Showing posts with label Atkins cases. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Atkins cases. Show all posts

Monday, January 13, 2014

The Death Penalty and Intellectual Disability: AAIDD forthcoming book publication--TOC with authors and chapter titles


 The Death Penalty and Intellectual Disability: A Guide (1/3/14)*

* Note the above title is as registered by AAIDD with Library of Congress and as presentedon their website. The working title of the task force had been:  Determining Intellectual Disability in the Courts: Focus on Capital Cases

As described at the AAIDD publications page:
 In the 2002 landmark decision Atkins v. Virginia 536 U.S. 304, the Supreme Court of the United States ruled that executing a person with intellectual disability is a violation of the Eighth Amendment of the U.S. Constitution, which prohibits “cruel and unusual punishment,” but left states to determine their own criteria for intellectual disability. AAIDD has always advocated against the death penalty for people with intellectual disability and has long provided amicus curiae briefs in Supreme Court cases. Thus, in this comprehensive new book published by AAIDD, notable authors in the field of intellectual disability discuss all aspects of the issues, with a particular focus on foundational considerations, assessment factors and issues, and professional concerns in Atkins assessments. 



Ed Polloway

Honorable Kevin Foley

Part 1:  Foundational Considerations

Guide for Persons with Intellectual Disability and Capital Cases:
An Introduction
Edward A. Polloway
James R. Patton
J. David Smith
Intellectual Disability:  A Review of its Definitions and Diagnostic Criteria
Marc J. Tassé
Mild Intellectual Disability
Gary Siperstein
Melissa Collins
Analysis of Atkins Cases
John Blume
Karen Salekin

Part 2:  Assessment Considerations

A.  General Topics:

Concepts of Measurement
Keith Widaman
Age of Onset and the Developmental Period Criterion
Stephen Greenspan
George Woods
Harvey Switzky

B. Intellectual Functioning:

Intellectual Functioning: Conceptual Issues
Kevin McGrew
Consideration in the Selection and Analysis of IQ Tests
Dale Watson
Variability of IQ scores
Stephen Greenspan
J. Gregory Olley
Norm Obsolescence: The Flynn Effect
Kevin McGrew

C. Adaptive Behavior:

Evolving Concepts of Adaptive Behavior
Stephen Greenspan
Selection of Appropriate Adaptive Behavior Instruments
J. Gregory Olley
Challenges in Assessment of Adaptive Behavior in Capital Cases
Caroline Everington
Gilbert S. Macvaugh III
Karen Salekin
Timothy J. Derning
Time at Which Disability Must Be Shown in Atkins Cases
J. Gregory Olley
Briseño Factors
Stephen Greenspan

Part 3:  Related Topics

Cultural Factors in Assessment
Richard Ruth
Assessment Issues: Competence to Waive Miranda Rights and Competence to Stand Trial
Karen Salekin
Caroline Everington
Considerations of Retrospective Assessment and Malingering
Denis Keyes
David Freedman
Intellectual Disability, Comorbid Disorders and Differential Diagnosis
George Woods
David Freedman
Timothy J. Derning
School and Other Key Records
James Patton
Relevance of Other Assessments in Atkins Evaluations
Karen Salekin
Gilbert S. Macvaugh III
Timothy J. Derning
Professional Issues in Atkins Assessments
Gilbert S. Macvaugh III
Mark D. Cunningham Marc J. Tassé

Monday, September 30, 2013

IQ score differences across time may relfect real changes in the brain

Lay people and many professionals often express consternation when an individuals measured IQ scores are different at different times in their life.  This concern is particularly heightened in high stakes settings where differences in IQ scores can result in changes in eligibility for programs (e.g., social security disability income) or life-or-death decisions (e.g., Atkins MR/ID death penalty cases).

Factors contributing to significant IQ score differences are many (McGrew, in press a) and may include: (a) procedural or test administration errors (e.g., scoring errors; improper nonstandardized test administration; malingering; age vs. grade norms; practice effects), (b) test norm or standardization differences (e.g., norm obsolescence or the Flynn Effect; McGrew, in press b), (c) content differences across different test batteries or between different editions of the same battery, or (d) variations in a person’s performance on different occasions.

 An article "in press" (Neuroimage) by Burgaleta et al. (click here to view copy with annotated comments)  provides the important reminder that differences in IQ scores for an individual (across time) may be due to real changes in general intelligence related to real changes in brain development.  These researchers found that changes in cortical brain thickness were related to changes in IQ scores.  They concluded that "the dynamic nature of intelligence-brain the idea that changes in IQ across development can reflect meaningful general cognitive ability changes and have a neuroanatomical substrate" (viz., changes in cortical thickness in key brain regions).  The hypothesis was offered that changes in the the cortical areas of  frontoparietal brain network (see P-FIT model of intelligence) may be related to changes in working memory, which in turn has been strongly associated with general reasoning (fluid intelligence; Gf).

The cortical thickness-IQ change relation was deemed consistent with "cellular events that are sensitive to postnatal development and experience."  Possible causal factors suggested included insufficient education or social stimulation during sensitive developmental periods, as well as lifestyle, diet and nutrition, and genetic factors.

  • McGrew, K. S. (in press a).  Intellectual functioning:  Conceptual issues.  In E. Polloway (Ed.), Determining intellectual disability in the courts:  Focus on capital cases.  AAIDD, Washington, DC.

  •  McGrew, K. S. (in press b).  Norm obsolescence:  The Flynn Effect.  In E. Polloway (Ed.), Determining intellectual disability in the courts:  Focus on capital cases.  AAIDD, Washington, DC.

[Click on images to enlarge]