Thursday, February 21, 2013

IQs Corner Recent Literature of Interest: 02-21-13

> PT J
> AU Choe, KS
> AF Choe, Katherine S.
> TI Children's Representation of Long Duration: When Memory and Attention
> Meet in Processing Time
> AB The concepts of the memory and attentional models were examined in
> children's and adults time perception in a long duration. One hundred
> twenty-one children in preschool through Grade 2 and 29 adults for Study
> 1 and 93 second-, fourth-, and sixth-grade students and 40 adults for
> Study 2 judged durations of tasks that varied in interest levels and
> cognitive demands. In Study 1, children overestimated but adults
> underestimated the movie that they found to be interesting. However, in
> Study 2, both children and adults consistently overestimated the
> duration of puzzles they found to be interesting. In a long duration,
> the findings were more in line with the memory model than with the
> attention model. A qualitative change also emerged in middle childhood
> in the way children kept track of time; this difference may influence
> the developing perception of long duration in children's representation.
> Implications of the findings are further discussed in examining the
> perception of long duration.
> PY 2013
> VL 174
> IS 2
> BP 117
> EP 136
> ER
> PT J
> AU Labelle, V
> Bosquet, L
> Mekary, S
> Bherer, L
> AF Labelle, Veronique
> Bosquet, Laurent
> Mekary, Said
> Bherer, Louis
> TI Decline in executive control during acute bouts of exercise as a
> function of exercise intensity and fitness level
> AB Studies on the effects of acute bouts of cardiovascular exercise on
> cognitive performances show contradictory findings due to methodological
> differences (e.g., exercise intensity, cognitive function assessed,
> participants' aerobic fitness level, etc.). The present study assessed
> the acute effect of exercise intensity on cognition while controlling
> for key methodological confounds. Thirty-seven participants (M(age) =
> 23. 8 years; SD = 2.6) completed a computerized modified-Stroop task
> (involving denomination, inhibition and switching conditions) while
> pedalling at 40%, 60% and 80% of their peak power output (PPO). Results
> showed that in the switching condition of the task, error rates
> increased as a function of exercise intensity (from 60% to 80% of PPO)
> in all participants and that lower fit individuals showed increased
> reaction time variability. This suggests that acute bouts of
> cardiovascular exercise can momentarily alter executive control and
> increase performance instability in lower fit individuals. (C) 2012
> Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
> PY 2013
> VL 81
> IS 1
> BP 10
> EP 17
> ER
> PT J
> AU Wostmann, NM
> Aichert, DS
> Costa, A
> Rubia, K
> Moller, HJ
> Ettinger, U
> AF Woestmann, Nicola M.
> Aichert, Desiree S.
> Costa, Anna
> Rubia, Katya
> Moeller, Hans-Juergen
> Ettinger, Ulrich
> TI Reliability and plasticity of response inhibition and interference
> control
> AB This study investigated the internal reliability, temporal stability and
> plasticity of commonly used measures of inhibition-related functions.
> Stop-signal, go/no-go, antisaccade, Simon, Eriksen flanker, Stroop and
> Continuous Performance tasks were administered twice to 23 healthy
> participants over a period of approximately 11 weeks in order to assess
> test-retest correlations, internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha), and
> systematic between as well as within session performance changes. Most
> of the inhibition-related measures showed good test-retest reliabilities
> and internal consistencies, with the exception of the stop-signal
> reaction time measure, which showed poor reliability. Generally no
> systematic performance changes were observed across the two assessments
> with the exception of four variables of the Eriksen flanker, Simon and
> Stroop task which showed reduced variability of reaction time and an
> improvement in the response time for incongruent trials at second
> assessment. Predominantly stable performance within one test session was
> shown for most measures. Overall, these results are informative for
> studies with designs requiring temporally stable parameters e.g. genetic
> or longitudinal treatment studies. (C) 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights
> reserved.
> PY 2013
> VL 81
> IS 1
> BP 82
> EP 94
> ER
> PT J
> AU Moldavsky, M
> Groenewald, C
> Owen, V
> Sayal, K
> AF Moldavsky, Maria
> Groenewald, Carla
> Owen, Victoria
> Sayal, Kapil
> TI Teachers' recognition of children with ADHD: role of subtype and gender
> AB Background This study investigates the ability of primary school
> teachers to recognise Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD),
> and the impact of subtype and child gender on recognition and proposed
> management. Method Primary school teachers read one of four types of
> vignette describing the behaviour of a 9-year-old child: either a boy or
> a girl with inattentive or combined subtype of ADHD. Teachers were asked
> about their conceptualisation of the child's difficulties and their
> thoughts about need for specialist referral and other interventions.
> Results Of 496 teachers, 99% identified the presence of a problem.
> Subtype (combined) of ADHD influenced teachers recognition of ADHD and
> agreement that medication might be helpful. Only 13% of teachers thought
> that medication might be helpful. Conclusions Results suggest a need for
> better teacher awareness about inattentive subtype of ADHD.
> PY 2013
> VL 18
> IS 1
> BP 18
> EP 23
> ER
> PT J
> AU Seli, P
> Cheyne, JA
> Smilek, D
> AF Seli, Paul
> Cheyne, James Allan
> Smilek, Daniel
> TI Wandering Minds and Wavering Rhythms: Linking Mind Wandering and
> Behavioral Variability
> AB Mind wandering is a pervasive feature of human cognition often
> associated with the withdrawal of task-related executive control
> processes. Here, we explore the possibility that, in tasks requiring
> executive control to sustain consistent responding, moments of mind
> wandering could be associated with moments of increased behavioral
> variability. To test this possibility, we developed and administered a
> novel task (the metronome response task) in which participants were
> instructed to respond synchronously (via button presses) with the
> continuous rhythmic presentation of tones. We provide evidence
> (replicated across 2 independent samples) that response variability
> during the 5 trials preceding probe-caught reports of mind wandering
> (tuned-out and zoned-out mind wandering) is significantly greater than
> during the 5 trials preceding reports of on-task performance. These
> results suggest that, at least in some tasks, behavioral variability is
> an online marker of mind wandering.
> PY 2013
> VL 39
> IS 1
> BP 1
> EP 5
> ER
> PT J
> AU Sio, UN
> Monaghan, P
> Ormerod, T
> AF Sio, Ut Na
> Monaghan, Padraic
> Ormerod, Tom
> TI Sleep on it, but only if it is difficult: Effects of sleep on problem
> solving
> AB Previous research has shown that performance on problem solving improves
> over a period of sleep, as compared with wakefulness. However, these
> studies have not determined whether sleep is beneficial for problem
> solving or whether sleep merely mitigates against interference due to an
> interruption to solution attempts. Sleep-dependent improvements have
> been described in terms of spreading activation, which raises the
> prediction that an effect of sleep should be greater for problems
> requiring a broader solution search. We presented participants with a
> set of remote-associate tasks that varied in difficulty as a function of
> the strength of the stimuli-answer associations. After a period of
> sleep, wake, or no delay, participants reattempted previously unsolved
> problems. The sleep group solved a greater number of difficult problems
> than did the other groups, but no difference was found for easy
> problems. We conclude that sleep facilitates problem solving, most
> likely via spreading activation, but this has its primary effect for
> harder problems.
> PY 2013
> VL 41
> IS 2
> BP 159
> EP 166
> ER
> PT J
> AU Unsworth, N
> Brewer, GA
> Spillers, GJ
> AF Unsworth, Nash
> Brewer, Gene A.
> Spillers, Gregory J.
> TI Working memory capacity and retrieval from long-term memory: the role of
> controlled search
> AB In two experiments, the role of working memory capacity (WMC) in the
> controlled search of long-term memory was examined. Participants
> performed a prolonged category fluency task that required them to
> retrieve as many animals as possible in 5 min. The results suggested
> that WMC differences arose in the numbers of animals retrieved, the
> numbers of clusters retrieved, and the rates of the retrieval (Exp. 1).
> However, no differences were found in terms of how participants
> initiated retrieval or in the nature of the clusters generated.
> Furthermore, an examination of differences in retrieval strategies
> suggested that high-WMC individuals were more strategic than low-WMC
> individuals and that these differences in retrieval strategies accounted
> for the overall differences in the numbers of animals retrieved.
> Additionally, presenting participants with retrieval cues eliminated WMC
> differences in the numbers of animals retrieved (Exp. 2). These results
> suggest that low-WMC individuals are less able than high-WMC individuals
> to select and utilize appropriate retrieval strategies to self-generate
> cues to access information in long-term memory. Collectively, the
> results are consistent with research suggesting that WMC is important
> for controlled search from long-term memory.
> PY 2013
> VL 41
> IS 2
> BP 242
> EP 254
> ER
> PT J
> AU Archibald, LMD
> Joanisse, MF
> AF Archibald, Lisa M. D.
> Joanisse, Marc F.
> TI Domain-specific and domain-general constraints on word and sequence
> learning
> AB The relative influences of language-related and memory-related
> constraints on the learning of novel words and sequences were examined
> by comparing individual differences in performance of children with and
> without specific deficits in either language or working memory. Children
> recalled lists of words in a Hebbian learning protocol in which
> occasional lists repeated, yielding improved recall over the course of
> the task on the repeated lists. The task involved presentation of
> pictures of common nouns followed immediately by equivalent
> presentations of the spoken names. The same participants also completed
> a paired-associate learning task involving word-picture and
> nonword-picture pairs. Hebbian learning was observed for all groups.
> Domain-general working memory constrained immediate recall, whereas
> language abilities impacted recall in the auditory modality only. In
> addition, working memory constrained paired-associate learning
> generally, whereas language abilities disproportionately impacted novel
> word learning. Overall, all of the learning tasks were highly correlated
> with domain-general working memory. The learning of nonwords was
> additionally related to general intelligence, phonological short-term
> memory, language abilities, and implicit learning. The results suggest
> that distinct associations between language- and memory-related
> mechanisms support learning of familiar and unfamiliar phonological
> forms and sequences.
> PY 2013
> VL 41
> IS 2
> BP 268
> EP 280
> ER
> PT J
> AU Brooks, PJ
> Kempe, V
> AF Brooks, Patricia J.
> Kempe, Vera
> TI Individual differences in adult foreign language learning: The mediating
> effect of metalinguistic awareness
> AB In this study, we sought to identify cognitive predictors of individual
> differences in adult foreign-language learning and to test whether
> metalinguistic awareness mediated the observed relationships. Using a
> miniature language-learning paradigm, adults (N = 77) learned Russian
> vocabulary and grammar (gender agreement and case marking) over six 1-h
> sessions, completing tasks that encouraged attention to phrases without
> explicitly teaching grammatical rules. The participants' ability to
> describe the Russian gender and case-marking patterns mediated the
> effects of nonverbal intelligence and auditory sequence learning on
> grammar learning and generalization. Hence, even under implicit-learning
> conditions, individual differences stemmed from explicit metalinguistic
> awareness of the underlying grammar, which, in turn, was linked to
> nonverbal intelligence and auditory sequence learning. Prior knowledge
> of languages with grammatical gender (predominantly Spanish) predicted
> learning of gender agreement. Transfer of knowledge of gender from other
> languages to Russian was not mediated by awareness, which suggests that
> transfer operates through an implicit process akin to structural
> priming.
> PY 2013
> VL 41
> IS 2
> BP 281
> EP 296
> ER
> PT J
> AU Davies, R
> Barbon, A
> Cuetos, F
> AF Davies, Robert
> Barbon, Analia
> Cuetos, Fernando
> TI Lexical and semantic age-of-acquisition effects on word naming in
> Spanish
> AB We report a study of the factors that affect reading in Spanish, a
> language with a transparent orthography. Our focus was on the influence
> of lexical semantic knowledge in phonological coding. This effect would
> be predicted to be minimal in Spanish, according to some accounts of
> semantic effects in reading. We asked 25 healthy adults to name 2,764
> mono- and multisyllabic words. As is typical for psycholinguistics,
> variables capturing critical word attributes were highly
> intercorrelated. Therefore, we used principal components analysis (PCA)
> to derive orthogonalized predictors from raw variables. The PCA
> distinguished components relating to (1) word frequency, age of
> acquisition (AoA), and familiarity; (2) word AoA, imageability, and
> familiarity; (3) word length and orthographic neighborhood size; and (4)
> bigram type and token frequency. Linear mixed-effects analyses indicated
> significant effects on reading due to each PCA component. Our
> observations confirm that oral reading in Spanish proceeds through
> spelling-sound mappings involving lexical and sublexical units.
> Importantly, our observations distinguish between the effect of lexical
> frequency (the impact of the component relating to frequency, AoA, and
> familiarity) and the effect of semantic knowledge (the impact of the
> component relating to AoA, imageability, and familiarity). Semantic
> knowledge influences word naming even when all the words being read have
> regular spelling-sound mappings.
> PY 2013
> VL 41
> IS 2
> BP 297
> EP 311
> ER
> PT J
> AU Thomson, JM
> Leong, V
> Goswami, U
> AF Thomson, Jennifer M.
> Leong, Victoria
> Goswami, Usha
> TI Auditory processing interventions and developmental dyslexia: a
> comparison of phonemic and rhythmic approaches
> AB The purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy of two auditory
> processing interventions for developmental dyslexia, one based on rhythm
> and one based on phonetic training. Thirty-three children with dyslexia
> participated and were assigned to one of three groups (a) a novel
> rhythmic processing intervention designed to highlight auditory rhythmic
> information in non-speech and speech stimuli; (b) a
> commercially-available phoneme discrimination intervention; and (c) a
> no-intervention control. The intervention lasted for 6 weeks. Both
> interventions yielded equivalent and significant gains on measures of
> phonological awareness (at both rhyme and phoneme levels), with large
> effect sizes at the phoneme level. Both programs had medium effect sizes
> on literacy outcome measures, although gains were non-significant when
> compared to the controls. The data suggest that rhythmic training has an
> important role to play in developing the phonological skills that are
> critical for efficient literacy acquisition. It is suggested that
> combining both prosodic/rhythmic and phonemic cues in auditory training
> programs may offer advantages for children with developmental dyslexia.
> This may be especially true for those who appear resistant to
> conventional phonics training methods.
> PY 2013
> VL 26
> IS 2
> BP 139
> EP 161
> ER
> PT J
> AU Kendeou, P
> Papadopoulos, TC
> Kotzapoulou, M
> AF Kendeou, Panayiota
> Papadopoulos, Timothy C.
> Kotzapoulou, Marianna
> TI Evidence for the early emergence of the simple view of reading in a
> transparent orthography
> AB The main aim of the present study was to empirically test the emergence
> of the Simple View of Reading (SVR) in a transparent orthography, and
> specifically in Greek. To do so, we examined whether the constituent
> components of the SVR could be identified in young, Greek-speaking
> children even before the beginning of formal reading instruction. Our
> investigation focused on Kindergarten children and examined the
> dissociation of decoding-related and language comprehension skills using
> Exploratory Factor Analysis. All children were administered a battery of
> decoding-related and comprehension measures. The analysis demonstrated
> that comprehension and decoding-related measures loaded as distinct
> factors in young Greek-speaking children and that the two factors were
> weakly correlated. The present findings provide important support for
> the validity of the SVR framework as a model of reading skills
> acquisition in a language with a transparent orthography, such as Greek.
> PY 2013
> VL 26
> IS 2
> BP 189
> EP 204
> ER
> PT J
> AU Perret, C
> Laganaro, M
> AF Perret, Cyril
> Laganaro, Marina
> TI Why are written picture naming latencies (not) longer than spoken
> naming?
> AB The comparison between spoken and handwritten production in picture
> naming tasks represents an important source of information for building
> models of cognitive processes involved in writing. Studies using this
> methodology systematically reported longer latencies for handwritten
> than for spoken production. To uncover the origin of this difference
> across modalities, we compared the latencies of spoken picture naming
> and two written picture naming conditions: one in which the participants
> could see and monitor their handwriting (visible-condition), and one in
> which they could not monitor their production (masked-condition).
> Previously reported differences between spoken and handwritten naming
> latencies were replicated in the standard visible-condition. By
> contrast, production latencies were faster in the written
> masked-condition than in the visible-condition and did not differ from
> spoken production latencies. These results suggest that longer
> handwriting latencies, in comparison with speaking latencies, are due to
> the delayed onset in handwriting in conditions where the sheet is
> visible. The implications of these results on both written production
> models and experimental methods are discussed.
> PY 2013
> VL 26
> IS 2
> BP 225
> EP 239
> ER
> PT J
> AU Gabriel, RE
> Dostal, HM
> AF Gabriel, Rachael E.
> Dostal, Hannah M.
> TI "Reading and deafness": a review
> PY 2013
> VL 26
> IS 2
> BP 317
> EP 320
> ER
> PT J
> AU Hanchon, TA
> Allen, RA
> AF Hanchon, Timothy A.
> Allen, Ryan A.
> AB From its inception as a disability category in the Education for All
> Handicapped Children Act, serving students under the special education
> category Emotional Disturbance (ED) has been a challenging task for
> school psychologists. In particular, the vague and ambiguous federal
> definition has created an environment in which inconsistent assessment
> practices and decision making are almost inevitable. In this study, we
> examined school psychologists (N = 214) assessment practices when
> determining initial eligibility for ED, as well as their perceptions
> regarding the language contained within the federal ED definition.
> Findings indicated that although school psychologists recognize the need
> for a multimethod, multisource assessment model when ED is a
> classification consideration, in many instances, their actual
> assessments are missing commonly recommended sources of data for making
> eligibility decisions, including classroom observations; parent,
> teacher, and student interviews; and behavior rating scales. The results
> from the study provide a useful overview of school psychologists
> assessment practices and are couched within the questions and confusion
> that have surrounded the federal ED definition since its codification
> into law.
> PY 2013
> VL 50
> IS 2
> BP 193
> EP 208
> ER
> PT J
> AU Eklund, KM
> Torppa, M
> Lyytinen, H
> AF Eklund, Kenneth Mikael
> Torppa, Minna
> Lyytinen, Heikki
> TI Predicting Reading Disability: Early Cognitive Risk and Protective
> Factors
> AB This longitudinal study examined early cognitive risk and protective
> factors for Grade 2 reading disability (RD). We first examined the
> reading outcome of 198 children in four developmental cognitive
> subgroups that were identified in our previous analysis: dysfluent
> trajectory, declining trajectory, unexpected trajectory and typical
> trajectory. We found that RD was unevenly distributed among the
> subgroups, although children with RD were found in all subgroups. A
> majority of the children with RD had familial risk for dyslexia. Second,
> we examined in what respect children with similar early cognitive
> development but different RD outcome differ from each other in cognitive
> skills, task-focused behaviour and print exposure. The comparison of the
> groups with high cognitive risk but different RD outcome showed
> significant differences in phonological skills, in the amount of shared
> reading and in task-focused behaviour. Children who ended up with RD
> despite low early cognitive risk had poorer cognitive skills, more task
> avoidance and they were reading less than children without RD and low
> cognitive risk. In summary, lack of task avoidance seemed to act as a
> protective factor, which underlines the importance of keeping children
> interested in school work and reading. Copyright (c) 2013 John Wiley &
> Sons, Ltd.
> PY 2013
> VL 19
> IS 1
> BP 1
> EP 10
> ER
> PT J
> AU Chung, KKH
> Ho, CSH
> Chan, DW
> Tsang, SM
> Lee, SH
> AF Chung, Kevin K. H.
> Ho, Connie S-H
> Chan, David W.
> Tsang, Suk-Man
> Lee, Suk-Han
> TI Contributions of Syntactic Awareness to Reading in Chinese-speaking
> Adolescent Readers with and without Dyslexia
> AB This study investigated the relative contribution of syntactic awareness
> to Chinese reading among Chinese-speaking adolescent readers with and
> without dyslexia. A total of 78 junior high school students in Hong
> Kong, 26 dyslexic adolescent readers, 26 average adolescent readers of
> the same age (chronological age control group) and 26 younger readers
> matched with the same reading level (reading-level group) participated
> and were administered measures of IQ, syntactic awareness, morphological
> awareness, vocabulary knowledge, working memory, word reading, and
> reading comprehension. Results showed that dyslexic readers scored
> significantly lower than chronological age but similarly to reading
> level control groups in most measures, especially in the areas of
> syntactic skills. Analyses of individual data also revealed that over
> half of the dyslexic readers exhibited certain aspects of deficits in
> syntactic skills. In regression analyses, syntactic skills were the
> strongest predictors of ability in word reading and reading
> comprehension measures. This study highlights the uniquely important
> correlates of syntactic skills in Chinese reading acquisition and
> impairment. Copyright (c) 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
> PY 2013
> VL 19
> IS 1
> BP 11
> EP 36
> ER
> PT J
> AU Falth, L
> Gustafson, S
> Tjus, T
> Heimann, M
> Svensson, I
> AF Falth, Linda
> Gustafson, Stefan
> Tjus, Tomas
> Heimann, Mikael
> Svensson, Idor
> TI Computer-assisted Interventions Targeting Reading Skills of Children
> with Reading Disabilities - A Longitudinal Study
> AB The purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of three
> computerized interventions on the reading skills of children with
> reading disabilities in Grade 2. This longitudinal intervention study
> included five test sessions over 1?year. Two test points occur before
> the intervention, and three afterwards. The last follow-up was conducted
> 1?year after the first measurement. One hundred thirty children in Grade
> 2 participated in the study. Three groups of children with reading
> difficulties received computerized training programmes: one aimed at
> improving word decoding skills and phonological abilities, the second
> focused on word and sentence levels and the third was a combination of
> these two training programmes. A fourth group received ordinary special
> instruction. In addition, there was one comparison group with
> age-matched typical readers. All groups improved their reading skills.
> The group that received combined training showed greater improvement
> than the one with ordinary special instruction and the group of typical
> readers at two follow-ups. The longitudinal results indicate additional
> positive results for the group that received the combined training, the
> majority of students from that group being no longer judged to be
> needing special education 1?year after the intervention. Copyright (c)
> 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
> PY 2013
> VL 19
> IS 1
> BP 37
> EP 53
> ER
> PT J
> AU Gellert, AS
> Elbro, C
> AF Gellert, Anna S.
> Elbro, Carsten
> TI Cloze Tests May be Quick, But Are They Dirty? Development and
> Preliminary Validation of a Cloze Test of Reading Comprehension
> AB A commonly held view is that cloze tests may well provide a quick
> measure of something reading related, but that they are not suitable for
> assessments of understanding of ideas beyond the sentence boundary. The
> present article presents challenges to this view. It is argued that word
> gaps can be carefully selected so that filling them in requires proper
> understanding of the ideas of the text. The reliability and validity of
> such a comprehension-focused cloze test was demonstrated in a study of
> 204 Danish adults attending reading courses or general education. The
> quick (10 min) cloze comprehension test correlated strongly (r = .84)
> with a standard (30 min) question-answering comprehension test. Only a
> small part of this correlation was accounted for by decoding ability or
> vocabulary. The cloze test was somewhat more sensitive to decoding
> ability than the question-answering comprehension test was, and it
> provided a better fit to the participants' self-reported reading
> difficulties.
> PY 2013
> VL 31
> IS 1
> BP 16
> EP 28
> ER
> PT J
> AU Lewandowski, L
> Gathje, RA
> Lovett, BJ
> Gordon, M
> AF Lewandowski, Lawrence
> Gathje, Rebecca A.
> Lovett, Benjamin J.
> Gordon, Michael
> TI Test-Taking Skills in College Students With and Without ADHD
> AB College students with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)
> often request and receive extended time to complete high-stakes exams
> and classroom tests. This study examined the performances and behaviors
> of college students on computerized simulations of high-stakes exams.
> Thirty-five college students with ADHD were compared to 185 typical
> peers on measures of reading decoding, speed, vocabulary, comprehension,
> test strategies, time management, and test anxiety. Results indicated no
> differences between students with and without ADHD on various reading
> (decoding, speed, vocabulary, and comprehension) and test-taking
> variables (time utilization, navigation style, or strategy use), yet
> significant differences were present regarding their perceptions of, and
> anxiety during, test taking. It appears that students with ADHD perform
> similarly to peers on timed reading tests, although they think they
> perform less well and worry more about their performance.
> PY 2013
> VL 31
> IS 1
> BP 41
> EP 52
> ER
> PT J
> AU Chin, JK
> Dowdy, E
> Quirk, MP
> AF Chin, Jenna K.
> Dowdy, Erin
> Quirk, Matthew P.
> TI Universal Screening in Middle School: Examining the Behavioral and
> Emotional Screening System
> AB Universal screening is a promising approach for identifying students at
> risk for behavioral and emotional problems. Due to the frequent
> adolescent onset of behavioral and emotional problems, middle school is
> an important time for early identification. This study explored the
> ability of the Behavioral and Emotional Screening System (BESS) to
> predict behavioral outcomes (i.e., behavioral grades, suspensions, and
> office disciplinary referrals) in a sample of 694 middle-school
> students. Both the teacher and student rated BESS forms were able to
> significantly predict behavioral outcomes. Findings suggest that the
> BESS can be an effective tool for identifying students at risk of
> experiencing behavior problems.
> PY 2013
> VL 31
> IS 1
> BP 53
> EP 60
> ER
> PT J
> AU Allee-Smith, PJ
> Winters, RR
> Drake, A
> Joslin, AK
> AF Allee-Smith, Paula J.
> Winters, Rebecca R.
> Drake, Amanda
> Joslin, Amanda K.
> TI Barkley deficits in executive functioning scale (BDEFS)
> PY 2013
> VL 31
> IS 1
> BP 80
> EP 83
> ER
> PT J
> AU Maulik, PK
> Mascarenhas, MN
> Mathers, CD
> Dua, T
> Saxena, S
> AF Maulik, Pallab K.
> Mascarenhas, Maya N.
> Mathers, Colin D.
> Dua, Tarun
> Saxena, Shekhar
> TI Prevalence of intellectual disability: A meta-analysis of
> population-based studies (vol 32, pg 419, 2011)
> PY 2013
> VL 34
> IS 2
> BP 729
> EP 729
> ER
> PT J
> AU Toll, SWM
> Van Luit, JEH
> AF Toll, Sylke W. M.
> Van Luit, Johannes E. H.
> TI Accelerating the early numeracy development of kindergartners with
> limited working memory skills through remedial education
> AB Background: Young children with limited working memory skills are a
> special interest group among all children that score below average on
> early numeracy tests. This study examines the effect of accelerating the
> early numeracy development of these children through remedial education,
> by comparing them with children with typically working memory skills and
> early numeracy abilities below average.
> Method: Selected from a sample of 933 children, children with early
> numeracy ability below average are assigned into four groups: two
> intervention groups with limited working memory skills (IL-group) or
> typical working memory skills (IT-group), and two control groups with
> limited working memory skills (CL-group) or typical working memory
> skills (CT-group). All four groups were followed for a period of 1.5
> years. Four measurements were carried out.
> Conclusion: The remedial program proved to be similarly effective for
> the IL-group and the IT-group. The findings are discussed in the light
> of several limitations and implications. Crown Copyright (C) 2012
> Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
> PY 2013
> VL 34
> IS 2
> BP 745
> EP 755
> ER
> PT J
> AU Flapper, BCT
> Schoemaker, MM
> AF Flapper, Boudien C. T.
> Schoemaker, Marina M.
> TI Developmental Coordination Disorder in children with specific language
> impairment: Co-morbidity and impact on quality of life
> AB Co-morbidity of Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) in children
> with specific language impairment (SLI) and the impact of DCD on
> quality-of-life (QOL) was investigated in 65 5-8 year old children with
> SLI (43 boys, age 6.8 +/- 0.8; 22 girls, age 6.6 +/- 0.8). The
> prevalence of DCD was assessed using DSM-IV-TR criteria (American
> Psychiatric Association (APA), 2000) operationally defined in the
> clinical practice guideline (CPG): movement ABC scores below 15th
> percentile, scores on DCDQ and/or MOQ-T below 15th percentile, absence
> of medical condition according to paediatric-neurological exam. Quality
> of life (QOL) was measured with the TNO-AZL-Child-Quality-Of-Life
> (TACQOL) Questionnaire filled out by parents for the SLI group with and
> without DCD, and compared to a reference group (N=572; age 6.9 +/- 0.9).
> The TACQOL covers 7 QOL domains: physical, motor, cognitive and social
> functioning, autonomy, positive and negative moods. Prevalence of DCD in
> children with SLI was 323%. In children with SLI, mean QOL scores were
> significantly lower in the autonomy, cognitive, social and positive
> moods domains compared to the reference group. Children with SLI and DCD
> differed from children with SLI without DCD by significantly lower mean
> overall-, motor-, autonomy-, and cognitive domain-QOL scores. Clinicians
> should be aware that about one third of children with SLI can also be
> diagnosed with DCD. Assessment of QOL is warranted in order to assess
> which domains are affected in children with SLI with or without DCD. (C)
> 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
> PY 2013
> VL 34
> IS 2
> BP 756
> EP 763
> ER
> PT J
> AU Gonzalez-Gadea, ML
> Baez, S
> Torralva, T
> Castellanos, FX
> Rattazzi, A
> Bein, V
> Rogg, K
> Manes, F
> Ibanez, A
> AF Luz Gonzalez-Gadea, Maria
> Baez, Sandra
> Torralva, Teresa
> Castellanos, Francisco Xavier
> Rattazzi, Alexia
> Bein, Victoria
> Rogg, Katharina
> Manes, Facundo
> Ibanez, Agustin
> TI Cognitive variability in adults with ADHD and AS: Disentangling the
> roles of executive functions and social cognition
> AB Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and Asperger's Syndrome
> (AS) share a heterogeneous cognitive profile. Studies assessing
> executive functions (EF) and social cognition in both groups have found
> preserved and impaired performances. These inconsistent findings would
> be partially explained by the cognitive variability reported in these
> disorders. First, the present study explored the inter-individual
> variability in EF and social cognition in both patient groups. Second,
> we compared differential characteristics and commonalities in the
> cognitive profiles of EF and social cognition between ADHD, AS and
> control adults. We assessed 22 patients with ADHD, 23 adults with AS and
> 21 matched typically developing subjects using different measures of EF
> (working memory, cognitive flexibility and multitasking) and social
> cognition (theory of mind and decision-making). Group comparisons and
> multiple case series analyses (MCSA) were conducted. The between-group
> comparisons showed an EF deficit in working memory in ADHD and a theory
> of mind (ToM) impairment in AS. The MCSA evidenced that, compared to
> controls, ADHD patients had a higher inter-individual variability in EF,
> while individuals with AS had a more heterogeneous profile in social
> cognition tasks compared to both groups. Finally, the AS and ADHD groups
> presented higher task-related variability compared to controls and
> shared a common heterogeneous profile in EF. This is the first study to
> compare variability in EF and social cognition profiles of ADHD and AS.
> We propose that heterogeneity in EF performance is a link between ADHD
> and AS which may explain the overlap of symptomatology between both
> diagnoses. In addition, patients with AS seem to show a unique
> heterogeneous profile in ToM which may explain the low probability of
> finding AS symptoms in patients with ADHD. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All
> rights reserved.
> PY 2013
> VL 34
> IS 2
> BP 817
> EP 830
> ER
> PT J
> AU Witt, A
> Vinter, A
> AF Witt, Arnaud
> Vinter, Annie
> TI Children with intellectual disabilities may be impaired in encoding and
> recollecting incidental information
> AB Children with intellectual disabilities (ID) and controls were exposed
> to an incidental learning phase, where half of the participants received
> highly implicit instructions at test while the other half received
> explicit instructions. When learning was assessed for simple chunks of
> information, children with ID performed better with implicit
> instructions than with explicit ones, while the typically developing
> (TD) children performed equally well in the two test conditions. When
> more complex chunks were considered, performance was degraded for all
> children in the implicit instructions condition, while the TD children
> took advantage of receiving explicit instructions at test. Additionally,
> only TD children succeeded in a subsequent recognition test. These
> results suggest that intentional retrieval of complex information, even
> when learned implicitly, is deficient in children with ID. This argues
> towards the well-foundedness of educational methods preventing the
> recourse to intentional and effortful retrieval processes and complex
> material. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
> PY 2013
> VL 34
> IS 2
> BP 864
> EP 871
> ER
> PT J
> AU Ronfeldt, M
> Loeb, S
> Wyckoff, J
> AF Ronfeldt, Matthew
> Loeb, Susanna
> Wyckoff, James
> TI How Teacher Turnover Harms Student Achievement
> AB Researchers and policymakers often assume that teacher turnover harms
> student achievement, though recent studies suggest this may not be the
> case. Using a unique identification strategy that employs
> school-by-grade level turnover and two classes of fixed-effects models,
> this study estimates the effects of teacher turnover on over 850,000 New
> York City fourth- and fifth-grade student observations over 8 years. The
> results indicate that students in grade levels with higher turnover
> score lower in both English language arts (ELA) and math and that these
> effects are particularly strong in schools with more low-performing and
> Black students. Moreover, the results suggest that there is a disruptive
> effect of turnover beyond changing the distribution in teacher quality.
> PY 2013
> VL 50
> IS 1
> BP 4
> EP 36
> ER
> PT J
> AU Cuesta-Vargas, AI
> Solera-Martinez, M
> Ortega, FB
> Martinez-Vizcaino, V
> AF Ignacio Cuesta-Vargas, Antonio
> Solera-Martinez, Montserrat
> Ortega, Francisco B.
> Martinez-Vizcaino, Vicente
> TI A confirmatory factor analysis of the fitness of adults with
> intellectual disabilities
> AB Purpose: To test whether a new model including nine variables can be
> used to test the fitness of adults with intellectual disabilities.
> Methods: This is a cross-sectional study involving 445 adults aged 18-42
> recruited during the Spanish Special Olympics. Confirmatory factor
> analysis (CFA) was used to test the goodness-of-fit of four latent
> variables: flexibility, strength, balance and cardiorespiratory
> endurance. The standardized scores of the nine variables in the model
> were used to develop a fitness index for adults with intellectual
> disabilities. Simultaneous multigroup analyses were also conducted in
> order to test the stability of the proposed model across gender and
> across active and sedentary participants. Results: The findings
> demonstrated that the proposed structure was well supported (comparative
> fit index = 0.97, standardized root mean square error of approximation =
> 0.05) and stable across subgroups. Conclusions: A model with four
> underlying factors has been shown to have acceptable validity to
> represent the fitness of adults with intellectual disabilities.
> PY 2013
> VL 35
> IS 5
> BP 375
> EP 381
> ER
> PT J
> AU Thordardottir, E
> Brandeker, M
> AF Thordardottir, Elin
> Brandeker, Myrto
> TI The effect of bilingual exposure versus language impairment on nonword
> repetition and sentence imitation scores
> AB Purpose: Nonword repetition (NWR) and sentence imitation (SI) are
> increasingly used as diagnostic tools for the identification of Primary
> Language Impairment (PLI). They may be particularly promising diagnostic
> tools for bilingual children if performance on them is not highly
> affected by bilingual exposure. Two studies were conducted which
> examined (1) the effect of amount of bilingual exposure on performance
> on French and English nonword repetition and sentence imitation in
> 5-year-old French-English bilingual children and (2) the diagnostic
> accuracy of the French versions of these measures and of receptive
> vocabulary in 5-year-old monolingual French-speakers and bilingual
> speakers with and without PLI, carefully matched on language exposure.
> Method: Study 1 included 84 5-year-olds acquiring French and English
> simultaneously, differing in their amount of exposure to the two
> languages but equated on age, nonverbal cognition and socio-economic
> status. Children were administered French and English tests of NWR and
> SI. In Study 2, monolingual and bilingual children with and without PLI
> (four groups, n = 14 per group) were assessed for NWR, SI, and receptive
> vocabulary in French to determine diagnostic accuracy.
> Results: Study 1: Both processing measures, but in particular NWR, were
> less affected by previous exposure than vocabulary measures. Bilingual
> children with varying levels of exposure were unaffected by the length
> of nonwords. Study 2: In contrast to receptive vocabulary, NWR and SI
> correctly distinguished children with PLI from children with typical
> development (TD) regardless of bilingualism. Sensitivity levels were
> acceptable, but specificity was lower.
> Conclusions: Bilingual children perform differently than children with
> PLI on NWR and SI. In contrast to children with PLI, bilingual children
> with a large range of previous exposure levels achieve high NWR scores
> and are unaffected by the length of the nonwords.
> Learning outcomes: Readers will recognize the effect of language input
> on the rate of language development, focusing specifically on how
> bilingual exposure affects the language learning of each language of
> bilingual children. (c) 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
> PY 2013
> VL 46
> IS 1
> BP 1
> EP 16
> ER
> PT J
> AU Classon, E
> Rudner, M
> Ronnberg, J
> AF Classon, Elisabet
> Rudner, Mary
> Ronnberg, Jerker
> TI Working memory compensates for hearing related phonological processing
> deficit
> AB Acquired hearing impairment is associated with gradually declining
> phonological representations. According to the Ease of Language
> Understanding (ELU) model, poorly defined representations lead to
> mismatch in phonologically challenging tasks. To resolve the mismatch,
> reliance on working memory capacity (WMC) increases. This study
> investigated whether WMC modulated performance in a phonological task in
> individuals with hearing impairment. A visual rhyme judgment task with
> congruous or incongruous orthography, followed by an incidental episodic
> recognition memory task, was used. In participants with hearing
> impairment, WMC modulated both rhyme judgment performance and
> recognition memory in the orthographically similar non-rhyming
> condition; those with high WMC performed exceptionally well in the
> judgment task, but later recognized few of the words. For participants
> with hearing impairment and low WMC the pattern was reversed; they
> performed poorly in the judgment task but later recognized a
> surprisingly large proportion of the words. Results indicate that good
> WMC can compensate for the negative impact of auditory deprivation on
> phonological processing abilities by allowing for efficient use of
> phonological processing skills. They also suggest that individuals with
> hearing impairment and low WMC may use a non-phonological approach to
> written words, which can have the beneficial side effect of improving
> memory encoding.
> Learning outcomes: Readers will be able to: (1) describe cognitive
> processes involved in rhyme judgment, (2) explain how acquired hearing
> impairment affects phonological processing and (3) discuss how reading
> strategies at encoding impact memory performance. (c) 2012 Elsevier Inc.
> All rights reserved.
> PY 2013
> VL 46
> IS 1
> BP 17
> EP 29
> ER
> PT J
> AU Caddell, LS
> Clare, L
> AF Caddell, Lisa S.
> Clare, Linda
> TI How does identity relate to cognition and functional abilities in
> early-stage dementia?
> AB Objectives: The aim of the study was to investigate the relationships
> between identity and cognitive and functional abilities in people with
> early-stage dementia. Method: Fifty people in the early stages of
> dementia completed measures of identity and cognitive and functional
> abilities, including autobiographical memory. Multiple regression
> analyzes were used to determine whether it was possible to predict any
> of the variance in identity from cognitive and functional abilities, or
> from autobiographical memory alone. Results: It was possible to predict
> approximately a quarter of the variance in two out of three aspects of
> identity from cognitive and functional abilities. The relationships
> between aspects of identity and autobiographical memory functioning were
> very weak. Discussion: The relationship between identity and cognitive
> and functional abilities is not straightforward. There is no evidence to
> suggest a linear relationship between an overall decline in cognitive
> functioning and a deterioration in identity.
> PY 2013
> VL 20
> IS 1
> BP 1
> EP 21
> ER
> PT J
> AU Stokholm, J
> Jorgensen, K
> Vogel, A
> AF Stokholm, Jette
> Jorgensen, Kasper
> Vogel, Asmus
> TI Performances on five verbal fluency tests in a healthy, elderly Danish
> sample
> AB Verbal fluency tests are widely used as measures of language and
> executive functions. This study presents data for five tests; semantic
> fluency (animals, supermarket items and alternating between cities and
> professions), lexical fluency (s-words), and action fluency (verbs)
> based on a sample of 100 cognitively intact elderly Danish subjects aged
> 6087 years. We found mean scores similar to what has been reported from
> other countries. There was little influence of background variables: in
> four out of fives tests less than 20% of the variance could be explained
> by age, education, and estimated intelligence. Age had a greater impact
> than education on category based performance, while the opposite was the
> case for lexical- and action-based fluency. Overall, intelligence was of
> little importance. There was a positive and significant correlation
> between all tests, but with only low to moderate strength of
> association, indicating that various fluency tasks draw on different
> cognitive abilities and are not interchangeable.
> PY 2013
> VL 20
> IS 1
> BP 22
> EP 33
> ER
> PT J
> AU Kelly, AJ
> Hertzog, C
> Hayes, MG
> Smith, AD
> AF Kelly, Andrew J.
> Hertzog, Christopher
> Hayes, Melissa G.
> Smith, Anderson D.
> TI The effects of age and focality on delay-execute prospective memory
> AB In everyday prospective remembering, individuals must often delay the
> execution of a retrieved intention until they are in the appropriate
> setting. These so-called delay-execute tasks are particularly
> troublesome for older adults, who consistently demonstrate impaired
> performance in this kind of laboratory task. To better understand this
> effect, we investigated delay-execute prospective memory performance in
> younger and older adults. Specifically, we examined the strategies
> individuals used to maintain intentions over a delay period by analyzing
> response times to the ongoing task, both before and after the cue event.
> The results suggest that younger and older individuals perform the task
> similarly by rehearsing or reformulating the intention. Despite
> performing the task in a similar manner, older adults showed greater
> impairments in delay-execute prospective remembering.
> PY 2013
> VL 20
> IS 1
> BP 101
> EP 124
> ER
> PT J
> AU Aschersleben, G
> Henning, A
> Daum, MM
> AF Aschersleben, Gisa
> Henning, Anne
> Daum, Moritz M.
> TI Discontinuities in early development of the understanding of physical
> causality
> AB Research on early physical reasoning has shown surprising
> discontinuities in developmental trajectories. Infants possess some
> skills that seem to disappear and then re-emerge in childhood. It has
> been suggested that prediction skills required in search tasks might
> cause these discontinuities (Keen, 2003). We tested 3.5- to 5-year-olds'
> understanding of collision events using a forced-choice paradigm with
> reduced prediction demands. Although the group as a whole performed at
> chance level, when the preschoolers were subdivided into three age
> groups, the oldest group performed above chance level. These findings
> suggest that it is unlikely to be prediction skills that affect young
> preschoolers' performance on physical reasoning tasks. The findings lend
> support to a task-demand hypothesis, which proposes that discontinuities
> in developmental trajectories can be explained by differences in the
> extent to which cognitive processes are required by the different tasks.
> (C) 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
> PY 2013
> VL 28
> IS 1
> BP 31
> EP 40
> ER
> PT J
> AU Jansen, P
> Schmelter, A
> Quaiser-Pohl, C
> Neuburger, S
> Heil, M
> AF Jansen, P.
> Schmelter, A.
> Quaiser-Pohl, C.
> Neuburger, S.
> Heil, M.
> TI Mental rotation performance in primary school age children: Are there
> gender differences in chronometric tests?
> AB In contrast to the well documented male advantage in psychometric mental
> rotation tests, gender differences in chronometric experimental designs
> are still under dispute. Therefore, a systematic investigation of gender
> differences in mental rotation performance in primary-school children is
> presented in this paper. A chronometric mental rotation task was used to
> test 449 second and fourth graders. The children were tested in three
> separate groups each with different stimulus material (animal drawings,
> letters, or cube figures). The results show that chronometric mental
> rotation tasks with cube figures - even rotated in picture plane only -
> were too difficult for children in both age groups. Further analyses
> with animal drawings and letters as stimuli revealed an overall gender
> difference in response time (RT) favoring males, an increasing RT with
> increasing angular disparity for all children, and faster RTs for fourth
> graders compared to second graders. This is the first study which has
> shown consistent gender differences in chronometric mental rotation with
> primary school aged children regarding reaction time and accuracy while
> considering appropriate stimuli. (C) 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights
> reserved.
> PY 2013
> VL 28
> IS 1
> BP 51
> EP 62
> ER
> PT J
> AU Badets, A
> Koch, I
> Toussaint, L
> AF Badets, Arnaud
> Koch, Iring
> Toussaint, Lucette
> TI Role of an Ideomotor Mechanism in Number Processing
> AB The ideomotor principle predicts that the anticipation of expected
> sensory consequences precedes and controls voluntary goal-directed
> movements. Recent studies have revealed that an ideomotor mechanism
> could also support the link between finger movements and number
> processing. However, it is unknown whether such a mechanism is devoted
> to number processing per se, that is, without associated movement. In
> three experiments, we tested whether the ideomotor mechanism was also
> involved in a verbal number production task without associated
> goal-directed and motor dimensions. We tested this hypothesis in a
> response-effect ( R-E) paradigm generally used to assess the ideomotor
> mechanisms. The results of Experiment 1 revealed a compatibility effect
> both in a stimulus-response task and an R-E task, suggesting the
> involvement of an ideomotor mechanism during number processing. More
> importantly, Experiment 2 revealed that performance in a motor imagery
> task correlated with the R-E compatibility effect, whereas performance
> in a visual imagery task did not, suggesting a distinct motor imagery
> contribution to R-E compatibility. Finally, Experiment 3 showed a strong
> R-E compatibility effect in a verbal word production task, but the
> correlations with motor or visual imagery tasks were not observed.
> Altogether, these findings suggest that ideomotor mechanisms play a
> specific and functional role in number processing.
> PY 2013
> VL 60
> IS 1
> BP 34
> EP 43
> ER
> PT J
> AU Soveri, A
> Tallus, J
> Laine, M
> Nyberg, L
> Backman, L
> Hugdahl, K
> Tuomainen, J
> Westerhausen, R
> Hamalainen, H
> AF Soveri, Anna
> Tallus, Jussi
> Laine, Matti
> Nyberg, Lars
> Backman, Lars
> Hugdahl, Kenneth
> Tuomainen, Jyrki
> Westerhausen, Rene
> Hamalainen, Heikki
> TI Modulation of Auditory Attention by Training Evidence From Dichotic
> Listening
> AB We studied the effects of training on auditory attention in healthy
> adults with a speech perception task involving dichotically presented
> syllables. Training involved bottom-up manipulation (facilitating
> responses from the harder-to-report left ear through a decrease of
> right-ear stimulus intensity), top-down manipulation (focusing attention
> on the left-ear stimuli through instruction), or their combination. The
> results showed significant training-related effects for top-down
> training. These effects were evident as higher overall accuracy rates in
> the forced-left dichotic listening (DL) condition that sets demands on
> attentional control, as well as a response shift toward left-sided
> reports in the standard DL task. Moreover, a transfer effect was
> observed in an untrained auditory-spatial attention task involving
> bilateral stimulation where top-down training led to a relatively
> stronger focus on left-sided stimuli. Our results indicate that training
> of attentional control can modulate the allocation of attention in the
> auditory space in adults. Malleability of auditory attention in healthy
> adults raises the issue of potential training gains in individuals with
> attentional deficits.
> PY 2013
> VL 60
> IS 1
> BP 44
> EP 52
> ER
> PT J
> AU Kruk, RS
> Bergman, K
> AF Kruk, Richard S.
> Bergman, Krista
> TI The reciprocal relations between morphological processes and reading
> AB Reciprocal relations between emerging morphological processes and
> reading skills were examined in a longitudinal study tracking children
> from Grade 1 through Grade 3. The aim was to examine predictive
> relationships between productive morphological processing involving
> composing and decomposing of inflections and derivations, reading
> ability for pseudoword and word decoding, and word and passage reading
> comprehension after controlling for initial abilities in reading,
> morphological processing, phonological awareness, and vocabulary.
> Reciprocal influences were indicated by predictive relations among
> initial morphological processes and later reading abilities co-occurring
> with relationships between initial reading abilities and later
> morphological processes. Using multilevel modeling, decomposing and
> composing were found to predict emerging word decoding and word and
> passage comprehension but not pseudoword decoding. Reading comprehension
> predicted growth in decomposing. Subsequent regression analyses of
> model-estimated early linear growth in predictors and later linear
> growth in outcomes showed that early growth in morphological processes
> predicted later growth in word decoding and passage comprehension.
> Although reciprocal relations between emerging morphological processes
> and reading skills were observed, the different patterns on each side of
> the reciprocal "coin" indicated that the mechanisms underlying
> predictive influences are likely different but related to quality of
> lexical representations. (C) 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
> PY 2013
> VL 114
> IS 1
> BP 10
> EP 34
> ER
> PT J
> AU Legare, CH
> Mills, CM
> Souza, AL
> Plummer, LE
> Yasskin, R
> AF Legare, Cristine H.
> Mills, Candice M.
> Souza, Andre L.
> Plummer, Leigh E.
> Yasskin, Rebecca
> TI The use of questions as problem-solving strategies during early
> childhood
> AB This study examined the strategic use of questions to solve problems
> across early childhood. Participants (N = 54, 4-, 5-, and 6-year-olds)
> engaged in two tasks: a novel problem-solving question task that
> required asking questions to an informant to determine which card in an
> array was located in a box and a cognitive flexibility task that
> required classifying stimuli by multiple dimensions. The results from
> the question task indicated that there were age differences in the types
> of questions asked, with 6-year-olds asking more constraint-seeking
> questions than 4- and 5-year-olds. The number of constraint-seeking
> questions asked was the only significant predictor of accuracy.
> Performance on the cognitive flexibility task correlated with both
> constraint-seeking strategy use and accuracy in the question task. In
> sum, our results provide evidence that the capacity to use questions to
> generate relevant information develops before the capacity to apply this
> information successfully and consistently to solve complex problems. We
> propose that the process of using questions as strategic tools is an
> ideal context for examining how children come to gain active and
> intentional control over problem solving. (C) 2012 Elsevier Inc. All
> rights reserved.
> PY 2013
> VL 114
> IS 1
> BP 63
> EP 76
> ER
> PT J
> AU Aretouli, E
> Tsilidis, KK
> Brandt, J
> AF Aretouli, Eleni
> Tsilidis, Konstantinos K.
> Brandt, Jason
> TI Four-Year Outcome of Mild Cognitive Impairment: The Contribution of
> Executive Dysfunction
> AB Objective: The contribution of executive cognition (EC) to the
> prediction of incident dementia remains unclear. This prospective study
> examined the predictive value of EC for subsequent cognitive decline in
> persons with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) over a 4-year period.
> Method: One hundred forty-one persons with MCI (amnestic and
> nonamnestic, single- and multiple-domain) received a baseline and two
> biennial follow-up assessments. Eighteen tests, assessing six different
> aspects of EC, were administered at baseline and at 2-year follow-up,
> together with screening cognitive and daily functioning measures.
> Longitudinal logistic regression models and generalized estimating
> equations (GEE) were used to examine whether EC could predict
> progression to a Clinical Dementia Rating Scale (CDR; C. P. Hughes, L.
> Berg, W. L. Danziger, L. A. Coben, & R. L. Martin, 1982, A new clinical
> scale for the staging of dementia, British Journal of Psychiatry, Vol.
> 140, pp. 566-572) score of 1 or more over the 4-year period, first at
> the univariate level and then in the context of demographic and clinical
> characteristics, daily functioning measures, and other neurocognitive
> factors. Results: Over the 4-year period, 56% of MCI patients remained
> stable, 35% progressed to CDR >= 1 and 8% reverted to normal (CDR = 0).
> Amnestic MCI subtypes were not associated with higher rates of
> progression to dementia, whereas subtypes with multiple impairments were
> so associated. Eight out of the 18 EC measures, including all three
> measures assessing inhibition of prepotent responses, predicted MCI
> outcome at the univariate level. However, the multivariate GEE model
> indicated that age, daily functioning, and overall cognitive functioning
> best predicted progression to dementia. Conclusion: Measures of EC
> (i.e., inhibitory control) are associated with MCI outcome. However, age
> and global measures of cognitive and functional impairment are better
> predictors of incident dementia.
> PY 2013
> VL 27
> IS 1
> BP 95
> EP 106
> ER
> PT J
> AU Nikolas, MA
> Nigg, JT
> AF Nikolas, Molly A.
> Nigg, Joel T.
> TI Neuropsychological Performance and Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity
> Disorder Subtypes and Symptom Dimensions
> AB Objective: Characterization of clinical heterogeneity in
> attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) remains controversial.
> Neuropsychological and cognitive studies provide one type of validation
> data, but too often have considered only a narrow range of functional
> domains. Method: The current study examined ADHD subtype and
> presentation differences across a broad range of neurocognitive domains
> in a large clinically characterized, community-recruited sample of 498
> youth (213 control, 107 ADHD-primarily inattentive [ADHD-PI], 137
> ADHD-combined [ADHD-C]), ages 6-17 years. Domains assessed included
> inhibition, working memory, arousal, processing speed, response
> variability, and temporal information processing. Results: Youth with
> ADHD-C performed worse than youth with ADHD-PI in all domains,
> consistent with a severity model. Performance among a subgroup with a
> "restrictive inattentive" presentation indicated potential deficits in
> processing speed relative to other ADHD-PI youth, but no other effects.
> When all measures were included in the same model, cognitive control
> (executive functions, working memory, and memory span), arousal, and
> response variability each provided uniquely incremental statistical
> prediction of specific symptom dimensions and of subtype/presentation,
> but temporal information processing and processing speed did not.
> Conclusion: Results suggest the potential to consolidate multiple
> neurocognitive theories of ADHD, and that such consolidation will apply
> across putative clinical subtypes or presentations.
> PY 2013
> VL 27
> IS 1
> BP 107
> EP 120
> ER
> PT J
> AU Przybylski, L
> Bedoin, N
> Krifi-Papoz, S
> Herbillon, V
> Roch, D
> Leculier, L
> Kotz, SA
> Tillmann, B
> AF Przybylski, Lauranne
> Bedoin, Nathalie
> Krifi-Papoz, Sonia
> Herbillon, Vania
> Roch, Didier
> Leculier, Laure
> Kotz, Sonja A.
> Tillmann, Barbara
> TI Rhythmic Auditory Stimulation Influences Syntactic Processing in
> Children With Developmental Language Disorders
> AB Objective: Children with developmental language disorders have been
> shown to be impaired not only in language processing (including syntax),
> but also in rhythm and meter perception. Our study tested the influence
> of external rhythmic auditory stimulation (i.e., musical rhythm) on
> syntax processing in children with specific language impairment (SLI;
> Experiment 1A) and dyslexia (Experiment 1B). Method: Children listened
> to either regular or irregular musical prime sequences followed by
> blocks of grammatically correct and incorrect sentences. They were
> required to perform grammaticality judgments for each auditorily
> presented sentence. Results: Performance of all children (SLI, dyslexia,
> and controls) in the grammaticality judgments was better after regular
> prime sequences than after irregular prime sequences, as shown by d'
> data. The benefit of the regular prime was stronger for SLI children
> (partial eta(2) = .34) than for dyslexic children (partial eta(2) =
> .14), who reached higher performance levels. Conclusion: Together with
> previous findings on deficits in temporal processing and sequencing, as
> well as with the recent proposition of a temporal sampling (oscillatory)
> framework for developmental language disorders (U. A. Goswami, 2011,
> Temporal sampling framework for developmental dyslexia, Trends in
> Cognitive Sciences, Vol. 15, pp. 3-10), our results point to potential
> avenues in using rhythmic structures (even in nonverbal materials) to
> boost linguistic structure processing.
> PY 2013
> VL 27
> IS 1
> BP 121
> EP 131
> ER
> PT J
> AU Capaldi, DM
> Pears, KC
> Kerr, DCR
> Owen, LD
> Kim, HK
> AF Capaldi, Deborah M.
> Pears, Katherine C.
> Kerr, David C. R.
> Owen, Lee D.
> Kim, Hyoun K.
> TI Growth in Externalizing and Internalizing Problems in Childhood: A
> Prospective Study of Psychopathology Across Three Generations
> AB Three generations of participants were assessed over approximately 27
> years, and intergenerational prediction models of growth in the third
> generation's (G3) externalizing and internalizing problems across ages
> 3-9 years were examined. The sample included 103 fathers and mothers
> (G2), at least 1 parent (G1) for all of the G2 fathers (99 mothers, 72
> fathers), and 185 G3 offspring (83 boys, 102 girls) of G2, with
> prospective data available on the G2 fathers beginning at age 9 years.
> Behavior of the G2 mother, along with father contact and mother age at
> birth were included in the models. Intergenerational associations in
> psychopathology were modest, and much of the transmission occurred via
> contextual risk within the family of procreation.
> PY 2012
> VL 83
> IS 6
> BP 1945
> EP 1959
> ER
> PT J
> AU Negen, J
> Sarnecka, BW
> AF Negen, James
> Sarnecka, Barbara W.
> TI Number-Concept Acquisition and General Vocabulary Development
> AB How is number-concept acquisition related to overall language
> development? Experiments 1 and 2 measured number-word knowledge and
> general vocabulary in a total of 59 children, ages 30-60 months. A
> strong correlation was found between number-word knowledge and
> vocabulary, independent of the child's age, contrary to previous results
> (D. Ansari et al., 2003). This result calls into question arguments that
> (a) the number-concept creation process is scaffolded mainly by
> visuo-spatial development and (b) that language only becomes integrated
> after the concepts are created (D. Ansari et al., 2003). Instead, this
> may suggest that having a larger nominal vocabulary helps children learn
> number words. Experiment 3 shows that the differences with previous
> results are likely due to changes in how the data were analyzed.
> PY 2012
> VL 83
> IS 6
> BP 2019
> EP 2027
> ER
> PT J
> AU Steele, A
> Karmiloff-Smith, A
> Cornish, K
> Scerif, G
> AF Steele, Ann
> Karmiloff-Smith, Annette
> Cornish, Kim
> Scerif, Gaia
> TI The Multiple Subfunctions of Attention: Differential Developmental
> Gateways to Literacy and Numeracy
> AB Attention is construed as multicomponential, but the roles of its
> distinct subfunctions in shaping the broader developing cognitive
> landscape are poorly understood. The current study assessed 3- to
> 6-year-olds (N = 83) to: (a) trace developmental trajectories of
> attentional processes and their structure in early childhood and (b)
> measure the impact of distinct attention subfunctions on concurrent and
> longitudinal abilities related to literacy and numeracy. Distinct
> trajectories across attention measures revealed the emergence of 2
> attentional factors, encompassing "executive" and "sustained-selective"
> processes. Executive attention predicted concurrent abilities across
> domains at Time 1, whereas sustained-selective attention predicted basic
> numeracy 1 year later. These concurrent and longitudinal constraints
> cast a broader light on the unfolding relations between domain-general
> and domain-specific processes over early childhood.
> PY 2012
> VL 83
> IS 6
> BP 2028
> EP 2041
> ER
> PT J
> AU Miller, DP
> Waldfogel, J
> Han, WJ
> AF Miller, Daniel P.
> Waldfogel, Jane
> Han, Wen-Jui
> TI Family Meals and Child Academic and Behavioral Outcomes
> AB This study investigates the link between the frequency of family
> breakfasts and dinners and child academic and behavioral outcomes in a
> panel sample of 21,400 children aged 5-15. It complements previous work
> by examining younger and older children separately and by using
> information on a large number of controls and rigorous analytic methods
> to discern whether there is causal relation between family meal
> frequency (FMF) and child outcomes. In child fixed-effects models, which
> controlled for unchanging aspects of children and their families, there
> were no significant (p < .05) relations between FMF and either academic
> or behavioral outcomes, a novel finding. These results were robust to
> various specifications of the FMF variables and did not differ by child
> age.
> PY 2012
> VL 83
> IS 6
> BP 2104
> EP 2120
> ER
> PT J
> AU Strange, D
> Takarangi, MKT
> AF Strange, Deryn
> Takarangi, Melanie K. T.
> TI False memories for missing aspects of traumatic events
> AB Can people come to remember an event as being more traumatic than they
> initially experienced? Participants watched a highly structured and
> emotionally disturbing film depicting a car accident in which five
> people, including a baby, are killed. We broke the film down into a
> series of short clips; some of which we removed. Later, we tested
> participants' memory for what they had and had not seen. While
> participants were highly accurate identifying what they had and
> definitely had not seen, they also falsely claimed to have seen 26% of
> the missing clips, clips that fitted with the film but were removed
> before screening. Moreover, participants were particularly likely to
> recall the missing clips that were considered to be the most critical
> and traumatic Importantly, they did so with high confidence. We discuss
> both intentional and unintentional recall mechanisms that may promote
> the observed memory distortion. (C) 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights
> reserved.
> PY 2012
> VL 141
> IS 3
> BP 322
> EP 326
> ER
> PT J
> AU Boyle, JR
> Rivera, TZ
> AF Boyle, Joseph R.
> Rivera, Tina Z.
> TI Note-Taking Techniques for Students With Disabilities: A Systematic
> Review of the Research
> AB This article provides a synthesis of note-taking research among students
> with learning disabilities or other high-incidence disabilities. A
> search of the professional literature between 1980 and 2010 yielded nine
> intervention studies, which were evaluated either in terms of effect
> size or percentage of nonoverlapping data. The studies examined three
> different note-taking techniques used by students during lectures and
> included 125 students of varying disabilities. Findings revealed that
> students who used note-taking techniques were effective at increasing
> scores on measures of achievement and the quality and quantity of notes
> recorded. Limitations and implications of note-taking techniques for
> content-area classrooms are discussed.
> PY 2012
> VL 35
> IS 3
> BP 131
> EP 143
> ER
> PT J
> AU Jerman, O
> Reynolds, C
> Swanson, HL
> AF Jerman, Olga
> Reynolds, Chandra
> Swanson, H. Lee
> TI Does Growth in Working Memory Span or Executive Processes Predict Growth
> in Reading and Math in Children With Reading Disabilities?
> AB The present study investigated whether (a) growth patterns related to
> cognitive processing (working memory, updating, inhibition) differed in
> subgroups of children with reading disabilities (RD) and (b) growth in
> working memory (executive processing) predicted growth in other
> cognitive areas, such as reading and math. Seventy-three children (ages
> 7-17) categorized as poor decoders, poor comprehenders, or average
> readers were administered a battery of achievement and cognitive
> measures for three consecutive years. Hierarchical linear modeling
> showed that growth in executive processing (inhibition) in children with
> RD constrained growth in reading and math. The results support the
> notion that development in the executive system underlies performance on
> reading and math measures.
> PY 2012
> VL 35
> IS 3
> BP 144
> EP 157
> ER
> PT J
> AU Lai, SA
> Berkeley, S
> AF Lai, Stephanie A.
> Berkeley, Sheri
> TI High-Stakes Test Accommodations: Research and Practice
> AB Because high stakes are now attached to standardized assessments of
> student progress, policy makers, administrators, practitioners, and
> parents must understand how to most effectively and accurately measure
> the performance of all students, including students with learning
> disabilities (LD). To accomplish this, test accommodations are provided
> on an individual basis that are intended to mediate the impact of a
> student's disability. The purpose of this article was to examine policy
> and guidelines related to accommodations among states and to review
> research related to the effectiveness of accommodations for students
> with LD. Findings showed that there continues to be large variability
> among states regarding allowed testing accommodations and that although
> there has been an increase in research conducted related to the
> effectiveness of accommodations for students with LD in the past decade,
> empirical evidence remains sparse and findings are often inconclusive.
> Implications are discussed.
> PY 2012
> VL 35
> IS 3
> BP 158
> EP 169
> ER
> PT J
> AU Oyler, JD
> Obrzut, JE
> Asbjornsen, AE
> AF Oyler, James D.
> Obrzut, John E.
> Asbjornsen, Arve E.
> TI Verbal Learning and Memory Functions in Adolescents With Reading
> Disabilities
> AB The authors of this current study compared the memory performance of
> adolescent students with specific reading disabilities (RD) with that of
> typical adolescent readers on a newly developed verbal learning test,
> the Bergen-Tucson Verbal Learning Test (BTVLT). This multiple trial test
> was designed to measure memory acquisition, retention, retrieval, and
> forgetting rates, as well as the ability to organize and retrieve the
> information from memory according to the phonological (surface) and
> semantic (lexical) features of words. A total of 20 participants with RD
> and 20 control participants (mean age = 15.2 years) were matched for
> age, gender, and ethnicity. Results indicated that the RD group learned
> significantly fewer list items and did so at a slower rate than the
> control group. Although the participants with RD were equally able to
> retain information once learned, they did demonstrate inefficient
> elaborative rehearsal strategies. They also recalled fewer words in both
> the semantic and phonetic cued-recall conditions, but the effect size
> was significantly greater in the latter. Taken together, the data
> suggest that students with RD have less efficient rehearsal and encoding
> mechanisms but typical retention. Retrieval also appears typical except
> under conditions that require information to be recalled based on
> phonetic codes.
> PY 2012
> VL 35
> IS 3
> BP 184
> EP 195
> ER
> EF

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