Wednesday, December 31, 2008

Happiness is.....

Two computers and a good cup of Caribou coffee.

WMF Human Cognitive Abilities (HCA) Project update - 12-31-08

The free on-line WMF Human Cognitive Abilities (HCA) archive project was updated today. An overview of the project, with a direct link to the archive, can be found at the Woodcock-Muñoz Foundation web page (click on "Current Woodcock-Muñoz Foundation Human Cognitive Abilities Archive") . Also, an on-line PPT copy of a poster presentation I made at the 2008 (Dec) ISIR conference re: this project can be found by clicking here.

Current Update:
Today's update added information (either original correlation matrix or manuscript--or both) for the nine datasets listed below:

  • BERG21: Berger, E. (1977). Field dependence and short-term memory. Dissertation Abstracts International, 38(4-B), 1870. (University Microfilm 77-21266)
  • SMIT52: Smith, O. W., & Smith, P. C. (1966). Developmental studies of spatial judgments by children and adults. Perceptual & Motor Skills, 22, 3-73 (Monograph Supplement 1-V22).
  • SNOW1/SNOW2/SNOW03: Snow, C. E., & Hoefnagel-Hohle, M. (1979). Individual differences in second-language ability: A factor-analytic study. Language & Speech, 22, 151-162.
  • SNOW11/SNOW12: Snow, R. E., Lohman, D. F., Marshalek, B., Yalow, E., & Webb, N. (1977). Correlational analyses of reference aptitude constructs. Stanford, CA: Aptitude Research Project, School of Education, Stanford University, Technical Report No. 5.
  • SNOW20/SNOW21: Snow, R. E., Marshalek, B., & Lohman, D. F. (1976). Correlation of selected cognitive abilities and cognitive processing parameters: An exploratory study. Stanford, CA: Aptitude Research Project, School of Education, Stanford University, Technical Report No. 3.

Request for assistance:
The HCA project needs help tracking down copies of old journal articles, dissertations, etc. for a number of datasets being archive. Please visit the "master bibliography/inventory" section of this archive and visit the on-line dataset/reference file. When viewing the on-line working inventory, manuscripts/references featured in the color red are those we are currently having trouble locating. If you have access to either a paper or e-copy of any of the designated "fugitive" documents, and would be willing to provide them to WMF to copy/scan (we would cover the costs), please contact Dr. Kevin McGrew at the email address listed at the site.

Please join the WMF HCA listserv to receive routine email updates regarding the WMF HCA project.

All posts regarding this project can be found here.

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Beyond IQ Byte # 6: Academic self-efficacy

Here is Byte # 6 from the Beyond IQ project, a project that outlines a proposed Model of Academic Competence and Motivation (MACM). Today's construct spotlight is on "academic self-efficacy."

Academic Self-Efficacy: Definition and Conceptual Background
: A person’s confidence in their ability to organize, execute, and regulate performance in order to solve a problem or accomplish a task at a designated level of skill and ability. Academic self-efficacy refers to a person's conviction that they can successfully achieve at a designated level in a specific academic subject area.

Individuals typically select tasks and activities in which they feel competent and avoid those in which they do not. Students who are confident in their capability to organize, execute, and regulate their problem-solving or task performance at a designated level of competence are demonstrating high self- efficacy. Self-efficacy is generally regarded as a multidimensional construct differentiated across multiple domains of functioning. The construct of self-efficacy helps explain the finding that the behavior of individuals is not always accurately predicted from their capability to accomplish a specific task. How a person believes they will perform is often more important. Academic self-efficacy refers to an individual's belief (conviction) that they can successfully achieve at a designated level on an academic task or attain a specific academic goal (Bandura, 1997; Eccles & Wigfield, 2002; Elias & Loomis, 2002; Gresham, 1988; Linnenbrink & Pintrich, 2002a; Schunk & Pajares, 2002).

Academic self-efficacy is grounded in self-efficacy theory (Bandura, 1977). According to self- efficacy theory, self-efficacy is an “individual’s confidence in their ability to organize and execute a given course of action to solve a problem or accomplish a task” (Eccles & Wigfield, 2002, p. 110). Self-efficacy theory suggests that academic self-efficacy may vary in strength as a function of task difficulty—some individuals may believe they are most efficacious on difficult tasks, while others only on easier tasks. Furthermore, self- efficacy is believed to be situational in nature rather than being viewed as a stable trait (Linnenbrink & Pintrich, 2002a). Students make reliable differentiations between their self-efficacy judgments across different academic domains which, collectively, form a loose hierarchical multidimensional structure. Self- efficacy should not be confused with self-esteem or self- concept. Self-efficacy is a task-specific evaluation while self-esteem and self-concept reflect more general affective evaluations of self (Linnenbrink & Pintrich, 2002a).

Causally, self-efficacy is believed to effect performance via the influence on task perceptions. For example, research suggests high self-efficacy creates a feeling calmness or serenity when approaching difficult tasks while low self-efficacy may result in an individual perceiving a task as more difficult than reality, which, in turn, may create anxiety, stress and a narrower idea on how best to approach the solving of a problem or activity (Eccles, 2005). It is further believed that an individual's interpretation of a successfully completed mastery experience is important to the development of high self-efficacy as individuals use these interpretations to develop perceptions that they then act in concert with. Research also suggest that vicariously observing others perform tasks can facilitate the development of self-efficacy, particularly when individuals are uncertain regarding their abilities or specific tasks and they perceive similar attributes with the observed model.

Two general categories of academic expectancy beliefs have been postulated. Academic outcome expectations are a student’s beliefs that specific behaviors will lead to certain outcomes (e.g., “If I do homework my grades will improve”). Academic efficacy expectations are a student’s beliefs in their ability to perform the necessary behaviors to produce a certain outcome (e.g., “I have enough motivation to study hard for this test”). Understanding the difference between these 2 forms of expectancy beliefs is important as “individuals can believe that a certain behavior will produce a certain outcome (outcome expectation), but may not believe they can perform that behavior (efficacy expectation)” (Eccles & Wigfield, 2002, p. 111).

Educational Implications
: The self-efficacy research literature (Bong &Skaalvick, 2003; Eccles, 2005; Eccles & Wigfield, 2002; Elias & Loomis, 2002; Gresham, 1988; Prout, Marcal, &Marcal, 1992; Schunk & Pajares, 2002; Wentzel, 1999) suggests the following general implications:

  • Of all the “self” constructs, self-efficacy may be the most important and powerful for predicting and explaining specific behavior and outcomes. Research has demonstrated that self-efficacy is associated with a broad range of positive outcomes, including academic achievements ( r's = .49 to .70), athletic performance, social skills, career choices and aspirations, work performance, efficient study habits, pain tolerance, coping with feared events, and recovery from heart attacks. Eccles (2005) has reported that self-efficacy may account for 25 % of achievement variance above and beyondthe effects of instructional practices.
  • Academic self-efficacy has a significant causal influence on academic motivation, learning, and achievement vis-à-vis a student’s effort, cognitive engagement, use of self-regulatory strategies, goal setting and pursuit, adoption of a learning goal orientation, higher intrinsic motivation, persistence, self-esteem, and expectation of future success.
  • It is hypothesized that the predictive power of self-efficacy stems from the fact that it is a relatively narrow and pure construct that does not include the intermixing of other “self” constructs (e.g., competence, esteem). Instead of focusing on a global or omnibus view of self, self-efficacy focuses on more circumscribed self-processes (e.g., self-regulation). As a result, research has found that it is easier to change a student’s self-efficacy toward specific academic domains than it is to change a student’s general self- concept.
  • Students who doubt their ability to successfully complete a task often participate less readily, do not work as hard, and give up quickly when faced with difficulty. Due to repeated failures in the classroom, it is hypothesized that students with disabilities may feel that they cannot adequately perform certain behaviors and tasks to achieve a desired outcome. The resultant negative outcome may be lower academic self-efficacy, which in turn, can generalize to low effectance motivation, feelings of learned helplessness, and difficulties in peer acceptance and interpersonal relationships.
  • Although important for academic performance, positive self-efficacy by itself will not produce competent performance in the absence of prerequisite skills and knowledge (Wentzel, 1999). If a student anticipates failure due to a lack of abilities and skills (a negative outcome expectation), they are less likely to engage in the learning activities.
  • A student’s initial sense of academic self-efficacy develops largely via a function of prior learning experiences and perceived ability on similar tasks. Academic self-efficacy is subsequently refined through continued success and/or failure on similar tasks and feedback from the environment (e.g., adults, other students). The early years of academic learning are critical; once a specific domain of academic self- efficacy beliefs are developed, they can be difficult to change.
  • Success (vs repeated failure) strengthens self-efficacy. Other variables associated with increased positive self-efficacy are peer social models, near-term (proximal) and attainable learning goals, self-regulatory strategy instruction, rewards contingent on performance, tasks calibrated to the student’s instructional level, and evaluative feedback and verbal persuasive communication from a credible other. Learning environments characterized by high levels of student competition, norm and social-referenced grading, and less emphasis on individual attributional effort-based progress feedback have been associated with detrimental effects on self-efficacy, particularly among low achieving students. Almost all of these instructional and environmental variables share a common focus of providing information to the student about their abilities and progress.
  • Positive and caring learning environments that provide accurate feedback and praise (vs inaccurate and superfluous praise) foster the development of accurate self-efficacy beliefs. As students move through the school grades, they become more accurate in their self- assessments vis-à-vis repeated task experience and normative peer comparisons. Furthermore, classrooms that allow for extensive social comparisons (with the performance of other students) tend to lower self-efficacy of students whose performances are viewed as deficient when compared to others. In college populations, students with disabilities may report academic self-efficacy equal to or higher than students without disabilities.
  • Blake and Rust (2002) hypothesized that this finding may be a function of the nature of their university sample which was characterized by students with more severe disabilities. The authors hypothesized that these students had historically been unable to hide their disabilities and, thus, may have learned to be more open about their capabilities during their formative years. In addition, the sample was small (n=44) and may represent a select group of students with disabilities (i.e., those with higher skills and abilities).
  • Research suggests that parents are influential in the development of academic self-efficacy. In general, higher self-efficacy has been linked to parents who provide a warm, supportive and responsive environment that stimulates exploration, curiosity and that allows for mastery experiences. In addition, parents can serve as vicarious role models vis-a-vis the modeling of appropriate methods for coping with difficult tasks and by displaying task persistence.
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Tuesday, December 30, 2008

IQs Corner Recent Literature of Interest 12-30-08

This weeks "recent literature" of interest is now available. Click here to access.

Information regarding this feature, its basis, and the reasons for type of references included in each weekly installment can be found in a prior post.

Math minds

Interesting post over at the ENL blog.

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ITEMS - Instructional Topics in Educational Measurement Series

Regardless whether you are a user of educational measurement technology or teach courses in educational and psychological measurement, if you want to read relatively brief overview modules on select measurement topics, you should check out the free on-line NCME ITEMS modules.  The goal of ITEMS is to improve the understanding of educational measurement principles by providing brief instructional units on timely topics in the field, modules developed for use by college faculty and students as well as by workshop leaders and participants.  ITEMS are a product provided by the National Council on Measurement in Education (NCME)

Below is information I lifted from the NCME ITEMS web page:

Instructional modules are designed to be learner-oriented and consist of an abstract, tutorial content, exercises, and annotated references. The teaching aids accompanying most modules are designed to support the use of the instructional modules in teaching and workshop settings by providing supplemental student exercises, references, test items, and figures or masters for transparencies.

The ITEMS modules can be downloaded as PDF files below (you can use Adobe Reader to view them).

Get Adobe Reader

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Wednesday, December 24, 2008

Vintage brain graphic art t-shirt

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Tuesday, December 23, 2008

Top 30 2008 brain fitness articles


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IQ Scholar Spotlight: Dr. Linda Gottfredson

Another IQ Scholar Spotlight - Dr. Linda Gottfredson.

Dr. Gottfredson organized (and presented) at the recent 2009 (Dec) ISIR conference a symposium called:  Causal models that integrate literacy, g, and health outcomes:  A practical guide to more effective disease prevention and health promotion?  She is a highly regarded intelligence scholar who has a wide array of interests in the field of intelligence including (from her web page):
  • Intelligence, health and everyday life
  • Intelligence and social inequality
  • Employment testing and job aptitude demands
  • Affirmative action and multicultural diversity
  • Career development and vocational counseling
The diversity of her interests is reflected in a wide range of publications (which can be found at her web page).  For example, her 1997 Intelligence article "Why g matters:  The complexity of everyday life" is one of the top 10 cited articles in the journal Intelligence.  She was also the lead author of an important 1977 Intelligence editorial (Mainstream science on intelligence: An Editoral with 52 signatories, history, and bibliogrpahy) in response to the controversial Bell Curve book.  Here most recent "in press" Intelligence publication is Arden, R., Gottfredson, L. S., Miller, G., & Pierce, A. (in press). Intelligence and semen quality are positively correlated.

I found the measurement/prediction issues raised at her symposium very interesting.  The bottom line is that in the field of health care/literacy, doctors expect (hope? pray?) for 100% compliance in patient follow-through in treatment recommendations, the taking of prescriptions, etc.  So...a central question is how to ascertain which patients need more assistance in understanding their health care.  How can we predict which patients will need additional or special instructions and/or follow-up?  Of course, as we all in the field of individual difference measurement know, the best available measures in intelligence can only explain up to 50+% of the variance of any outcome or dependent variable.  An interesting dilema.

I had the opportunity to chat with Dr. Gottfredson about this issue.  One of her interests is in finding (or developing) brief, ecologically valid measures of g to screen patients.  She articulated the need for measures that tap a patients ability to handle complex information processing (high g tests) but that do NOT appear to look like intelligence measures, seem more "real world" in terms of ecological validity, and that would be easy to administer and score.

I shared with her some unpublished g-factor loadings of all the WJ III tests (when cognitive and achievement tests are combined together).  These g-loadings were calculated at different age groups using principal components analysis.  A summary of the table I provided Dr. Gottfredson can be found by clicking here.  Of interest (in our discussions) was a test like Understanding Directions....a test where a subject follows an increasingly long and complex set of simple directions (e.g., point point point to....,then.....,but first......).  As can be seen in the attached table, it is a high g test that would appear to have ecological and face validity for this purpose.  I believe it is a high g test due to the complexity of language-based working memory demands placed on subjects.  This discussion (and material) is presented here to stimulate thought and discussion.  Readers not familiar with the task demands of the WJ III tests should click here.  [Conflict of interest - I'm a coauthor fo the WJ III].

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Dissertation dish: Scoring accuracy on IQ and achievement batteries

An examination of scoring accuracy on intelligence and achievement measures
by Gurley, Jessica R., Ph.D., Sam Houston State University, 2008, 144 pages; AAT 3329506

  • Abstract: Although many practicing psychologists spend a considerable amount of time administering and interpreting intelligence and achievement measures, there is little research examining how accurate psychologists are in scoring these measures. The research attempted to fill a void in the previous research by examining protocols from the most recent editions of two intelligence tests (the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, Third Edition, and the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, Fourth Edition) and the most recent edition of a comprehensive achievement (Woodcock Johnson Tests of Achievement, Third Edition) for scoring accuracy.
  • There were errors made across all three instruments. There were an average of 7.18 administrative errors on WAIS-III protocols and an average of 10.71 administrative errors on the WSIC-IV protocols. The most common type of error on both instruments was a failure-to-record responses, as required by the manual. The least common types of errors on both instruments were failures to obtain a correct basal or ceiling. On the other hand, the most common types of errors on the WJ-III were incorrectly scoring the items and not administering the entire page, as required by the manual.
  • Unlike previous studies (e.g. Slate & Jones, 1990a, 1990b), there were assessment protocols that did not contain any errors. One reason for this data could be a difference in training; the training program at SHSU, where the protocols used in this research were obtained, has a forensic focus. Due to the program's forensic focus, it is possible that graduate students trained in this program are more conscious of the need to be accurate in assessment, given the decisions made that are based on the assessments. Thus, these students may be more prone to check their scoring and consult with colleagues about scoring accuracy, as they may expect their protocols to be scrutinized by judicial officials or other mental health professionals.
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Monday, December 22, 2008

CHC COG-ACH research synthesis project: 12-22-08 update and revision.

[Double click on image to enlarge]

I'm pleased to announce an update and major revision to the the Cattell - Horn - Carroll (CHC) Cognitive Abilities-Achievement Research Synthesis project, a project first described in a prior post. This is a work "in progress". The purpose of this project is to systematically synthesize the key Cattell-Horn- Carroll (CHC) theory of cognitive abilities designed research studies that have investigated the relations between broad and narrow CHC abilities and school achievement.

The status of the project can be accessed via a clickable MindMap visual-graphic navigational tool (similar to the image above...but "active" and "dyanamic") or via the more traditional web page outline navigational method. You can toggle back and forth between the different navigation methods via the options in the upper right hand corner of the respective home web page.

Feedback is appreciated. I request that feedback be funneled to either the CHC and/or NASP professional listservs, mechanisms that provide for a more dynamic give-and-take exchange of ideas, thoughts, reactions, criticisms, suggestions, etc.

The most significant revisions/additions/changes are in branches 1, 2, 4 and 5. The most important are the summary tables in reading and math (branch 5), which have evolved from the original "rough cut" summaries to more refined and operationally constructed (as per specific methodogical criteria) tables. These tables are currently being digested by myself and colleague (Barb Wendling) as we prepare to distill trends, findings, and conclusions....and summarize in a manuscript to be submitted for publication.


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Detterman's laws of individual differences

Early in my career I ran across a tremendous tongue-in-check book chapter by Doug Detterman where he articulated Detterman's Laws of Individual Differences (click here to view--you will need to rotate in your pdf reader). Many of the laws make me laugh to this day. All serious individual difference psychologists (psychometrics, intelligence researchers, developers and users of intelligence tests) should read these from regain perspective on research in this area. You can read them for yourself...but below are a few of my favorites:

Laws of statistical inertia

  • Law II. Anything which exists can be measured incorrectly
  • Law III. Incorrect measurements require intelligent application of appropriate statistics to be interpretable
  • Law IV. It can't be done.
  • Law VII. Everything is correlated with everything else.
  • Law VIII. Never factor analyze anything - this is one of my absolute favorites, esp. his further is impossible to conduct a factor analysis correctly on data which are completely suitable......determining an acceptable rotation has never been accomplished by anyone in the history of Western is impossible to name factors and still have friends...
  • Law X. The less frequently used multivariate techniques...must be left to the experts.
  • Law X (corrlary 1). There are no experts in the less frequently used multivariate techniques.
  • Law XIII. The potential usefulness of any statistical technique is directly proportional to the impossibility of its correct application.

Laws of research strategy.

  • Law XV. My area is best
  • Law XVI. Always remember you are bringing religion to the heathen.
  • Law XVIII (corralary 1). Awlays use models at least ten years old.
  • Law XVIII (corralary 2). Never blame the model.

Laws of creative research interpretation

  • Law XXI. Lacking reliability and/or validity, theorize.
  • Law XXII. Having obtained reliability and/or validiy, theorize elaborately
And many others..............a classic in the field.

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Friday, December 19, 2008

Brain fabric art


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IQs Corner Blog in top 101 fascinating brain blogs

I just learned that this humble blog is one of "101 fascinating brain blogs" as compiled by the Online Education Database.

Thank you to all readers and supporters.  I would not have sustained my blog motivation without the positive feedback I receive.

Kevin McGrew - aka., IQ McGrew - the IQs Corner blogmaster

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IQs Corner Recent Literature of Interest 12-19-08

This weeks "recent literature" of interest is now available. Click here to access.

Information regarding this feature, its basis, and the reasons for type of references included in each weekly installment can be found in a prior post.

Thursday, December 18, 2008

Studies demonstrate improvement in executive attention

The top dog DEVELOPING INTELLIGENCE blog has a great post
demonstrating positive effects for training executive controlled

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Wednesday, December 17, 2008

CHC Periodic Table of Cognitive Elements: Back by popular demand

[double click on image to enlarge]

I frequently get requests for a figure I constructed in 1999. It was the McGrew CHC Gf-Gc Periodic Table of Cognitive Elements. I had been unable to locate the original, but today stumbled across it. A .jpeg copy can be viewed and downloaded by clicking here.

I'm thinking of updating this into something more special..possibly an on-line clickable figure that would take viewers to definitons and additional information re: the various abilities represented.

Good old ideas never die...they sometimes just get lost on hard drives.

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IQs Corner Recent Literature of Interest and Reference Database explained

Members of the CHC listserv receive a weekly FYI notes (from the blogmaster) indicating that "IQs Corner Recent Literature of Interest" (for that week) has been posted at IQ's Corner Blog (click here to see recent example) With some degree of regularity I'm often asked why the posted reference lists are not just focused on intelligence and intelligence testing topics. Below is an explanation as well as a description of the resources that makes this weekly update possible.

The Institute for Applied Psychometrics (IAP) originally started the IAP Reference Database. This reference manager database is a weekly updated computerized database of literature selected because of its relevance to the activities and interests of yours truly, the Director of IAP and the Research Director of WMF. These activities and interests extend well beyond intelligence and testing. All social and behavioral sciences journals listed in each weeks installment of Current Contents/Social and Behavioral Sciences are searched on a weekly basis. Selected references are imported into the system. A deliberately wide search net is cast.

These activities has been occurring since 1994. The Reference Database is managed using Procite software The current database (12-17-08) includes over 34,000 records. The references in the Reference Database can be searched via select terms, keywords, authors, journal, and many combinations of search term.

If you want to receive the weekly literature updates you will need to join the CHC listserv.

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PsycCRITIQUES - Volume 53, Issue 51 is now available online

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A new issue of PsycCRITIQUES is available

December 17, 2008
Volume 53, Issue 51

Book Reviews
1. Neuroactive Steroids in Brain Function, Behavior, and Neuropsychiatric Disorders: Novel Strategies for Research and Treatment
Authors: Michael S. Ritsner and Abraham Weizman (Eds.)
Reviewer: Catherine C. Price

2. Coming of Age in Second Life: An Anthropologist Explores the Virtually Human
Author: Tom Boellstorff
Reviewer: Richard Velayo

3. Theaters of Madness: Insane Asylums and Nineteenth-Century American Culture
Author: Benjamin Reiss
Reviewer: Richard Lael

4. The Boundaries of Babel: The Brain and the Enigma of Impossible Languages
Author: Andrea Moro
Reviewer: David W. Carroll

5. Preventing Child Sexual Abuse: Evidence, Policy, and Practice
Authors: Stephen Smallbone, William L. Marshall, and Richard Wortley
Reviewer: Ian M. Evans

6. ACT in Practice: Case Conceptualization in Acceptance and Commitment Therapy
Authors: Patricia A. Bach and Daniel J. Moran
Reviewer: H. Russell Searight

7. Acceptance and Mindfulness Treatments for Children and Adolescents: A Practitioner's Guide
Authors: Laurie A. Greco and Steven C. Hayes (Eds.)
Reviewer: Sameet Kumar

8. Cognitive-Behavioral Stress Management for Prostate Cancer Recovery: Facilitator Guide
Authors: Frank J. Penendo, Michael H. Antoni, and Neil Schneiderman
Reviewer: Shulamith Kreitler

Cognitive-Behavioral Stress Management for Prostate Cancer Recovery: Workbook
Authors: Frank J. Penendo, Michael H. Antoni, and Neil Schneiderman
Reviewer: Shulamith Kreitler

Film Review
9. Wall-E
Director: Andrew Stanton
Reviewers: George M. Zinkhan and Jenna M. Drenten

Tuesday, December 16, 2008

IQ (ISIR) Scholar Spotlight: Tim Keith - DASII CHC CFA and gender differences in abilities

Dr. Tim "Happiness is a latent variable" Keith presented at the 2008 ISIR conference. Tim is a tremendous scholar (and friend) with tremendous expertise in structural equation modeling. He is one of two people I turn to when I need help with running CFA models. He has completed some of the best CFA studies of the major individually administered intelligence batteries. I've collaborated with him on a number of g+specific abilities studies. More recenty he has been turning his atttention to using SEM methods to evaluate gender differences in latent CHC abilities (click the following links to view his recent published research with the WJ III - conflict of interest disclosure--I'm a coauthor of the WJ III).

At the ISIR conference he presented the same type of analysis of the Differential Abilities Scales--II (DAS-II) norm data. The figure below was the best fitting model. The model provides good support for CHC interpretation of the DAS-II. At the conference his primary focus was gender differences.

Briefly, Tim's gender analyses is summarized below:

  • Females (5-17 years of age) were higher on Gs, Gsm, and Glr (actually the narrow ability of M6 - free recall memory)
  • Males (5-17 years) higher on Gv
  • No gender differences on Gc, Gf, or g.
[double click on image to enlarge]

Forrest Gump IQ milestone: 10,000+ and counting

Occasionally I check the number of "views" of the various PPT slide shows I've posted for free viewing (and downloading) at SlideShare. Today I checked and found that over the past 3 years my Forrest Gump IQ/Expectations show has had over 10,000 views. It is the winner in the PPT shows I've shared. It appears to be a favorite of folks. Thanks for the interest and support.

IQ (ISIR) Scholar Spotlight: David Lohman--CogAT, NNAT, Ravens research

David Lohman presented at the 2008 ISIR conference. I've been a big fan of Lohman's work as much of it has direct application to the work of practicing school and educational psychologists. Lohman was a student of the late Richard Snow, whose work has had a significant work on my thoughts regarding non-cognitive factors important for school learning (see prior post today). Lohman is an author of the group CogAt (click here to see prior post re: study with WJ III). Aside from being an excellent applied psychometrician, Lohman has written papers on a wide variety of topics in educational psychology and intelligence. He is also very generous in making his various publications available for download at his web page.

At this conference he presented a paper comparing scores and norm characteristics from the CogAT, NNAT, and Ravens. The name of the paper and abstract (italics added by me) is below. The focus was on the use of nonverbal measures of intelligence in the identifcation of gifted students. The results presented were a bit disconcerting regarding possible technical issues with the norms of two of the tests---I've featured Lowman's conclusion in the abstract below. Lohman's research raises significant issues re: the accuracy of gifted identification via the NNAT and Ravens. Of course, and appropriately so, Lohman made it clear that his findings and research needed to recognize his potential conflict of interest as author of the CogAT, a direct competitor to the other tests, esp. the NNAT. It is refreshing to see such scholarly integrity in person.
  • Ethnic Differences on Fluid Reasoning Tests: Is the NNAT the Panacea? David F. Lohman, University of Iowa
  • Abstract: Nonverbal, figural reasoning tests such as the Raven Progressive Matrices are often used as markers for Gf in research on intelligence. These tests are also widely used in schools to help identify academically gifted students. The Naglieri Nonverbal Ability Test (NNAT) has been particularly popular following a recent report that in a large, representative sample of U.S. school children, it was found to identify equal proportions of high-scoring White, Black, and Hispanic students. Although questions have been raised about the integrity of the data analyses used in this study, the author of the study continues to defend it as the most important research yet conducted with the NNAT. The goal of this investigation was to compare the NNAT with two other nonverbal assessments: the Raven Progressive Matrices and the Nonverbal Battery of the Cognitive Abilities Test (CogAT). All three tests were administered by trained examiners in counterbalanced order to 1,200 children in grades K to 6 in an ethnically diverse school district. Results showed provided no support for the assertion that the NNAT reduced ethnic differences – either at the mean or at the tails of the distribution. Rather, ethnic differences were actually somewhat larger on the NNAT than on the other two tests. Furthermore, it was discovered that the variance of basic normative score on the NNAT (M = 100, SD = 15) substantially exceeded the reported value of 15 at all but one test level. Re-analyses of the standardization data for the NNAT confirmed this finding. A similar normative score on the Raven (computed from the most recent U.S. national norms) was 10 points too lenient. Consequences of invalid or outdated normative scores for research and practice are discussed.
If you are interested in learning more about this issue, you should check out his full length publication in Gifted Child Quarterly (which Lohman makes available from his web page). You can view a copy by clicking here. The reference citation is: Lohman, D. F., Korb, K., & Lakin, J. (2008). Identifying academically gifted English language learners using nonverbal tests: A comparison of the Raven, NNAT, and CogAT. Gifted Child Quarterly, 52, 275-296. Apparently this paper received the "Research Paper of the Year Award" from the National Association of Gifted Children.

The bottom line take-away: Buyer beware. Educators need to do their due diligence when evaluating and comparing psychometric instruments (group or individual) that impact important educational decisions regarding children.

[Conflict of interest disclosure - I'm a coauthor of the WJ III mentioned above, which is an instrument that competes with a different individually administered cognitive battery of the author of the NNAT, which was a focus of Lohman's presentation and paper].

ISIR post thoughts - live blogging was not an option

I attended the 9th Annual ISIR conference last week in Decatur, GA.  As usual, another great conference.  Kudos to Doug Detterman and the others who organized the program (click here find the program and names in a prior post).

In contrast to my last ISIR conference, I was unable to blog live due to the lack of a wifi signal in the conference room.  I've not yet posted any information as I didn't return until Sunday and it has taken a good day to get back to speed on my work. 

My plan is to now start sending out a series of posts.  Some may contain bits and pieces of reports and my thoughts regarding multiple presentations.  Others I plan to put in the form of IQ Scholar Spotlight posts.....reflecting the presence of a particular intelligence scholar at the conference.  I will do my best to capture some of the take-away messages I gleaned from the particular scholars presentation.

Be patient.  Blogging is only a hobby.  Bills need to be paid.

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Beyond IQ: Metacognition, self-regulation, self-regulated learning (JER special issue)

Beyond IQ. Readers of this blog should be aware that I firmly believe that in order to understand, explain, and improve educational outcomes for learners, a "bigger picture" approach is necessary. I call it the "Beyond IQ Project." In particular, I've repeatedly sounded the accolades of the late Richard Snow's work on aptitude. I've made many posts related to this notion of aptitude, which includes many constructs such as self-efficacy, motivation, self-regulated learning, etc. I've even proposed a model for integrating these "conative" constructs (Model of Academic Competence and Motivation--MACMM). Most of my posts can be found by clicking on the Beyond IQ tag. I have been encouraged to see serious scholars in the field of intelligence (ISIR members) paying increasing attention to these constructs as they attempt to explain intellectual performance.

Today I ran across yet another special issue of a journal devoted to a major domain of the MACMM model - self regulated learning ("What do I need to do to succeed?"). Below is the table of contents of the current issue of the Educational Psychology Review. It looks EXCELLENT. I can't wait to read the articles. I've made the special issue introduction article available for viewing. If any reader would like to read one (or more) of the articles (I would provide a copy of the pdf file), in exchange for a guest blog post summary to this bog, please contact the blogmaster (

Why This and Why Now? Introduction to the Special Issue on Metacognition, Self-Regulation, and Self-Regulated Learning - Patricia A. Alexander (click to view).

Metacognition and Self-Regulation in James, Piaget, and Vygotsky - Emily Fox and Michelle Riconscente

Focusing the Conceptual Lens on Metacognition, Self-regulation, and Self-regulated Learning - Daniel L. Dinsmore, Patricia A. Alexander and Sandra M. Loughlin

Self-Directed Learning in Problem-Based Learning and its Relationships with Self-Regulated Learning - Sofie M. M. Loyens, Joshua Magda and Remy M. J. P. Rikers

Self-Regulation of Learning within Computer-based Learning Environments: A Critical Analysis - Fielding I. Winters, Jeffrey A. Greene and Claudine M. Costich

The Role of Teacher Epistemic Cognition, Epistemic Beliefs, and Calibration in Instruction - Liliana Maggioni and Meghan M. Parkinson

Metacognition, Self-Regulation, and Self-Regulated Learning: Research Recommendations - Dale H. Schunk

Metacognition, Self Regulation, and Self-regulated Learning: A Rose by any other Name? - Susanne P. Lajoie

Clarifying Metacognition, Self-Regulation, and Self-Regulated Learning: What’s the Purpose? - Avi Kaplan

An Interview with Dale Schunk - Gonul Sakiz

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Dissertation Dish: Executive functiong and reading comprehension

The relationship between parent perceived executive functioning and reading comprehension in the absence of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder by Hanbury, Mary, Psy.D., Adler School of Professional Psychology, 2008, 86 pages; AAT 3327387

  • Abstract: The purpose of the present study is to examine the relationship between parent perceived executive functioning and reading comprehension in children without a diagnosis of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and to determine if gender moderates the relationship between executive functioning and reading comprehension. The data collected was archival data obtained from two doctoral level clinicians during psychoeducational evaluations. The study consisted of 47 subjects, 34 of which were boys and 13 were girls. The ages range from 6 to 17 years of age. As part of a psycoeducational evaluation the participants were given the Passage Comprehension subtest of the Woodcock-Johnson III Achievement battery and the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Functioning (BRIEF) form was completed by the participant's parents or teachers. Parent perceived executive functioning was measured by the BRIEF parent form, Global Executive Composite (GEC) and reading comprehension was measured by Passage Comprehension test of the Woodcock-Johnson III Achievement Tests (WJIII ACH). A T-test was done to ascertain if there was a significant difference between the means of the two groups of high and low executive functioning as defined by T-scores on the Parent GEC. Group I represents children who scored below 65 on the BRIEF and Group 2 represents children who scored higher than 65. A score of 65 is the point that represents 1.5 standard deviation above the mean, which is the cut-off for a clinically elevated score. Results indicated there was a significant difference between the means of the high and low executive functioning groups. For Group 1 (M=101.73, SD=13.2). For Group 2 (M=86.41, SD=12.63) t = 3.80. Group I was significant (p= <.001). The effect size was examined and the difference was measured by Cohen's d = 1.16. Pearson Correlations were completed between reading comprehension and parent perceived executive function for each gender. It was found that gender moderates the relationship between executive functioning and reading comprehension as there was a negative correlation for boys (r =.58, p<.001, and there was no correlation for girls (r =.17, p = .573).
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Monday, December 15, 2008

Sunday, December 14, 2008

Magma guide statistics book

Interesting post at one of my new favorite blogs (GOOD MATH BAD MATH)
re: new style of presenting statstics to students.

Sent from KMcGrew iPhone (IQMobile). (If message includes an image-
double click on it to make larger-if hard to see)

Alzheimers cognitive reserve protection

Thanks SHARP BRAINS for the info.

Sent from KMcGrew iPhone (IQMobile). (If message includes an image-
double click on it to make larger-if hard to see)

Beautiful mind photos via MIND HACKS

The Beautiful Mind is an online gallery of stunning neuroscience photographs, aiming to demonstrate the beauty within.

Sent from KMcGrew iPhone (IQMobile). (If message includes an image-double click on it to make larger-if hard to see)