Tuesday, February 05, 2013

CHC Theory: Processing Speed (Gs) definition

Processing Speed (Gs):   The ability to perform simple repetitive cognitive tasks quickly and fluently. This ability is of secondary importance (compared to Gf and Gc) when predicting performance during the learning phase of skill acquisition. However, it becomes an important predictor of skilled performance once people know how to do a task. That is, once people how to perform a task, they still differ in the speed and fluency with which they perform.  For example, two people may be equally accurate in their addition skills but one recalls math facts with ease and the other has to think about the answer for an extra half-second and sometimes counts on his or her fingers.
  • Perceptual Speed (P). Speed at which visual stimuli can be compared for similarity or difference. Much like Induction is at the core of Gf, Perceptual Speed is at the core of Gs. Recent research (Ackerman, Beier, & Boyle, 2002; Ackerman & Cianciolo, 2000; see McGrew, 2005) suggests that Perceptual Speed may be an intermediate stratum ability (between narrow and broad) defined by four narrow subabilities: (1) Pattern Recognition (Ppr)—the ability to quickly recognize simple visual patterns; (2) Scanning (Ps)—the ability to scan, compare, and look up visual stimuli; (3) Memory (Pm)—the ability to perform visual perceptual speed tasks that place significant demands on immediate Gsm, and (d) Complex (Pc)—the ability to perform visual pattern recognition tasks that impose additional cognitive demands, such as spatial visualization, estimating and interpolating, and heightened memory span loads.
  • Rate-of-Test-Taking (R9). Speed and fluency with which simple cognitive tests are completed. Through the lens of CHC theory, the definition of this factor has narrowed to simple tests that do not require visual comparison (so as not to overlap with Perceptual Speed) or mental arithmetic (so as not to overlap with Number Facility). The next three factors are related to the ability to perform basic academic skills rapidly.
  • Number Facility (N). Speed at which basic arithmetic operations are performed accurately. Although this factor includes recall of math facts, Number Facility includes speeded performance of any simple calculation (e.g., subtracting 3 from a column of 2-digit numbers). Number Facility does not involve understanding or organizing mathematical problems and is not a major component of mathematical/quantitative reasoning or higher mathematical skills.
  • Reading Speed (fluency) (RS). Rate of reading text with full comprehension. Also listed under Grw.
  • Writing Speed (fluency) (WS): Rate at which words or sentences can be generated or copied. Also listed under Grw and Gps.

The above definitions were abstracted from Schneider and McGrew's (2012) contemporary CHC theory chapter in the form of a special CHC v2.0 publication. See the chapter for more in depth information regarding this ability domain and contemporary CHC theory.

Prior definitions in this series can be found here.

Thanks to Dr. Scott Barry Kaufman for permission to to use the above graphic depiction of this CHC ability. These CHC icons are part of Dr. Kaufman's book, Ungifted: Intelligence Redefined, and are the creative work of George Doutsiopoulos.

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