pairs of data points from six independent population samples evaluated by two separate groups of investigators. As Marks notes,

"On the basis of the studies summarized here, there can be little doubt that the Armed Forces Qualifications Test is a measure of literacy."

The Flynn Effect was intriguing all by itself. Now that researchers have shown common linkages between The Flynn Effect, race, ethnic, and nationality disparities, there are even more questions to be answered and potential research avenues to be explored. The Marks study suggests a crucial environmental factor is literacy. If this is so, then interventions that increase literacy will also narrow the IQ gap found between different races and nationalities.

Literacy intervention can take many forms though, both directly and indirectly. Researchers should consider not just improved access to schooling but also lots of other conditions that may affect literacy rates. For instance, recent research shows the important effects of parasites and pathogens on a nation's intelligence (see recent article in The Economist called Mens sana in corpore sano). Christopher Eppig and colleague's argue in their recent article in Proceedings of the Royal Society that the Flynn effect may be caused in part by the decrease in the intensity of infectious diseases as nations develop. Looking at data from 192 countries and 28 infectious diseases in those countries, they found that the higher the disease burden of that population, the lower that population's mean IQ level, with robust correlations ranging from -0.76 to -0.82. The chance that this correlation came about at random is reported by The Economist to be less than 10,000. Interestingly, when Eppig and colleagues controlled for other contributing variables to national differences in IQ (temperature, distance from Africa, gross domestic product per capita and various measures of education), infectious disease remained the most powerful predictor of average national IQ.

These results suggest that infections and parasites such as intestinal worms, malaria, and perhaps most importantly (according to Eppig and colleagues) bugs that cause diarrhea, can all have important effects on both literacy rates and IQ scores. The good news is that disease interventions such as vaccinations, clean water and proper sewage can have quite outstanding effects on multiple areas of cognition.

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This latest research on the environmental effects of nutrition (Colom et al., 2005, but see Flynn, 2009), disease, literacy, and more on both the rise in IQ and ethnic, racial, and national disparities in IQ point to the importance of the environment for developing intelligence as well as the importance for researchers to be very careful when they use intelligence test performance (especially verbal tests) to make inferences about hereditary differences between different ethnic groups and nationalities.

© 2010 by Scott Barry Kaufman

Note: Portions of this post originally appeared as a guest post on the blog Intelligent Insights on Intelligence Theories and Test (see original post here), which is run by legendary IQ test maker, theorist, and researcher Kevin McGrew. I'm a long time follower of his blog and am honored to guest post for him.

Acknowledgments: Thanks to Louisa Egan for bringing The Economist article to my attention.

***Update*** Over at Kevin McGrew's blog, Bob Williams wrote an extensive reply to my post. You can read his very different perspective here.

For more on the Flynn Effect, see:

References

Campbell, J. R., Hombo, C. M., & Mazzeo, J. (2000) Trends in academic progress: three decades of student performance, NCES 2000-469. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education, Office of Educational Research and Improvement, National Center for Education Statistics, NAEP 1999.

Colom, R., Lluis-Font, J. M., & Andrés-Pueyo, A. (2005) The generational intelligence gains are caused by decreasing variance in the lower half of the distribution: supporting evidence for the nutrition hypothesis. Intelligence, 33, 83-91.

Dickens, W. T., & Flynn, J. R. (2006) Black Americans reduce the racial IQ gap: evidence from standardization samples. Psychological Science, 17, 913-920.

Eppig, C., Fincher, C.L., & Thornhill, R. (2010). Parasite prevalence and the worldwide distribution of cognitive ability. Proceedings of the Royal Society B, doi: 10.1098/rspb.2010.0973.

Flynn, J. R. (2009) Requiem for nutrition as the cause of IQ gains: Raven's gains in Britain 1938 to 2008. Economics and Human Biology, 7, 18-27.

Herrnstein, R. J., & Murray, C. (1994) The bell curve: Intelligence and class structure in American life. New York: Free Press.

Kilburn, M. R., Hanser, L. M., & Klerman, J. A. (1998) Estimating AFQT scores for National Educational Longitudinal Study(NELS) respondents. Santa Monica, CA: RAND Distribution Services.

Kirsch, I. S., Jungeblut, A., Jenkins, L., & Kolstad, A. (1993) Adult literacy in America: A first look ook at the results of the National Adult Literacy Survey. Princeton, NJ: Educational Testing Service.

Lynn, R. (2006) Race differences in intelligence: an evolutionary analysis. Augusta, GA: Washington Summit.

Lynn, R. (2008) The global bell curve. Augusta, GA: Washington Summit.

Lynn, R., & Vanhanen, T. (2002) IQ and the wealth of nations. Westport, CT: Praeger.

Marks, D.F. (2010). IQ variations across time, race, and nationality: An artifact of differences in literacy skills. Psychological Reports, 106, 3, 643-664.

McGrew, K. S. (2005) The Cattell-Horn-Carroll theory of cognitive abilities: past, present, and future. In D. P. Flanagan & P. L. Harrison (Eds.), Contemporary intellectual assessment: theories, tests, and issues. (2nd ed.) New York: Guilford. Pp. 136-182.

McGrew, K. (2009). Editorial. CHC theory and the human cognitive abilities project. Standing on the shoulders of the giants of psychometric intelligence research, Intelligence, 37, 1-10.

Murray, C. (2006) Changes over time in the Black-White difference on mental tests: evidence from the children of the 1979 cohort of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. Intelligence, 34, 527-540.

National Center for Education Statistics. (1993) 120 years of American educ ation: a statistical portrait. (T. Snyder, Ed.) Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences, NCES 1993.

Sticht, T. G., Caylor, J. S., Kern, R. P., & Fox, L. C. (1972) Project REALISTIC: determination of adult functional literacy skill levels. Reading Research Quarterly, 7, 424-465.




Wednesday, April 18, 2018

Early developmental trajectories of number knowledge and math achievement from 4 to 10 years: Low-persistent profile and early-life predictors



Early developmental trajectories of number knowledge and math achievement from 4 to 10 years: Low-persistent profile and early-life predictors

From Twitter, a Flipboard magazine by Journal of Sch Psych

Little is known about the development of number knowledge…

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Kevin McGrew, PhD
Educational Psychologist
Director, Institute for Applied Psychometrics
IAP
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Tuesday, April 17, 2018

The Flynn Effect Reference Project updated

The Flynn Effect Reference Project document, maintained at the Intellectual Competence and the Death Penalty blog, was just updated today.  This information can be found here.

Monday, April 16, 2018

Interesting new book on cognitive capitalism




Research Byte: Differences in mathematical reasoning between typically achieving and gifted children

Differences in mathematical reasoning between typically achieving and gifted children
Derek H. Berg & Pamela A. McDonald (article link)

ABSTRACT

Mathematical giftedness refers to mastery in a specific mathematical domain at an earlier than expected age. The present study examined which cognitive processes accounted for differences in mathematical reasoning between gifted children (MRG) and their typically achieving peers (TA). Naming speed, phonological awareness, short-term memory, executive functioning, and working memory were examined in 51 children aged approximately 7 years. A series of stepwise regression models, using a contrast variable to capture differences in mathematical reasoning between MRG and TA children, were created to examine which cognitive domains accounted for differences in mathematical reasoning. Short-term memory (r2 = .08) and visual-spatial working memory (r2 = .39) emerged as the only cognitive predictors within a model that included gender, age, and fluid intelligence. This model captured all of the variance distinguishing mathematics reasoning between MRG and TA children, explaining an overall contribution of 70% of the variance in mathematical reasoning.

KEYWORDS: Giftedness, mathematical reasoning, working memory, child development


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Sunday, April 15, 2018

Mapping the Human Connectome

Nice brief video overview.

Mapping the Human Connectome

In the early 1800s, Lewis and Clark set out to map the western United States. Charting the network of rivers that wound their way across the land. Like those 19th century…

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Saturday, April 14, 2018

Speed and the Flynn effect research study

Speed and the Flynn Effect (article link)

Olev Must and Aasa Must


Keywords: Flynn Effect NIT Speed Tork Estonia

A B S T R A C T

We investigated the role of test-taking speed on the Flynn Effect (FE). Our study compared two cohorts of Estonian students (1933/36, n = 888; 2006, n = 912) using 9 subtests from the Estonian adaptation of the National Intelligence Tests (NIT). The speededness of the items and the subtests was found by determining the proportion of unreached items from among the total number of errors (Stafford, 1971). The test-taking speed of the younger cohort was higher in all 9 of the subtests. This suggests that the younger cohort is able to solve more items than the older one. The lack of measurement invariance at the item and subtest level was quantitatively estimated using a method proposed by Dimitrov (2017). The test-taking speed and the non-invariance of the items was strongly, yet inversely correlated (up to - 0.89). The subtests versions that consisted of only invariant items showed no, or a small positive, FE. The subtest versions consisting of only speeded items showed a large positive FE, with cohort differences of up to 50%. If the requirement of measurement invariance is ignored then this effect becomes apparent. The rise in test-taking speed between cohorts can be attributed to an increase in automated responses, which is an outgrowth of modern education (differences in the mandatory age of school attendance, and in the student's readiness to solve abstract items also affected the test-taking speed of the cohorts). We were able to conclude that the younger cohort is faster than the older one.


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Possible Gf subprocesses

Interesting conceptual framework for understanding performance on Gf tasks. However, it is Important to note that factor analysis studies have suggested a number of subprocesses that do not necessarily fit in this task-analysis based model.

Signatures of multiple processes contributing to fluid reasoning performance (article link)

Ehsan Shokri-Kojoria and Daniel C. Krawczyk


A R T I C L E I N F O

Keywords: Fluid intelligence Individual differences Multi-process Raven's progressive matrices

A B S T R A C T

We aimed to achieve a better understanding of the cognitive processes of fluid reasoning (or fluid intelligence; Gf), the ability to reason in novel conditions. While fluid reasoning has often been considered a unitary con-struct, multiple cognitive processes are expected to affect fluid reasoning performance. Yet, the contribution of various cognitive processes in fluid reasoning performance remains under-explored. We hypothesized that in-dividual differences in fluid intelligence can be viewed as a composite of individual differences in performance in various processes of Gf. Change detection, rule verification, and rule generation were the three processes-of-interest that were additively recruited in a novel visuospatial reasoning task. We observed decreases in accuracy and increases in response time as the processing requirements increased across task conditions. Hierarchical multiple linear regression analyses showed that individual differences in the likelihood of success and speed of each of these processes, accounted for different aspects of individual differences in accuracy and response time in fluid reasoning performance, as measured by Raven's Progressive Matrices. Change detection was a significant contributor to performance in problems with higher visuospatial demand, however, rule verification and rule generation consistently contributed to performance for all problem types. Our findings support the position that individual differences in fluid intelligence emerge as a composite of performance on separable cognitive op-erations, with rule processing being important for differentiating performance on high difficulty problem.

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Tuesday, April 10, 2018

Caffeine causes widespread brain entropy (and that’s a good thing)



Caffeine causes widespread brain entropy (and that's a good thing)

From Brain, a Flipboard magazine by Andy A

By Christian JarrettBasic neuroscience teaches us how individual brain cells communicate with each other, like neighbours chatting…

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Executive functioning (fully) and processing speed (mostly) mediate intelligence deficits in children born very preterm

Abstract

Children born very preterm (<32 weeks gestational age) are known to be at increased risk of neurocognitive impairments, in domains including executive functioning, processing speed, and fluid and crystallised intelligence. Given the close association between these constructs, the current study investigated a specific model, namely whether executive functioning and/or processing speed mediates the relationship between preterm birth and intelligence. Participants were 204 children born very preterm and 98 full-term children, who completed a battery of tasks measuring executive functioning, processing speed, and fluid and crystallised intelligence. Independent-samples t-tests found significantly poorer performance by children born preterm on all measures, and a confirmatory factor analysis found preterm birth to be significantly related to each of the cognitive domains. A latent-variable mediation model found that executive functioning fully mediated the associations between preterm birth and both fluid and crystallised intelligence. Processing speed fully mediated the preterm birth-fluid intelligence association, but only partially mediated the preterm birth-crystallised intelligence association. Future research should consider a longitudinal study design to test whether these deficits and mediating effects remain throughout childhood and adolescence.

Keywords

  • Executive function
  • Processing speed
  • Intelligence
  • Preterm birth
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0160289617303380


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Kevin McGrew, PhD
Educational Psychologist
Director, Institute for Applied Psychometrics
IAP
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Working memory and the Big Five

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0191886918301533


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Kevin McGrew, PhD
Educational Psychologist
Director, Institute for Applied Psychometrics
IAP
www.themindhub.com
******************************************************

Friday, April 06, 2018

AJT CHC Intelligence Test launch in Jakarta - a measure of 9 broad CHC abilities

Yesterday’s AJT CHC cognitive test launch yesterday in Jakarta was a big success. I was taken aback by the special “event” flavor. Extremely professional. As I’ve stated before, the AJT is based on an Indonesia norm sample of 4,800 and will be one if the most comprehensive intelligence tests in the world (on par with the WJ IV COG). It measures 9 broad CHC domains (Gf, Gc, Gwm, Ga, Gv, Gs, Gl, Gr, and some of Gp-separate from cognitive). This has been the most personally rewarding and important project I have worked on in my 40+ years in psychology and education. It is bringing the core concept of individual differences to the education system of the fourth largest country in the world.

George and Laurel Tahija (see picture below), and their YDB foundation, are the visionaries behind this project and other projects focused on helping unique learners in their country. In my five years on this project I can say that I’ve never worked with so many nice people. It was a grand effort by many. I am very impressed how together we built such a comprehensive and technically sound battery of tests from scratch. I have developed a fondness for Indonesia and the people of this wonderful country. The genuine warmth and enthusiasm of the participants was personally moving.

For more information check out these two links (one; two)

Conflict of interest disclosure.  I have been a paid consultant for this project but do not receive any royalties from sales of the test.

Click images to enlarge.












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A Heavy Working Memory Load May Sink Brainwave ‘Synch’



A Heavy Working Memory Load May Sink Brainwave 'Synch'

Researchers report synchrony of brain waves within three regions of the brain can 'break down' when visual working memory load becomes too…

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Read it on neurosciencenews.com



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Kevin McGrew, PhD
Educational Psychologist 
Director
Institute for Applied Psychometrics
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Wednesday, April 04, 2018

Indonesia AJT CHC Intelligence test first official launch at UGM in Jogyakarta.


Next stop Jakarta.

One of the most comprehensive intelligence tests in the world (on par with WJ IV). When I have time I will post more. The most important project I have worked on in my 40+ years in psychology and education.

Tuesday, April 03, 2018

DARPA-funded prosthetic memory system successful in humans, study finds



DARPA-funded prosthetic memory system successful in humans, study finds

From The Brain, a Flipboard topic

Hippocampal prosthesis restores memory functions by creating "MIMO" model-based electrical stimulation of the hippocampus —…

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Read it on kurzweilai.net




Monday, April 02, 2018

AJT CHC test launch in Indonesia

After five years the time has come to launch the CHC-based AJT intelligence test. It will be one of the most comprehensive intelligence tests in the world with an Indonesia norm sample of 4800 children and youth. The proudest project I have ever worked on in my 40 plus years in psychology and education.

Tuesday, March 27, 2018

Do brain exercises work? | Popular Science

A nice balanced overview of brain training research

https://www.popsci.com/do-brain-exercises-work


******************************************************
Kevin McGrew, PhD
Educational Psychologist
Director, Institute for Applied Psychometrics
IAP
www.themindhub.com
******************************************************

Monday, March 26, 2018

European Journal of Neuroscience: Vol 47, No 6



European Journal of Neuroscience: Vol 47, No 6

A new view of social‐cognitive neurodevelopment is emerging from imaging studies of joint attention. Theory and these studies suggest that the cortical…

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Read it on onlinelibrary.wiley.com




Sunday, March 25, 2018

Psychologists Studied 5,000 Genius Kids for 45 Years — Here Are Their 6 Key Takeaways



Psychologists Studied 5,000 Genius Kids for 45 Years — Here Are Their 6 Key Takeaways

From Education, a Flipboard magazine by Rossana Fonseca

Even kids with genius-level IQs need teachers to help them reach their full potential. Follow thousands of…

Read it on Flipboard

Read it on time.com



******************************************************
Kevin McGrew, PhD
Educational Psychologist
Director, Institute for Applied Psychometrics
IAP
******************************************************

Saturday, March 24, 2018

Patents Issued for Brain Training in Social and Emotional Cognition



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Patents Issued for Brain Training in Social and Emotional Cognition
// Posit Science | Brain Fitness & Brain Training

Tuesday, March 20, 2018

(San Francisco, CA) – Posit Science, the maker of BrainHQ online brain exercises and assessments, has bee issued two patents by the US Patent & Trademark Office on brain training that targets what scientists call "social cognition" and "emotional cognition," or what lay people may think of as "people skills."

The patents cover a variety of exercises focused on elemental people skills, such as: recognizing faces; recognizing expressions of emotion; following eye movements; recognizing voice inflections; pairing faces with names and other information; inferring thoughts and feelings; and self-regulating responses.

The social and emotional cognition exercises covered by the patents were originally designed as part of research into treating populations with conditions in which deficits in social and emotional cognition are common, such as schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.

A number of research studies of patients with schizophrenia, who have trained with exercises covered by the new patents, have shown gains in standard neuropsychological measures of social cognition. In addition, imaging studies have shown structural changes in the brain itself, including increased activity in areas associated with improved social cognition.

"While we set out to build tools to help populations where social and emotional cognition challenges are signature deficits, we soon realized that all of us could benefit by improving people skills — such as, quickly and accurately recognizing the emotions behind facial expressions," said Dr. Henry Mahncke, CEO of Posit Science. "Also, who among us has not been caught flat-footed, unable to associate a name — or other facts we at one time knew — with a face? A number of exercises in BrainHQ make use of the inventions covered by these patents."

Researchers also have been field testing the use of the exercises in high-stakes situations — where it's important to make fast and accurate assessments of facial expressions and motivations, or where there is benefit from quickly associating faces with names and other information. For example, field tests have been conducted with police cadets, experienced police officers, and SWAT teams.

"Of course, if you are in sales or customer service — or you are just dealing with bosses, co-workers, and subordinates in any workplace — improving the speed and accuracy of these skills should also be important," Dr. Mahncke observed. "So, we have many new areas to explore for application of this type of training. We're pretty excited about that!"

About Posit Science
Posit Science is the leading provider of clinically proven brain fitness training. Its exercises, available online at www.BrainHQ.com, have been shown to significantly improve brain speed, attention, memory and numerous standard measures of quality of life in multiple studies published in more than 60 peer-reviewed articles in leading science and medical journals. Three public television documentaries as well as numerous stories on news programs, in national magazines, and in major newspapers have featured Posit Science's work. The company's science team is led by renowned neuroscientist Michael Merzenich, PhD.

Press Contact
Posit Science PR Team
media@brainhq.com


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Tuesday, March 20, 2018

Scientific reasoning ability does not predict scientific views on evolution among religious individuals



Scientific reasoning ability does not predict scientific views on evolution among religious individuals

Abstract Background Acceptance of evolutionary theory varies widely and is often associated with…

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Read it on evolution-outreach.springeropen.com




Monday, March 19, 2018

Yale Research Confirms What You've Always Suspected: Nobody Is Normal



Yale Research Confirms What You've Always Suspected: Nobody Is Normal

From THE SCIENCE OF My LIFE, a Flipboard magazine by duskdiver

We're all weirdos, science has confirmed, and that's something to celebrate. Every day around the world millions of people ask…

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Read it on inc.com




Saturday, March 17, 2018

Does Success Come Mostly from Talent, Hard Work--or Luck?



Does Success Come Mostly from Talent, Hard Work--or Luck?

At a campaign rally in Roanoke, Va., before the 2012 election, President Barack Obama opined: "If you were successful, somebody along the line…

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Read it on scientificamerican.com




The importance of differential psychology for school learning: 90% of school achievement variance is due to student characteristics

This is why the study of individual differences/differential psychology is so important. If you don’t want to read the article you can watch a video of Dr. Detterman where he summarizes his thinking and this paper.

Education and Intelligence: Pity the Poor Teacher because Student Characteristics are more Significant than Teachers or Schools. Article link.

Douglas K. Detterman

Case Western Reserve University (USA)

Abstract

Education has not changed from the beginning of recorded history. The problem is that focus has been on schools and teachers and not students. Here is a simple thought experiment with two conditions: 1) 50 teachers are assigned by their teaching quality to randomly composed classes of 20 students, 2) 50 classes of 20 each are composed by selecting the most able students to fill each class in order and teachers are assigned randomly to classes. In condition 1, teaching ability of each teacher and in condition 2, mean ability level of students in each class is correlated with average gain over the course of instruction. Educational gain will be best predicted by student abilities (up to r = 0.95) and much less by teachers' skill (up to r = 0.32). I argue that seemingly immutable education will not change until we fully understand students and particularly human intelligence. Over the last 50 years in developed countries, evidence has accumulated that only about 10% of school achievement can be attributed to schools and teachers while the remaining 90% is due to characteristics associated with students. Teachers account for from 1% to 7% of total variance at every level of education. For students, intelligence accounts for much of the 90% of variance associated with learning gains. This evidence is reviewed


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Each Cell Has A Clock



Each Cell Has A Clock

For many years there was a consensus that most organisms have a circadian clock. In humans it was considered to be directed centrally by the master clock in the brain region…

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Why the Brain-Body Connection Is More Important Than We Think



Why the Brain-Body Connection Is More Important Than We Think

From Brain, a Flipboard magazine by Kurt Martinson

Our brains aren't flying solo; our emotions also come into play when we're interacting with the world, new research finds. The idea that…

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Wednesday, March 14, 2018

The AJT Cattell-Horn-Carroll (CHC) test of intelligence for Indonesia: Launch in April 2018 as one of the most comprehenvise intelligence tests in the world


For the past 5 years I've served as a consultant to the Yayasan Dharma Bermakna foundation for the development of the AJT test of intelligence in Indonesia.  The AJT is a Cattell-Horn-Carroll (CHC) based measure of intelligence.  The AJT is the first individually-administered, comprehensive, test of intelligence developed and normed in Indonesia.

The AJT will be one of the most comprehensive intelligence tests in the world--18 individual tests; 8 broad CHC ability domains).  The formal launch of the AJT will occur next month (April, 2018) in Indonesia.  During one of my recent visits I was filmed discussing various aspects of the AJT. This material is now available in a series of 9 videos [which I don't like to view as I don't like hearing my voice on tape, let alone seeing myself on video :) ..and now I wish I would have worn a suit--but it gets awful hot and humid in Indonesia, especially for someone who lives in Minnesota].  The first is included in this post.  You can find the complete list at this link.


Enjoy.  Take it easy on me...I am not a professional actor.

Tuesday, March 13, 2018

Found: more than 500 genes that are linked to intelligence



Found: more than 500 genes that are linked to intelligence

More than 500 genes associated with intelligence have been identified in the largest study of its kind. Researchers used data from the UK…

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NSF Funding Available for Research on Augmenting Human Cognition and Intelligent Cognitive Assistants



NSF Funding Available for Research on Augmenting Human Cognition and Intelligent Cognitive Assistants

From The Brain, a Flipboard topic

In 2016, the US National Science Foundation (NSF) released a set of 10 "Big Ideas" reflecting…

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Read it on psychologicalscience.org




Everyone’s favourite psychology theory isn’t all it’s cracked up to be- Growth mind set



Everyone's favourite psychology theory isn't all it's cracked up to be

From Psyc stuff, a Flipboard magazine by Carli

For decades, psychologists and educators have believed that a growth mindset can have a significant influence on the way a child…

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Read it on wired.co.uk




Monday, March 12, 2018

CHC theory update: Live chat or later YouTube viewing from #psychedpodcast

I am looking forward to talking about the Cattell-Horn-Carroll (CHC) model of intelligence on the #psychedpodcast this sunday evening.

I will present material largely based on the forthcoming CHC chapter coauthored with Dr. Joel Schneider.  Tune it....it shall be fun. Or, watch the discussion later on YouTube, and eventually as an audio podcast on iTunes





Mind-wandering may help enhance creativity, job performance and general well-being, studies show



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Mind-wandering may help enhance creativity, job performance and general well-being, studies show
// SharpBrains

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When writing a song or a piece of prose, I often choose to let my mind wander, hoping the muse will strike. If it does, it not only moves my work along but feels great, too!
That's why I was troubled by studies that found an association between mind-wandering and problems like unhappiness and depression—and even a shorter life expectancy. This research suggests that focusing one's thoughts on the present moment is linked to well-being, while spacing out—which I personally love to do—is not.
Now, new studies are bringing nuance to this science. Whether or not mind-wandering is a negative depends on a lot of factors—like whether it's purposeful or spontaneous, the content of your musings, and what kind of mood you are in. In some cases, a wandering mind can lead to creativity, better moods, greater productivity, and more concrete goals.
Here is what some recent research says about the upsides of a meandering mind.

Mind-wandering can make you more creative

It's probably not a big surprise that mind-wandering augments creativity—particularly "divergent thinking," or being able to come up with novel ideas.
In one study, researchers gave participants a creativity test called the Unusual Uses Task that asks you to dream up novel uses for an everyday item, like a paperclip or a newspaper. Between the first and second stages, participants either engaged in an undemanding task to encourage mind-wandering or a demanding task that took all of their concentration; or they were given a resting period or no rest. Those participants who engaged in mind-wandering during the undemanding task improved their performance much more than any of the other groups. Taking their focus off of the task and mind-wandering, instead, were critical to success.
"The findings reported here provide arguably the most direct evidence to date that conditions that favor mind-wandering also enhance creativity," write the authors. In fact, they add, mind-wandering may "serve as a foundation for creative inspiration."
As a more recent study found, mind-wandering improved people's creativity above and beyond the positive effects of their reading ability or fluid intelligence, the general ability to solve problems or puzzles.
Mind-wandering seems to involve the default network of the brain, which is known to be active when we are not engaged directly in tasks and is also related to creativity.
So perhaps I'm right to let my focus wander while writing: It helps my mind put together information in novel and potentially compelling ways without my realizing it. It's no wonder that my best inspirations seem to come when I'm in the shower or hiking for miles on end.

Mind-wandering can make you happier…depending on the content

The relationship between mind-wandering and mood may be more complicated than we thought.
In one study, researchers pinged participants on a regular basis to see what they were doing, whether or not their minds were wandering, and how they were feeling. As in an earlier experiment, people tended to be in a negative mood when they were mind-wandering. But when researchers examined the content of people's thoughts during mind-wandering, they found an interesting caveat: If participants' minds were engaged in interesting, off-task musings, their moods became more positive rather than more negative.
As the authors conclude, "Those of us who regularly find our minds in the clouds—musing about the topics that most engage us—can take solace in knowing that at least this form of mind-wandering is associated with elevated mood."
It may be that mood affects mind-wandering more than the other way around. In a similar study, researchers concluded that feeling sad or being in a bad mood tended to lead to unhappy mind-wandering, but that mind-wandering itself didn't lead to later bad moods. Earlier experiments may have conflated mind-wandering with rumination—an unhealthy preoccupation with past failures that is tied to depression.
"This study suggests that mind-wandering is not something that is inherently bad for our happiness," write the authors. Instead, "Sadness is likely to lead the mind to wander and that mind-wandering is likely to be [emotionally] negative."
A review of the research on mind-wandering came to a similar conclusion: Mind-wandering is distinct from rumination and therefore has a different relationship to mood.
Can we actually direct our mind-wandering toward more positive thoughts and away from rumination? It turns out that we can! One study found that people who engaged in compassion-focused meditation practices had more positive mind-wandering. As an added bonus, people with more positive mind-wandering were also more caring toward themselves and others, which itself is tied to happiness.

Mind-wandering may improve job performance

Taking a break from work can be a good thing—perhaps because our minds are freer to wander.
Mind-wandering is particularly useful when work is mind-numbing. In one study, participants reported on their mind-wandering during a repetitive task. Participants who engaged in more mind-wandering performed better and faster, decreasing their response times significantly. The researchers speculated that mind-wandering allowed people to go off-task briefly, reset, and see data with fresh eyes—so that they didn't miss sudden changes.
In another study, researchers aimed to figure out what parts of the brain were implicated in mind-wandering and discovered something unexpected. When their frontal lobes were stimulated with a small electrical current to boost mind-wandering, people's performance on an attention task slightly improved.
Of course, not every job calls for mind-wandering. A surgeon or a driver should stay focused on the task at hand, since mind-wandering could be detrimental to both. On the other hand, even for them it might be rejuvenating to take a mind-wandering break after their workday is over, leading to more focused attention the next time around.

Mind-wandering may help us with goal-setting

It seems like mind-wandering would be detrimental when it comes to planning for the future. In fact, some research suggests mind-wandering can improve goal-setting.
In a recent neuroscience experiment, participants did an undemanding task and reported on the content of their thoughts as researchers scanned their brains with fMRI. Afterwards, they wrote for 15 minutes about personal goals or TV programs (the control group). Then, they repeated these two tasks—the undemanding one and writing about goals or TV.
Analyzers unaware of the study's purpose were asked to assess the concreteness of participants' goal-setting and TV program descriptions. The result? People with wandering minds—who probably started musing about what they really wanted in life after the first writing session—ultimately came up with more concrete and higher-quality goal descriptions in the second session. Over the course of the experiment, their brains also showed an increase in connectivity between the hippocampus and the pre-frontal cortex—areas implicated in goal-setting.
Research has also found that, the more people engage in mind-wandering during a task, the more they are willing to wait for a reward afterwards. According to the researchers, this suggests that mind-wandering helps delay gratification and "engages processes associated with the successful management of long-term goals."
On the other hand, some research suggests mind-wandering makes us less "gritty"—or less able to stay focused on our goals to completion—especially if it is spontaneous rather than deliberate. So, it may be important to consider where you are in the process of goal creation before deciding mind-wandering would be a good idea.
None of this suggests that mind-wandering is better for us than being focused. More likely, both aspects of cognition serve a purpose. Under the right circumstances, a wandering mind may actually benefit us and possibly those around us. The trick is to know when to set your mind free.
jill_suttie.thumbnail— Jill Suttie, Psy.D., is Greater Good's  book review editor and a frequent contributor to the magazine. Based at UC-Berkeley, Greater Good highlights ground breaking scientific research into the roots of compassion and altruism. Copyright Greater Good.
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Friday, March 09, 2018

New study reveals why some people are more creative than others



New study reveals why some people are more creative than others

From James C. Kaufman, a Flipboard magazine by Duncan Wardle

Creativity is often defined as the ability to come up with new and useful ideas. Like intelligence, it can be considered a trait that…

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Read it on theconversation.com




Wednesday, March 07, 2018

Let's Not Do Away with Comprehensive Cognitive Assessments Just Yet | Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology

Good article by two of my favorite scholars.  Joel Schneider and Alan Kaufman

Let's Not Do Away with Comprehensive Cognitive Assessments Just Yet | Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology

From Twitter, a Flipboard magazine by School Psyched!

We review rational and empirical reasons that comprehensive cognitive assessments are useful…

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Read it on academic.oup.com




Monday, March 05, 2018

Developments in the CHC domain of visual processing



Much new is occurring regarding the domain of Gv. Below is a new review of the Gv research and a proposed heuristic framework. This is then followed by select excerpts from our (Schneider and McGrew, 2018) upcoming CHC update chapter in the CIA book, where we add some caution regarding new “proposed”Gv frameworks.

A Heuristic Framework of Spatial Ability: A Review and Synthesis of Spatial Factor Literature to Support its Translation into STEM Education. Article link.

Jeffrey Buckley & Niall Seery & Donal Canty


Abstract

An abundance of empirical evidence exists identifying a significant correlation between spatial ability and educational performance particularly in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM). Despite this evidence, a causal explanation has yet to be identified. Pertinent research illustrates that spatial ability can be developed and that doing so has positive educational effects. However, contention exists within the relevant literature concerning the explicit definition for spatial ability. There is therefore a need to define spatial ability relative to empirical evidence which in this circumstance relates to its factor structure. Substantial empirical evidence supports the existence of unique spatial factors not represented in modern frameworks. Further understanding such factors can support the development of educational interventions to increase their efficacy and related effects in STEM education. It may also lead to the identification of why spatial ability has such a significant impact on STEM educational achievement as examining more factors in practice can help in deducing which are most important. In light of this, a synthesis of the spatial factors offered within existing frameworks with those suggested within contempo-rary studies is presented to guide further investigation and the translation of spatial ability research to further enhance learning in STEM education.

Keywords Spatial ability . Spatial factors . STEM education . Human intelligence

Click on image to enlarge.




The following are select sections of our Gv chapter in the forthcoming CIA book.




Visual processing (Gv) can be defined as the ability to make use of simulated mental imagery to solve problems—perceiving, discriminating, manipulating, and recalling nonlinguistic images in the “mind’s eye.” Humans do more than “act” in space; they “cognize” about space (Tommasi & Laeng, 2012). Once the eyes have transmitted visual information, the visual system of the brain automatically performs several low-level computations (e.g., edge detection, light–dark perception, color differentiation, motion detection). The results of these low-level computations are used by various higher-order processors to infer more complex aspects of the visual image (e.g., object recognition, constructing models of spatial configuration, motion prediction). Traditionally, tests measuring Gv are designed to measure individual differences in these higher-order processes as they work in tandem to perceive relevant information (e.g., a truck is approaching!) and solve problems of a visual-–spatial nature (e.g., arranging suitcases in a car trunk).

Among the CHC domains, Gv has been one of the most studied (Carroll, 1993). Yet it has long been considered a second-class citizen in psychometric models of intelligence, due in large part to its relatively weak or inconsistent prediction of important outcomes in comparison to powerhouse abilities like Gf and Gc (Lohman, 1996). But “the times they are a-changing.” Carroll (1993), citing Eliot and Smith (1983), summarized three phases of research on spatial abilities, ending in large part in the late 1970s to early 1980s (Lohman, 1979). A reading of Carroll’s survey conveys the impression that his synthesis reflects nothing more than what was largely known already in the 1980s. We believe that the Gv domain is entering a fourth period and undergoing a new renaissance, which will result in its increased status in CHC theory and eventually in cognitive assessment. Carroll, the oracle, provided a few hints in his 1993 Gv chapter.

Carroll (1993) was prophetic regarding two of the targets of the resurgent interest in Gv and Gv-related constellations (often broadly referred to as spatial thinking, spatial cognition, spatial intelligence, or spatial expertise; Hegarty, 2010; National Research Council, 2006). In Carroll’s discussion of “other possible visual perception factors” (which he did not accord formal status in his model), he mentioned “ecological” abilities (e.g., abilities reflecting a person’s ability to orient the self in real-world space and maintain a sense of direction) and dynamic (vs. static) spatial reasoning factors (e.g., predicting where a moving object is moving and when it will arrive at a predicted location).

Carroll’s ecological abilities are reflected in a growing body of research regarding large-scale spatial navigation. Large-scale spatial navigation is concerned with finding one’s way, or the ability to represent and maintain a sense of direction and location, and move through the environment (Allen, 2003; Hegarty, 2010; Newcombe, Uttal, & Sauter, 2013; Wolbers & Hegarty, 2010; Yilmaz, 2009). Using a map or smartphone GPS system to find one’s way to a restaurant, and then to return to one’s hotel room, in an unfamiliar large city requires large-scale spatial navigation. A primary distinction between small- and large-scale spatial abilities is the use of different perspectives or frames of reference. Small-scale spatial ability, as represented by traditional psychometric tests on available cognitive or neuropsychological batteries, involves allocentric or object-based transformation.

Large-scale spatial ability typically involves an egocentric spatial transformation, in which the viewer’s internal perspective or frame of reference changes regarding the environment, while the person’s relationship with the objects do not change (Hegarty & Waller, 2004; Newcombe et al., 2013; Wang, Cohen, & Carr, 2014). Recent meta-analyses indicate that large-scale spatial abilities are clearly distinct from small-scale spatial abilities, with an overall correlation of approximately .27. In practical terms, this means that the ability to easily solve the 3D Rubik’s cube may not predict the probability of getting lost in a large, unfamiliar city. Also supporting a clear distinction between the two types of spatial abilities is developmental evidence suggesting that large-scale spatial abilities show a much faster rate of age-related decline, and that the two types are most likely related to different brain networks (Newcombe et al., 2013; Wang et al., 2014).

The distinction between static and dynamic spatial abilities is typically traced to work by Pellegrino and colleagues (Hunt, Pellegrino, Frick, Farr, & Alderton, 1988; Pellegrino, Hunt, Abate, & Farr, 1987) and is now considered one of the two primary organizational facets of spatial thinking (Uttal, Meadow, et al., 2013). Static spatial abilities are well represented by standard tests of Gv (e.g., block design tests). Dynamic and static spatial tasks differ primarily by the presence or absence of movement. “Dynamic spatial ability is one's ability to estimate when a moving object will reach a destination, or one's skill in making time-to-contact (TTC) judgments” (Kyllonen & Chaiken, 2003, p. 233). The ability to catch a football, play a video game, or perform as an air traffic controller requires dynamic spatial abilities, as “one must note the position of the moving object, judge the velocity of the object, anticipate when the object will reach another point (e.g., one's hand, car, or ship), and take some motor action in response to that judgment. In the perception literature, the research surrounding this everyday human information-processing activity has been known as ‘time to collision’” (Kyllonen & Chaiken, 2003, p. 233). Although the dynamic–static distinction has gained considerable traction and support (Allen, 2003; Buckley, Seery, & Canty, 2017; Contreras, Colom, Hernandez, & Santacreu, 2003), some research has questioned whether the underlying difference reflects an actual spatial ability distinction. [AU: Any update on status of Buckley et al.? No] Kyllonen and Chaiken (2003) reported research suggesting that the underlying cognitive process involved in performing dynamic spatial tasks may be a nonspatial, counting-like clock mechanism—temporal processing, not spatial.

The driving forces behind the increased interest and new conceptual developments regarding spatial thinking are threefold. First, rapid technological changes in the past decade have now made access to relatively cheap and accessible visual-graphic-based technology available to large portions of the population. Individuals can immerse themselves in 3D virtual-reality environments for pleasure or learning. Computer visualizations, often available on smartphones and computer tablets, can be used to teach medical students human anatomy and surgery. The complexities and nuances underling “bid data” can now be unearthed with complex visual network models than can be rotated at will. Anyone can learn geography by zooming over the world via Google Earth to explore locations and cities. Individuals rely on car- or phone-based GPS visual navigation systems to move from point A to point B. Clearly, developing Gv abilities (or spatial thinking) is becoming simultaneously easier via technology, but also more demanding as humans must learn how to use and understand Gv graphic interface tools that present complex visual displays of multidimensional information.
Second, ever-increasing calls have been made to embed spatial thinking throughout the educational curriculum—“spatializing” the curriculum (Newcombe, 2013)—to raise the collective spatial intelligence of our children and youth (Hegarty, 2010; National Research Council, 2006). The extant research has demonstrated a significant link between spatial abilities and educational performance in the fields of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM; Buckley et al., 2017; Hegarty, 2010; Lubinski, 2010; Newcombe et al., 2013). Gv abilities and individuals with spatially oriented cognitive “tilts” (Lubinksi, 2010) are becoming increasingly valued by technologically advanced societies. More important, research has demonstrated that spatial abilities or strategies are malleable (National Research Council, 2006; Tzuriel & Egozi, 2010; Uttal, Meadow, et al., 2013; Uttal, Miller, & Newcombe, 2013).

Although many psychologists are important drivers of the renewed interest in an expanded notion of the conceptualization and measurement of Gv (e.g., Allen, 2003; Hegarty, 2010; Kyllonen & Chaiken, 2009; Kyllonen & Gluck, 2003; Lubinski, 2010; Uttal, Miller, et al., 2013; Wang et al., 2014), some of the more active research and conceptualizing are being driven by researchers in education (e.g., National Research Council, 2006; Yilmaz, 2009), cognitive neuroscience (e.g., Thompson, Slotnick, Burrage, & Kosslyn, 2009; Wolbers & Hegarty, 2010), and the STEM disciplines (Harle & Towns, 2010; Seery, Buckley, & Delahunty, 2015). Clearly the CHC model’s “mind’s eye” (Gv) is achieving more prominence, which needs to be supported with renewed research on yet to be identified well-supported additional narrow abilities and innovative measurement methods, particularly regarding large-scale and dynamic spatial abilities.



Do other Gv narrow abilities exist? Of course. As with all CHC domains, the validated narrow abilities in the current taxonomy are largely the result of bottom-up programs of research predicated on developing tests for practical purposes (e.g., prediction, diagnosis). Recent conceptualizations of Gv as a broader spatial thinking construct; the dynamic versus spatial and large-scale versus small-scale conceptualizations; and other functional family conceptualizations of Gv abilities are opening a potential Pandora’s box of hypothesized new Gv narrow abilities. For example, Buckley and colleagues (2017) have proposed a comprehensive Gv taxonomy that includes the current Gv abilities and posits 16 potential new narrow abilities based on either theory or research, some previously reviewed by Carroll (1993). These possible new narrow abilities are related to classic spatial tasks (spatial orientation); imagery (quality and speed); illusions (shape and direction, size contrast, overestimation and underestimation, frame of reference); judgments (direction, speed, movement); and dynamic versions of current Gv abilities (visual memory, serial perceptual integration, spatial scanning, perceptual alternations).

These new Gv conceptualizations are welcomed, but they must be studied with serious caution. All new candidates for Gv abilities will need to be validated with well-conceptualized structural validity research (see “Criteria for Updating CHC Theory,” above). Also, if new Gv abilities are identified, it is important to determine whether they have any practical use or validity. An instructive example is a recent CFA CHC-designed study that provided preliminary support for a narrow ability of face recognition (called face identification recognition by the researchers), distinct from other Gv and CHC abilities (Gignac, Shankaralingam, Walker, & Kilpatrick, 2016). The face recognition ability may have practical usefulness, as it could facilitate measurement and research regarding the phenomenon of prosopagnosia (in which a cognitively capable individual is completely unable to recognize familiar faces). Although it is important to guard against premature hardening of the CHC categories (McGrew, 2005; Schneider & McGrew, 2012), we believe that even greater due diligence is necessary to prevent premature proliferation of new entries in the Gv domain in the CHC model. We don’t want to be at a place soon where formal START negotiations (STrategic Ability Reduction Talks) are necessary to halt unsupported speculation about and proliferation of Gv abilities.



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