Thursday, December 12, 2013

Web of Knowledge Alert - INTELLIGENCE

Web of Knowledge Table of Contents Alert

Journal Name: INTELLIGENCE (ISSN: 0160-2896)
Issue: Vol. 41 No. 5, 2013
IDS#: 256DI
Alert Expires: 10 JAN 2014
Number of Articles in Issue: 48 (48 included in this e-mail)
Organization ID: c4f3d919329a46768459d3e35b8102e6
Note: Instructions on how to purchase the full text of an article and Thomson Reuters Science Contact information are at the end of the e-mail.

*Pages: 277-288 (Article)
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Intelligence is associated with criminal justice processing: Arrest through incarceration

Beaver, KM; Schwartz, JA; Nedelec, JL; Connolly, EJ; Boutwell, BB;
Barnes, JC

*INTELLIGENCE*, 41 (5):277-288; SEP-OCT 2013

Findings flowing from empirical research consistently indicate that IQ
is associated with criminal involvement, with persons of relatively
lower IQ being more likely to engage in various types of crime when
compared with persons of relatively higher. IQ As with all research,
however, there are a number of limitations with the existing literature
that may bias the IQ-crime connection in unknown ways. Specifically,
previous research has generally analyzed sub-samples drawn from
non-nationally representative samples, has relied on a narrow range of
criminal justice measures, has not fully examined whether the IQ-crime
link is observed across demographic subgroups, and has not always ruled
out the effects of potential confounds. The current study is designed to
overcome the most serious of these limitations and offer new evidence of
the link between IQ and criminal involvement. Analysis of data drawn
from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health)
provides strong evidence indicating that IQ and crime are linked even
after addressing various shortcomings of previous research. Limitations
of the study are discussed and directions for future research are
offered. (C) 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


*Pages: 289-305 (Article)
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Students' complex problem-solving abilities: Their structure and relations to reasoning ability and educational success

Sonnleitner, P; Keller, U; Martin, R; Brunner, M

*INTELLIGENCE*, 41 (5):289-305; SEP-OCT 2013

Complex Problem Solving (CPS) is considered to be a promising candidate
for capturing higher order thinking skills that are emphasized in new
educational curricula but are not adequately measured by traditional
intelligence tests. However, little is known about its psychometric
structure and its exact relation to intelligence and educational
success-especially in student populations. This study is among the first
to use a large and representative sample of secondary school students (N
= 563) to examine different measurement models of CPS-that conceptualize
the construct as either faceted or hierarchical-and their implications
for the construct's validity. Results showed that no matter which way it
was conceptualized, CPS was substantially related to reasoning and to
different indicators of educational success. Controlling for reasoning
within a joint hierarchical measurement model, however, revealed that
the impressive external validity was largely attributable to the
variance that CPS shares with reasoning, suggesting that CPS has only
negligible incremental validity over and above traditional intelligence
scales. On the basis of these results, the value of assessing CPS within
the educational context is discussed. (C) 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights


*Pages: 306-320 (Article)
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The cognitive underpinnings of creative thought: A latent variable analysis exploring the roles of intelligence and working memory in three creative thinking processes

Lee, CS; Therriault, DJ

*INTELLIGENCE*, 41 (5):306-320; SEP-OCT 2013

The field of creativity has largely focused on individual differences in
divergent thinking abilities. Recently, contemporary creativity
researchers have shown that intelligence and executive functions play an
important role in divergent thought, opening new lines of research to
examine how higher-order cognitive mechanisms may uniquely contribute to
creative thinking. The present study extends previous research on the
intelligence and divergent thinking link by systematically examining the
relationships among intelligence, working memory, and three fundamental
creative processes: associative fluency, divergent thinking, and
convergent thinking. Two hundred and sixty five participants were
recruited to complete a battery of tasks that assessed a range of
elementary to higher-order cognitive processes related to intelligence
and creativity. Results provide evidence for an associative basis in two
distinct creative processes: divergent thinking and convergent thinking.
Findings also supported recent work suggesting that intelligence
significantly influences creative thinking. Finally, working memory
played a significant role in creative thinking processes. Recasting
creativity as a construct consisting of distinct higher-order cognitive
processes has important implications for future approaches to studying
creativity within an individual differences framework. Published by
Elsevier Inc.


*Pages: 321-327 (Article)
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The cultural mediation hypothesis: A critical examination

Dutton, E

*INTELLIGENCE*, 41 (5):321-327; SEP-OCT 2013

A fascinating hypothesis has been proposed by Woodley (2010,
Intelligence, 38: 471-480) to explain why intelligence, in contemporary
Western countries, appears to be positively associated with left wing
political attitudes. According to the hypothesis, the current Western
'norm' is relatively left-wing values, the intelligent are better at
norm-mapping and better at perceiving the benefits of conforming to the
dominant set of values and this explains why they are more likely, in
this context, to be relatively left wing. This article will critically
examine this hypothesis. It will argue that the evidence for it is
questionable and open to different interpretations, there is evidence
that contradicts it, and it leaves key questions unanswered. The article
will propose that a simpler explanation for the association is that
intelligence is positively associated with openness-intellect, low time
preference and agreeableness. (C) 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights


*Pages: 328-340 (Article)
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Verbal fluency and creativity: General and specific contributions of broad retrieval ability (Gr) factors to divergent thinking

Silvia, PJ; Beaty, RE; Nusbaum, EC

*INTELLIGENCE*, 41 (5):328-340; SEP-OCT 2013

The Cattell-Horn-Carroll (CHC) model of intelligence views creativity as
a first-level factor within the second-level factor of broad retrieval
ability (Gr), alongside other first-level abilities such as ideational
fluency and word fluency. Traditional methods of measuring creativity,
however, confound idea quality with idea quantity, which might
exaggerate the relationship between creativity scores and verbal fluency
factors. Participants (n = 131 adults) completed two divergent thinking
tasks (unusual uses for a rope and a box), which were scored using newer
methods that effectively separate creativity (scored via subjective
ratings) and fluency (scored as number of responses). They then
completed 16 verbal fluency tasks that assessed six lower-order Gr
factors: word fluency, associational fluency, associative flexibility,
ideational fluency, letter fluency, and dissociative ability. Viewed
singly, many of the lower-order factors significantly predicted creative
quality and fluency. General Gr had substantial effects on creative
quality (standardized beta = .443) and fluency (beta = .339) in a
higher-order model as well as in a bifactor model (quality beta = .380,
fluency beta = .327). Moreover, general Gr was the only significant
predictor in the bifactor model, suggesting that it, not the specific
factors, was most important. All effects were essentially the same after
controlling for typing speed and vocabulary knowledge. The findings thus
support the CHC view of creativity/originality as a lower-order
component of Gr, illuminate the relationships between creativity and
first-level Gr factors, extend the study of creativity and intelligence
beyond fluid intelligence, and further indicate that creativity is more
closely tied to cognitive abilities than creativity research has yet
recognized. (C) 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


*Pages: 341-357 (Article)
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Improved matrix reasoning is limited to training on tasks with a visuospatial component

Stephenson, CL; Halpern, DF

*INTELLIGENCE*, 41 (5):341-357; SEP-OCT 2013

Recent studies (e.g., Jaeggi et al., 2008, 2010) have provided evidence
that scores on tests of fluid intelligence can be improved by having
participants complete a four week training program using the dual n-back
task. The dual n-back task is a working memory task that presents
auditory and visual stimuli simultaneously. The primary goal of our
study was to determine whether a visuospatial component is required in
the training program for participants to experience gains in tests of
fluid intelligence. We had participants complete variations of the dual
n-back task or a short-term memory task as training. Participants were
assessed with four tests of fluid intelligence and four cognitive tests.
We were successful in corroborating Jaeggi et al.'s results, however,
improvements in scores were observed on only two out of four tests of
fluid intelligence for participants who completed the dual n-back task,
the visual n-back task, or a short-term memory task training program.
Our results raise the issue of whether the tests measure the construct
of fluid intelligence exclusively, or whether they may be sensitive to
other factors. The findings are discussed in terms of implications for
conceptualizing and assessing fluid intelligence. Published by Elsevier


*Pages: 358-365 (Article)
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Adolescent intelligence and socio-economic wealth independently predict adult marital and reproductive behavior

Reeve, CL; Lyerly, JE; Peach, H

*INTELLIGENCE*, 41 (5):358-365; SEP-OCT 2013

Counter-intuitively, sociobiological and evolutionary theories predict a
negative relationship between g and reproduction when applied to modern
humans. Although existing research has documented this dysgenic trend,
the association between g and socio-economic factors presents a confound
that has not systematically been addressed in prior research. Based on a
sample of 325,252 individuals drawn from the nationally representative
Project Talent database, we examined the unique effects of g and
socio-economic wealth, assessed in adolescence, on marital and
reproductive behavior over the next 11 years. Results show that both g
and socio-economic wealth have unique, independent negative effects on
marital and reproductive behavior such that individuals of higher
intelligence and higher wealth delay marriage and reproductive longer
than those of lower intelligence and wealth. The effect of g was
slightly stronger than that of wealth, though for both variables much of
their influence was mediated by educational attainment. Consistent with
sociobiological theory, these dysgenic effects were stronger among
females than males. (C) 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


*Pages: 366-377 (Article)
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Cognitive ability, parenting and instruction in Vietnam and Germany

Rindermann, H; Hoang, QSN; Baumeister, AEE

*INTELLIGENCE*, 41 (5):366-377; SEP-OCT 2013

In a sample of N = 105 fifth graders from Vietnam and Germany, cognitive
abilities (CogAT-Nonverbal, i.e. fluid figural, CogAT-Quantitative, i.e.
crystallized mathematics), family attributes, parenting styles, leisure
time activities, and attributes of school and instruction were compared.
In spite of large cultural and economic differences, the general
cognitive ability levels were similar (M-Vnm = 99.43 vs. M-Deu = 99.13
IQ points in current UK norms). This result is in contradiction to usual
outcomes in developing countries. However, regarding family, parenting,
school and instruction, differences were observed: German families had
more books. German parents were less frequently married and German
families less frequently consisted of both mother and father. Vietnamese
parents had more children. Vietnamese parents showed higher levels of
authoritarian and neglecting parenting. German children read more books.
The Vietnamese did not attend kindergarten, had larger classes, more
homework, and more private tuition. In a path analysis, parental
educational level, number of books, burgher family, low birth order
rank, amount of teaching, parental income, Confucian educational
orientation and Vietnamese background all revealed a positive impact on
children's intelligence. (C) 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


*Pages: 378-395 (Article)
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Gender differences in the mean level, variability, and profile shape of student achievement: Results from 41 countries

Brunner, M; Gogol, KM; Sonnleitner, P; Keller, U; Krauss, S; Preckel, F

*INTELLIGENCE*, 41 (5):378-395; SEP-OCT 2013

A domain-specific hierarchical conceptualization of mathematics
achievement can be represented by the standard psychometric model in
which a single latent dimension accounts for observed individual
differences in scores on the respective subdomains (e.g., quantity).
Alternatively, a fully hierarchical conceptualization of achievement can
be represented by a nested-factor model in which individual differences
in subdomain-specific scores are explained by both general student
achievement and specific mathematics achievement. The authors applied
both models to study the gender similarity hypothesis, the greater male
variability hypothesis, and the masking hypothesis, which predicts that
gender differences in general student achievement mask gender
differences in both the means and the variability of specific
mathematics achievement. Representative data were obtained from 275,369
15-year-old students in 41 countries. The results supported these
hypotheses in most countries, demonstrating that a fully hierarchical
conceptualization of achievement in terms of the nested-factor model
significantly contributes to a better understanding of gender
differences in the mean level, variability, and shape of students'
achievement profiles. (C) 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


*Pages: 396-406 (Article)
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The structure of working memory and how it relates to intelligence in children

Giofre, D; Mammarella, IC; Cornoldi, C

*INTELLIGENCE*, 41 (5):396-406; SEP-OCT 2013

This study explored the structure of working memory, and its
relationship with intelligence in 176 typically-developing children in
the 4th and 5th grades at school. Different measures of working memory
(WM), and intelligence (g) were administered. Confirmatory factor
analyses showed that WM involves an attentional control system and
storage aspects that rely on domain-specific verbal (STM-V) and
visuospatial (STM-VS) resources. The structural equation models showed
that WM predicts a large portion (66%) of the variance in g, confirming
that the two constructs are separable but closely related in young
children. Findings also showed that only WM and STM-VS are significantly
related to g, while the contribution of STM-V is moderate. Theoretical
implications for the relationship between WM and g are discussed. (C)
2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


*Pages: 407-422 (Article)
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The limitations of model fit in comparing the bi-factor versus higher-order models of human cognitive ability structure

Murray, AL; Johnson, W

*INTELLIGENCE*, 41 (5):407-422; SEP-OCT 2013

We addressed the question of whether the bi-factor or higher-order model
is the more appropriate model of human cognitive ability structure. In
previously published nested confirmatory factor analyses, the bi-factor
model tended to be better fitting than the higher-order model; however,
these studies did not consider a possible inherent statistical bias
favouring the fit of the bi-factor model. In our own analyses and
consistent with previous empirical results, the bi-factor model was also
better fitting than the higher-order model. However, simulation results
suggested that the comparison of bi-factor and higher-order models is
substantially biased in favour of the bi-factor model when, as is
commonly the case in CFA analyses, there is unmodelled complexity. These
results suggest that decisions as to which model to adopt either as a
substantive description of human cognitive ability structure or as a
measurement model in empirical analyses should not rely on which is
better fitting. (C) 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


*Pages: 423-427 (Article)
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The general factor of personality and general intelligence: Evidence for substantial association

Dunkel, CS

*INTELLIGENCE*, 41 (5):423-427; SEP-OCT 2013

Despite theoretical assertions derived from life history theory,
research on the relationship between the general factor of personality
and general intelligence has shown that there is little overlap between
the two higher-order constructs. It is argued that the association
between these general factors is largely attenuated by measurement error
in assessing the general factor of personality. A substantial
association between the general factors at multiple points in time was
found when the general factor of personality was derived from rater
Q-sorts. The results have important implications for the study of
individual differences. (C) 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


*Pages: 428-438 (Article)
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The genetic and environmental architecture to the stability of IQ: Results from two independent samples of kinship pairs

Beaver, KM; Schwartz, JA; Connolly, EJ; Nedelec, JL; Al-Ghamdi, MS;
Kobeisy, AN

*INTELLIGENCE*, 41 (5):428-438; SEP-OCT 2013

Existing research has revealed that IQ remains relatively stable over
the life course, though questions remain about how stable IQ is and
whether the stability of IQ varies across different developmental
periods of the life course. Despite this stability, there are also
questions surrounding the factors that might explain the stability of IQ
Against this backdrop, we conduct bivariate genetic models to estimate
genetic, shared environmental, and nonshared environmental influences on
the stability of IQ. To do so, we analyze kinship pairs drawn from two
separate longitudinal samples: The National Collaborative Perinatal
Project (CPP) and the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health
(Add Health). Across both samples, IQ was found to be relatively stable.
Moreover, the genetic analyses revealed that between 66% and 83% of the
stability in IQ was due to genetic factors and between 43% and 69% of
the change in IQ was due to genetic factors. The remainder of the
stability and change in IQ was the result of a combination of shared and
nonshared environmental influences. Importantly, some substantive race
differences emerged in respect to genetic and environmental influences
on the stability of IQ. We conclude with a discussion of the limitations
of the study and avenues for future research. (C) 2013 Elsevier Inc. All
rights reserved.


*Pages: 439-451 (Article)
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Spearman's law of diminishing returns: A statistical artifact?

Murray, AL; Dixon, H; Johnson, W

*INTELLIGENCE*, 41 (5):439-451; SEP-OCT 2013

Spearman's Law of Diminishing Returns (SLODR) is the idea that the
structure of human cognitive ability is more differentiated and g a
weaker determinant of cognitive performance at higher levels of ability.
In this study, we distinguish between 'traditional' methods of testing
SLODR and 'contemporary' methods of testing SLODR. It is the former set
of methods from which the vast majority of the evidence base for SLODR
derives. We demonstrated that it is easy to mimic SLODR and reverse
SLODR effects in these traditional methods of assessing SLODR by using
data with skewed observed variable distributions. The skewness
magnitudes did not need to be large to produce these effects and they
fell well within the range of values that are usually considered
unproblematic for parametric statistic analysis. In simulated datasets,
positive subtest skewness resulted in SLODR and negative subtest
skewness resulted in reverse SLODR. In contemporary methods of testing
SLODR, non-linear g-loadings or a skewed g are assumed to reflect
evidence for SLODR. When we applied contemporary methods of testing
SLODR to these data, there was evidence of heteroscedastic residuals but
no evidence of non-linear g-loadings or skewed g distributions. We
broadly replicated the effects of subtest skew from these simulated
datasets in real data from the Minnesota Study of Twins Reared Apart.
Results imply that traditional methods of assessing SLODR cannot
distinguish between effects due to subtest characteristics that have
nothing to do with differences in ability structure at different levels
of g and true SLODR effects. This calls into question the empirical
support for SLODR. (C) 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


*Pages: 452-455 (Article)
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Recent data for majority and racial minority differences in intelligence of 5 year olds in the United Kingdom

Lynn, R; Cheng, H

*INTELLIGENCE*, 41 (5):452-455; SEP-OCT 2013

Data are presented from the UK Millennium Cohort Study for a sample of
14,860 5 year old British children giving the IQs of whites and racial
minorities. Africans, Indians, Pakistanis and Bangladeshis obtained
lower IQs than whites, while the IQ of the Chinese was higher. These
group differences in IQ were consistent with the differences in
educational attainments and earnings. (C) 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights


*Pages: 456-466 (Article)
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MOST intelligent people are accurate and SOME fast people are intelligent. Intelligence, working memory, and semantic processing of quantifiers from a computational perspective

Zajenkowski, M; Szymanik, J

*INTELLIGENCE*, 41 (5):456-466; SEP-OCT 2013

The paper explores the relationship between intelligence and the
semantic processing of natural language quantifiers. The first study
revealed that intelligence is positively associated with the subjects'
performance when solving a picture verification task with one of the
four types of sentences: Aristotelian (e.g. 'All cars are red'), parity
(e.g. 'An even number of cars are red'), numerical (e.g. 'More than five
cars are red'), and proportional ('More than half of the cars are red').
The strongest relationship was observed between the cognitive ability
and the accuracy of proportional sentences, in accordance with the
computational theory which predicts the highest engagement of working
memory (WM) within the group of proportional quantifiers. Moreover,
individuals with higher intelligence reacted faster, but this was
observed only in case of quantifiers with low complexity. Exploring
further, in the second study we found that WM and intelligence were both
significant predictors of subjects' score on proportional sentences. In
the third study, we examined the relationships between quantifiers,
intelligence, short-term memory (STM), and executive control function.
STM was correlated with all types of quantifiers that need counting and
keeping track of elements (parity, numerical, and proportional). Only
proportional quantifiers were associated with cognitive control. The
obtained results are discussed within the computational paradigm of
language processing. (C) 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


*Pages: 467-478 (Article)
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Task switching training effects are mediated by working-memory management

Pereg, M; Shahar, N; Meiran, N

*INTELLIGENCE*, 41 (5):467-478; SEP-OCT 2013

Task switching is an important executive function, and finding ways to
improve it has become a major goal of contemporary scientists. Karbach
and Kray (2009) found that training in the Alternating-Runs
Task-Switching (AR-TS) paradigm (in which the task changed every second
trial) reduced the costs of switching in untrained tasks, as well as led
to far transfer to interference control ability and fluid intelligence.
However, AR-TS is known to involve working memory updating (WMU).
Therefore, we hypothesized that AR-TS training involves WMU and not
task-switching proper. Participants were trained using Karbach and
Kray's protocol. Results indicate a highly specific transfer pattern in
which participants showed near transfer to switching cost in the AR-TS
paradigm, but did not significantly improve in another version of the
task switching paradigm in which the tasks were randomly ordered or a
version in which the task changed every 3rd trial. The results suggest
that what has been trained is not a broad task-switching ability but
rather a specific skill related to the unique WMU requirements of the
training paradigm. (C) 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


*Pages: 479-481 (Article)
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An increase of intelligence in China 1986-2012

Liu, JH; Lynn, R

*INTELLIGENCE*, 41 (5):479-481; SEP-OCT 2013

The Flynn effect has been widely researched in Western and European
nations, while it has been comparatively understudied in Asian
countries. This study examines possible Flynn effects in China from 1985
to 86 and to 2011-12. Results are reported for an IQ increase among 12
year olds on the Full Scale IQ WISC-R (Wechsler Intelligence Scale for
Children-Revised) of 6.19 IQ points, a gain on the Performance IQ of
6.55 IQ points, and a gain on the Verbal IQ of 1.91 IQ points. (C) 2013
The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


*Pages: 482-489 (Article)
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Religious belief and intelligence: Worldwide evidence

Cribari-Neto, F; Souza, TC

*INTELLIGENCE*, 41 (5):482-489; SEP-OCT 2013

Is there a positive impact of intelligence on religious disbelief after
we account for the fact that both average intelligence and religious
disbelief tend to be higher in more developed countries? We carry out
four beta regression analyses and conclude that the answer is yes. We
also compute impact curves that show how the effect of intelligence on
atheism changes with average intelligence quotients. The impact is
stronger at lower intelligence levels, peaks somewhere between 100 and
110, and then weakens. Bootstrap standard errors for our point estimates
and bootstrap confidence intervals are also computed. (C) 2013 Elsevier
Inc. All rights reserved.


*Pages: 490-500 (Article)
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Childhood intelligence and adult health: The mediating roles of education and socioeconomic status

Wrulich, M; Brunner, M; Stadler, G; Schalke, D; Keller, U; Chmiel, M;
Martin, R

*INTELLIGENCE*, 41 (5):490-500; SEP-OCT 2013

The longitudinal relation between childhood intelligence and various
health outcomes in adulthood is now well-established. One mediational
model that accounts for this relation proposes that intelligence has
cumulative indirect effects on adult health via subsequent educational
attainment and adult socioeconomic status (SES). The aim of the present
study was to examine whether and the extent to which educational
attainment and SES mediate the impact of childhood intelligence on three
dimensions of adult health in Luxembourg, a country with high-quality
universal public health care. We used data from 745 participants in the
Luxembourgish MAGRIP study. At the age of 12, participants completed a
comprehensive intelligence test. At the age of 52, they reported their
educational careers, SES, and functional, subjective, and physical
health status. Using structural equation modeling, we investigated the
direct and indirect effects (via educational attainment and adult SES)
of childhood intelligence on adult health. We found that higher
childhood intelligence predicted better functional, subjective, and
physical health in adulthood. These effects were entirely mediated via
educational attainment and SES. The mediational processes differed
depending on the health dimension under investigation: Whereas SES was
crucial in mediating the effect of intelligence on functional and
subjective health, educational attainment was crucial in mediating the
effect on physical health. These findings held up when considering adult
intelligence and were similar for women and men. Our results suggest
that even excellent public health care cannot fully offset the
cumulative effects of childhood intelligence on adult health. Further
studies are needed to investigate the relative importance of different
mediators in the intelligence health relation while including a broader
set of objective health measures. (C) 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights


*Pages: 501-511 (Article)
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Effects of age and ability on components of cognitive change

Salthouse, TA

*INTELLIGENCE*, 41 (5):501-511; SEP-OCT 2013

Prior experience with a cognitive task is often associated with higher
performance on a second assessment, and these experience effects can
complicate the interpretation of cognitive change. The current study was
designed to investigate experience effects by obtaining measures of
cognitive performance separated by days and by years. The analyses were
based on data from 2017 adults with two longitudinal occasions, of whom
948 had also completed a third occasion, with each occasion consisting
of three parallel versions of the tests on separate sessions. Change
across short intervals was typically positive, and greater among older
adults and adults with low levels of cognitive ability, whereas change
over intervals of approximately three years was often negative,
particularly at older ages. In contrast to the expectation that change
over short intervals might be informative about change over longer
intervals, relations between short-term change and long-term change were
negative, as the individuals who gained the most with assessments
separated by days tended to experience the greatest losses across
assessments separated by years. (C) 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights


*Pages: 512-516 (Article)
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Japanese north-south gradient in IQ predicts differences in stature, skin color, income, and homicide rate

Kura, K

*INTELLIGENCE*, 41 (5):512-516; SEP-OCT 2013

Regional differences in IQ are estimated for 47 prefectures of Japan. IQ
scores obtained from official achievement tests show a gradient from
north to south. Latitudes correlate with height, IQ and skin color at r
= 0.70, 0.44, 0.47, respectively. IQ also correlates with height (0.52),
skin color (0.42), income (0.51) after correction, less homicide rate
(-0.60), and less divorce (-0.69) but not with fertility infant
mortality. The lower IQ in southern Japanese islands could be
attributable to warmer climates with less cognitive demand for more than
fifteen hundred years. (C) 2013 The Author. Published by Elsevier Inc.
All rights reserved.


*Pages: 517-528 (Article)
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Intelligence is differentially related to neural effort in the task-positive and the task-negative brain network

Basten, U; Stelzel, C; Fiebach, CJ

*INTELLIGENCE*, 41 (5):517-528; SEP-OCT 2013

Previous studies on individual differences in intelligence and brain
activation during cognitive processing focused on brain regions where
activation increases with task demands (task-positive network, TPN). Our
study additionally considers brain regions where activation decreases
with task demands (task-negative network, TNN) and compares effects of
intelligence on neural effort in the TPN and the TNN. In a sample of 52
healthy subjects, functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to
determine changes in neural effort associated with the processing of a
working memory task. The task comprised three conditions of increasing
difficulty: (a) maintenance, (b) manipulation, and (c) updating of a
four-letter memory set. Neural effort was defined as signal increase in
the TPN and signal decrease in the TNN, respectively. In both functional
networks, TPN and TNN, neural effort increased with task difficulty.
However, intelligence, as assessed with Raven's Matrices, was
differentially associated with neural effort in the TPN and TNN. In the
TPN, we observed a positive association, while we observed a negative
association in the TNN. In terms of neural efficiency (i.e., task
performance in relation to neural effort expended on task processing),
more intelligent subjects (as compared to less intelligent subjects)
displayed lower neural efficiency in the TPN, while they displayed
higher neural efficiency in the TNN. The results illustrate the
importance of differentiating between TPN and TNN when interpreting
correlations between intelligence and fMRI measures of brain activation.
Importantly, this implies the risk of misinterpreting whole brain
correlations when ignoring the functional differences between TPN and
TNN. (C) 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


*Pages: 529-536 (Article)
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Intelligence moderates how education mediates the effect of social background on own attained occupational position

Sorjonen, K; Hemmingsson, T; Deary, IJ; Melin, B

*INTELLIGENCE*, 41 (5):529-536; SEP-OCT 2013

A positive cognitive ability x motivation interaction effect on
performance has been suggested. In the area of working life, attained
occupational position could be seen as a measure of performance and
earlier studies have indicated that the commonly found association
between social background and own attained occupational position might
be mediated through attained level of education. In the present study,
it is hypothesized that both social background and level of education
might be indicative of educational/occupational motivation and,
therefore, the importance of level of education as a mediator should
increase with increasing intelligence. This hypothesis was confirmed in
a cohort of Swedish men born in 1949-1951 (N = 49,246). This moderated
mediation seems mainly to be due to a strengthening of the association
between attained level of education and attained occupational position
with increasing intelligence. The association between attained level of
education and attained occupational position was found to be more linear
among men with high intelligence scores and more exponential among men
with low scores. It is discussed that this might be due to a low
validity in the measurement of intelligence among men who receive a low
intelligence score at conscription but who, nonetheless, go on and
attain a high level of education. (C) 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights


*Pages: 537-545 (Article)
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An account of the relationship between fluid intelligence and complex learning in considering storage capacity and executive attention

Wang, TF; Ren, XZ; Altmeyer, M; Schweizer, K

*INTELLIGENCE*, 41 (5):537-545; SEP-OCT 2013

Although fluid intelligence and complex learning are conceptualized
differently and assessed by apparently different measures, both
theoretical accounts and empirical evidence suggest a relationship
between the two constructs. In this study, major working memory aspects
including the storage capacity and executive attention were proposed to
account for the relationship between fluid intelligence and complex
learning. A sample of 184 participants completed fluid intelligence and
complex learning scales, as well as working memory measures that each
included two or three treatment levels differing in the demands on
capacity or executive control. The differences among the treatment
levels provided a favorable precondition for employing fixed-links
models to separate the core processes of storage capacity or executive
attention from the auxiliary processes. Results indicated that both
storage capacity and executive attention contributed significantly to
fluid intelligence and complex learning. A further analysis showed that
the two working memory aspects, particularly the storage capacity,
accounted for most of the shared variance between fluid intelligence and
complex learning. (C) 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


*Pages: 546-552 (Article)
*View Full Record:;KeyUT=CCC:000327289500026
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Intelligence and religiosity: Within families and over time

Ganzach, Y; Gotlibovski, C

*INTELLIGENCE*, 41 (5):546-552; SEP-OCT 2013

We study the effect of intelligence (General Mental Ability) on
religiosity using research designs that allow for stronger causal
inferences compared to previous research in this area. First, we examine
how between-siblings differences in intelligence are related to
differences in their religiosity. Second, we examine how intelligence is
related to changes in religiosity over time. The results of both designs
suggest that intelligence has a strong negative effect on religiosity.
In addition, our results also suggest that intelligence interacts with
age in determining religiosity: the more intelligent the person, the
stronger the negative effect of age on religiosity. (C) 2013 Elsevier
Inc. All rights reserved.


*Pages: 553-559 (Article)
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Differences in intelligence across thirty-one regions of China and their economic and demographic correlates

Lynn, R; Cheng, H

*INTELLIGENCE*, 41 (5):553-559; SEP-OCT 2013

This study reports the differences in intelligence across thirty-one
regions of the People's Republic of China. It was found that regional
IQs were significantly associated with the percentage of Han in the
population (r = .59), GDP per capita (r = .42), the percentage of those
with higher education (r = 38, p<.05), and non-significantly with years
of education (r = .32).
The results of the multiple regression showed that both the percentage
of Han in the region and the GDP per capita were significant predictors
of regional IQs, accounting for 39% of the total variance. (C) 2013
Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


*Pages: 560-565 (Article)
*View Full Record:;KeyUT=CCC:000327289500028
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Intelligence indexes generalist genes for cognitive abilities

Trzaskowski, M; Shakeshaft, NG; Plomin, R

*INTELLIGENCE*, 41 (5):560-565; SEP-OCT 2013

Twin research has supported the concept of intelligence (general
cognitive ability, g) by showing that genetic correlations between
diverse tests of verbal and nonverbal cognitive abilities are greater
than 0.50. That is, most of the genes that affect cognitive abilities
are highly pleiotropic in the sense that genes that affect one cognitive
ability affect all cognitive abilities. The impact of this finding may
have been blunted because it depends on the validity of the twin method.
Although the assumptions of the twin method have survived indirect
tests, it is now possible to test findings from the twin method directly
using DNA alone in samples of unrelated individuals, without the
assumptions of the twin method. We applied this DNA method, implemented
in a software package called Genome-wide Complex Trait Analysis (GCTA),
to estimate genetic variance and covariance for two verbal tests and two
nonverbal tests using 1.7 million DNA markers genotyped on 2500
unrelated children at age 12; 1900 children also had cognitive data and
DNA at age 7. Because each of these individuals is one member of a twin
pair, we were able to compare GCTA estimates directly to twin study
estimates using the same measures in the same sample. At age 12, GCTA
confirmed the results of twin research in showing substantial genetic
covariance between verbal and nonverbal composites. The GCTA genetic
correlation at age 12 was 1.0 (SE = 0.32), not significantly different
from the twin study estimate of 0.60 (SE = 0.09). At age 7, the genetic
correlations were 031 (SE = 0.32) from GCTA and 0.71 (SE = 0.15).from
twin analysis. The results from the larger sample and stronger measures
at age 12 confirm the twin study results that the genetic architecture
of intelligence is driven by pleiotropic effects on diverse cognitive
abilities. However, the results at age 7 and the large standard errors
of GCTA bivariate genetic correlations suggest the need for further
research with larger samples. (C) 2013 The Authors. Published by
Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


*Pages: 566-578 (Article)
*View Full Record:;KeyUT=CCC:000327289500029
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Memory abilities in generally gifted and excelling-in-mathematics adolescents

Leikin, M; Paz-Baruch, N; Leikin, R

*INTELLIGENCE*, 41 (5):566-578; SEP-OCT 2013

This paper presents part of a multidimensional examination of
mathematical giftedness. The present study examined the memory
mechanisms associated with general giftedness (G) and excellence in
mathematics (E) in four groups of 10th-12th grade students (16-18 years
old) varying in levels of G and E. The participants first underwent the
Raven test for general ability evaluation and SAT-M - the mathematical
excellence tests in order to design the study groups. Afterwards, the
students were tested on a battery of three memory tests including tests
for short-term (STM) and working memory (WM). The results reveal that
the G factor is related to high STM for both phonological loop and
phonological central executive mechanisms. It was also found that the E
factor is associated with high visual-spatial memory (VSM), in
particular with the visual central executive mechanism. An interaction
effect was found between G and E factors regarding WM. The central
executive mechanism appeared to be related to both G and E factors. In
addition, gender differences were shown within the groups. Male
participants performed better than their female counterparts on a
phonological storage task and a phonological central executive mechanism
task. The results can contribute to the theoretical knowledge regarding
similarities and differences in memory mechanisms in G and E groups. (C)
2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


*Pages: 579-596 (Article)
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A multitrait-multimethod study of assessment instruments for complex problem solving

Greiff, S; Fischer, A; Wustenberg, S; Sonnleitner, P; Brunner, M;
Martin, R

*INTELLIGENCE*, 41 (5):579-596; SEP-OCT 2013

Recently published studies on Complex Problem Solving (CPS) suggest that
assessments of CPS using multiple complex systems are only moderately
related to tests of classical cognitive abilities. Further, CPS
assessments show incremental validity beyond tests of other cognitive
abilities when predicting relevant outcomes. However, these empirical
accounts have relied on single CPS assessment instruments. We do not
know whether these findings will generalize to the construct level
across different CPS assessment instruments. To answer this question, we
tested a sample of N = 339 German university students who completed
three CPS assessment instruments based on multiple complex systems
(MicroDYN, the Genetics Lab, and MicroFIN) and the matrices subtest of
the Intelligence Structure Test as measure of reasoning. Students
further reported their school grades. Analyks including latent
multitrait-multimethod models provided support for the conceptualization
of CPS as a complex cognitive ability. Results indicated that different
CPS assessment instruments showed sufficient convergent validity (with a
consistency mostly between.50 and.60). In addition, we found evidence
for the divergent validity of CPS from reasoning (reasoning predicted
two CPS facets, knowledge and control, beta(KNow) =.49 and beta(CON)
=.53, respectively). In the prediction of academic achievement, CPS
explained variance in natural science grades after we controlled for
reasoning (beta(cp)s =.22), whereas social science grades were not
predicted. Our findings suggest that the validity of CPS generalizes
across different measurement instruments. (C) 2013 Elsevier Inc. All
rights reserved.


*Pages: 597-606 (Article)
*View Full Record:;KeyUT=CCC:000327289500031
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Associations between cortical thickness and general intelligence in children, adolescents and young adults

Menary, K; Collins, PF; Porter, JN; Muetzel, R; Olson, EA; Kumar, V;
Steinbach, M; Lim, KO; Luciana, M

*INTELLIGENCE*, 41 (5):597-606; SEP-OCT 2013

Neuroimaging research indicates that human intellectual ability is
related to brain structure including the thickness of the cerebral
cortex. Most studies indicate that general intelligence is positively
associated with cortical thickness in areas of association cortex
distributed throughout both brain hemispheres. In this study, we
performed a cortical thickness mapping analysis on data from 182 healthy
typically developing males and females ages 9 to 24 years to identify
correlates of general intelligence (g) scores. To determine if these
correlates also mediate associations of specific cognitive abilities
with cortical thickness, we regressed specific cognitive test scores on
g scores and analyzed the residuals with respect to cortical thickness.
The effect of age on the association between cortical thickness and
intelligence was examined. We found a widely distributed pattern of
positive associations between cortical thickness and g Scores, as
derived from the first unrotated principal factor of a factor analysis
of Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence (WASI) subtest scores.
After WASI specific cognitive subtest scores were regressed on g factor
scores, the residual score variances did not correlate significantly
with cortical thickness in the full sample with age covaried. When
participants were grouped at the age median, significant positive
associations of cortical thickness were obtained in the older group for
g-residualized scores on Block Design (a measure of visual-motor
integrative processing) while significant negative associations of
cortical thickness were observed in the younger group for g-residualized
Vocabulary scores. These results regarding correlates of general
intelligence are concordant with the existing literature, while the
findings from younger versus older subgroups have implications for
future research on brain structural correlates of specific cognitive
abilities, as well as the cognitive domain specificity of behavioral
performance correlates of normative gray matter thinning during
adolescence. (C) 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


*Pages: 607-614 (Article)
*View Full Record:;KeyUT=CCC:000327289500032
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The Savanna-IQ interaction hypothesis: A critical examination of the comprehensive case presented in Kanazawa's The Intelligence Paradox

Dutton, E

*INTELLIGENCE*, 41 (5):607-614; SEP-OCT 2013

Kanazawa (2012b) has recently presented the most comprehensive case yet
for his Savanna-IQ Interaction Hypothesis. According to the hypothesis,
intelligence is a domain-specific adaptation which has been selected for
as humans have moved away from the (evolutionarily familiar) Savanna. As
such, ability in 'evolutionarily novel' tasks and 'evolutionarily novel'
preferences are positively correlated with high IQ This article will
present a critical examination of the hypothesis, arguing that there is
a strong case against anchoring human nature on the Savanna, the
hypothesis predicts contradictory findings, there is empirical evidence
against it, it is not falsifiable, and it is not necessary to explain
that data which Kanazawa presents. (C) 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights


*Pages: 615-621 (Article)
*View Full Record:;KeyUT=CCC:000327289500033
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IQ and alcohol consumption : International data

Belasen, A; Hafer, RW

*INTELLIGENCE*, 41 (5):615-621; SEP-OCT 2013

There is evidence at the individual level that alcohol consumption and
IQ are positively related: individuals with higher IQ scores tend to
consume relatively more alcohol than those with lower IQs. This paper
empirically tests whether this relationship holds at the national level.
Using national IQ measures and data on per capita alcohol consumption,
we test whether higher-IQ countries on average also have higher levels
of per capita beer and wine consumption. Based on regression analysis
for a sample of 99 countries, the data do not reject the hypothesis
that, other factors held constant, higher IQ predicts higher levels of
per capita alcohol consumption at the national level. (C) 2013 Elsevier
Inc. All rights reserved.


*Pages: 622-630 (Article)
*View Full Record:;KeyUT=CCC:000327289500034
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Reaction time and intelligence: Comparing associations based on two response modes

Nissan, J; Liewald, D; Deary, IJ

*INTELLIGENCE*, 41 (5):622-630; SEP-OCT 2013

People who score highly on intelligence tests also tend to have faster
and less variable reaction times. Effect size estimates for the reaction
time-intelligence association are larger in samples that are more
representative of the population. However, such samples have often been
tested on a reaction time device that requires reading a number and
processing its association with a specific response location (Cox,
Huppert, & Whichelow, 1993). Here, we use this device and another
reaction time device (Dykiert et al., 2010) that is similar, except that
the responses require less processing; subjects simply press a button
that is adjacent to the stimulus light. We focus on the possibility that
lights as stimuli require less higher-order cognitive engagement than
numbers, and then test whether parameters from these two tasks are
highly correlated and similarly associated with age and higher cognitive
abilities. Both tasks measured simple and choice reaction times and
their intra-individual variation across trials. The parameters of the
two tasks were very highly correlated and parameters from both tasks
were similarly associated with age, social factors, and differences in
higher cognitive abilities. The respective choice reaction time
parameters from either task accounted for much of the age- and higher
cognitive ability-associations of the other task's parameters. These
findings are important in establishing that the effect sizes of higher
cognitive ability associations with processing speed measures may be
found when the processing demands are minimal.(C) 2013 Elsevier Inc. All
rights reserved.


*Pages: 631-637 (Article)
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General Mental Ability and pay: Nonlinear effects

Ganzach, Y; Gotlibobski, C; Greenberg, D; Pazy, A

*INTELLIGENCE*, 41 (5):631-637; SEP-OCT 2013

While many studies have examined the linear relationship between
intelligence and economic success, only few, if any, examined their
nonlinear relationships. The current study examines such relationships
in a large, nationally representative sample, using pay as an indicator
of economic success. The results show that the effect of General Mental
Ability (GMA) on pay depends on occupational complexity; the greater the
complexity, the stronger the effect. They also show that, by and large,
there is a marginally decreasing (concave) effect of GMA on pay.
Methodological and practical questions concerning the relationship
between cognitive ability and pay are discussed. (C) 2013 Published by
Elsevier Inc.


*Pages: 638-663 (Article)
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Training working memory: Limits of transfer

Sprenger, AM; Atkins, SM; Bolger, DJ; Harbison, JI; Novick, JM;
Chrabaszcz, JS; Weems, SA; Smith, V; Bobb, S; Bunting, MF; Dougherty, MR

*INTELLIGENCE*, 41 (5):638-663; SEP-OCT 2013

In two experiments (totaling 253 adult participants), we examined the
extent to which intensive working memory training led to improvements on
untrained measures of cognitive ability. Although participants showed
improvement on the trained task and on tasks that either shared task
characteristics or stimuli, we found no evidence that training led to
general improvements in working memory. Using Bayes Factor analysis, we
show that the data generally support the hypothesis that working memory
training was ineffective at improving general cognitive ability. This
conclusion held even after controlling for a number of individual
differences, including need for cognition, beliefs in the malleability
of intelligence, and age. (C) 2013 Published by Elsevier Inc.


*Pages: 664-666 (Article)
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Testing the hypothesized effect of dysgenic fertility on intelligence with existing reaction time data: A comment on Woodley, te Nijenhuis, and Murphy (2013)

Silverman, IW

*INTELLIGENCE*, 41 (5):664-666; SEP-OCT 2013

Dysgenic fertility has supposedly resulted in a decline in general
intelligence (g) over time. In light of evidence that simple visual
reaction time (RT) is inversely related to IQ. Woodley et al. (2013)
tested the hypothesized dysgenic effect by subjecting to a
meta-regression simple visual RT data collected over 100 years in 15
studies. This analysis found that RT had significantly increased
according to a linear function over this time period. Woodley et al.
then used this result to estimate the rate at which g had declined over
the same period. The present comment points out that there are large
gaps in the distribution of RTs analyzed by Woodley et al. with respect
to year tested, and that RI in males did not vary as a function of year
in the 13 studies published from 1941 on. It is concluded that although
existing data are consistent with the idea that g has been adversely
affected by dysgenic fertility, it cannot be determined at what rate g
has fallen over time. (C) 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


*Pages: 667-673 (Article)
*View Full Record:;KeyUT=CCC:000327289500038
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Individual differences in religiosity as a function of cognitive ability and cognitive style

Razmyar, S; Reeve, CL

*INTELLIGENCE*, 41 (5):667-673; SEP-OCT 2013

The current study examines the degree to which individual differences in
cognitive ability and cognitive style (rational thinking vs.
experiential thinking) uniquely and jointly account for differences in
religiosity. Using an array of measures of religiosity, results show
that cognitive ability has a medium to large negative effect on various
aspects of religiosity. Though also negatively related to religiosity,
rational thinking style did not add significant unique effects, nor did
it convey a significant indirect effect from cognitive ability.
Experiential thinking was generally unrelated to ability but was
positively related to some aspects of religiosity. Overall the results
confirm that those with higher cognitive ability are less likely to
accept religious doctrine or engage in religious behaviors and those
with lower ability are more likely to accept religious doctrine and
exhibit higher levels of fundamentalism. Cognitive style appears to play
a lesser role in explaining individual differences in religiosity than
cognitive ability. (C) 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


*Pages: 674-687 (Article)
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Is there any evidence of historical slowing of reaction time? No, unless we compare apples and oranges

Dodonova, YA; Dodonov, YS

*INTELLIGENCE*, 41 (5):674-687; SEP-OCT 2013

In this paper, we reconsider a tendency of historical slowing of simple
reactions to visual stimuli declared by Woodley et al. (in press). We
begin by reconstructing a pendulum similar to that used by Galton and
question whether such an instrument could indeed be appropriate for
purposes of RT measurement. Next, we screened the other studies used in
Woodley's meta-analysis and note the important properties of these
studies that make the RTs that they report incomparable to each other.
We claim that there is no evidence of the trend of historical increase
in RT after these differences between studies are taken into account.
Overall, we conclude that any cross-study comparison of RTs is
uninformative and cannot provide any evidence for speculating on the
topic of historical change in intelligence. (C) 2013 Elsevier Inc. All
rights reserved.


*Pages: 688-698 (Article)
*View Full Record:;KeyUT=CCC:000327289500040
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IQ and the wealth of nations: How much reverse causality?

Christainsen, GB

*INTELLIGENCE*, 41 (5):688-698; SEP-OCT 2013

This paper uses data from 130 IQ test administrations worldwide and
employs regression analysis to try to quantify the impact of living
conditions on average IQ scores in nationally-representative samples.
The study emphasizes the possible role of conditions at or near the
test-takers' time of birth. The paper finds that the impact of living
conditions is of much smaller magnitude than is suggested by just
looking at correlations between average IQ scores and socioeconomic
indicators. After controlling for test-takers' region of ancestry, the
impact of parasitic diseases on average IQ is found to be statistically
insignificant when test results from the Caribbean are included in the
analysis. As far as IQ and the wealth of nations are concerned,
causality thus appears to run mostly from the former to the latter. The
test-takers' region of ancestry dominates the regression results. While
differences in average scores worldwide can thus be plausibly viewed as
being influenced by genetic differences across world regions, it is also
possible that score differences are influenced by regional differences
in culture that are independent of genetic factors. Differences in
average IQ across world regions may change in the years ahead insofar as
the strength of Flynn effects may not be uniform, but some regional
differences in average g levels seem likely to continue indefinitely.
(C) 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


*Pages: 699-711 (Article)
*View Full Record:;KeyUT=CCC:000327289500041
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Sick? Or slow? On the origins of intelligence as a psychological object

Nicolas, S; Andrieu, B; Croizet, JC; Sanitioso, RB; Burman, JT

*INTELLIGENCE*, 41 (5):699-711; SEP-OCT 2013

This paper examines the first moments of the emergence of
"psychometrics" as a discipline, using a history of the Binet-Simon test
(precursor to the Stanford-Binet) to engage the question of how
intelligence became a "psychological object." To begin to answer this,
we used a previously-unexamined set of French texts to highlight the
negotiations and collaborations that led Alfred Binet (1857-1911) to
identify "mental testing" as a research area worth pursuing. This
included a long-standing rivalry with Desire-Magloire Bourneville
(1840-1909), who argued for decades that psychiatrists ought to be the
professional arbiters of which children would be removed from the
standard curriculum and referred to special education classes in
asylums. In contrast, Binet sought to keep children in schools and
conceived of a way for psychologists to do this. Supported by the
Societe libre de l'etude psychologique de l'enfant [Free society for the
psychological study of the child], and by a number of collaborators and
friends, he thus undertook to create a "metric" scale of intelligence
and the associated testing apparatus to legitimize the role of
psychologists in a to-that-point psychiatric domain: identifying and
treating "the abnormal". The result was a change in the earlier law
requiring all healthy French children to attend school, between the ages
of 6 and 13, to recognize instead that otherwise normal children
sometimes need special help: they are "slow" (arriere), but not "sick."
This conceptualization of intelligence was then carried forward, through
the test's influence on Lewis Terman (1877-1956) and Lightner Witmer
(1867-1956), to shape virtually all subsequent thinking about
intelligence testing and its role in society. (C) 2013 The Authors.
Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


*Pages: 712-727 (Article)
*View Full Record:;KeyUT=CCC:000327289500042
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Adaptive n-back training does not improve fluid intelligence at the construct level: Gains on individual tests suggest that training may enhance visuospatial processing

Colom, R; Roman, FJ; Abad, FJ; Shih, PC; Privado, J; Froufe, M;
Escorial, S; Martinez, K; Burgaleta, M; Quiroga, MA; Karama, S; Haier,
RJ; Thompson, PM; Jaeggi, SM

*INTELLIGENCE*, 41 (5):712-727; SEP-OCT 2013

Short-term adaptive cognitive training based on the n-back task is
reported to increase scores on individual ability tests, but the key
question of whether such increases generalize to the intelligence
construct is not clear. Here we evaluate fluid/abstract intelligence
(Gf), crystallized/verbal intelligence (Gc), working memory capacity
(WMC), and attention control (NIT) using diverse measures, with
equivalent versions, for estimating any changes at the construct level
after training. Beginning with a sample of 169 participants, two groups
of twenty-eight women each were selected and matched for their general
cognitive ability scores and demographic variables. Under strict
supervision in the laboratory, the training group completed an intensive
adaptive training program based on the n-back task (visual, auditory,
and dual versions) across twenty-four sessions distributed over twelve
weeks. Results showed that this group had the expected systematic
improvements in n-back performance over time; this performance
systematically correlated across sessions with Gf, Gc, and WMC, but not
with ATT. However, the main finding showed no significant changes in the
assessed psychological constructs for the training group as compared
with the control group. Nevertheless, post-hoc analyses suggested that
specific tests and tasks tapping visuospatial processing might be
sensitive to training. (C) 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


*Pages: 728-729 (Book Review)
*View Full Record:;KeyUT=CCC:000327289500043
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A gifted discussion of misclassification: Ungifted: Intelligence Redefined

Hunt, E

*INTELLIGENCE*, 41 (5):728-729; SEP-OCT 2013


*Pages: 730-731 (Article)
*View Full Record:;KeyUT=CCC:000327289500044
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Developing intelligence: Is a comprehensive theory possible?

Demetriou, A; Spanoudis, G; Shayer, M

*INTELLIGENCE*, 41 (5):730-731; SEP-OCT 2013

This introduction first outlines the main issues and questions about
mind and intelligence that need to be dealt with by disciplines such as
differential, developmental, and cognitive, psychology. It then
summarizes the major findings of the target article, the main points
raised by the commentators, and the main points of the rejoinder. It
ends up with a set of questions to be followed by future research. (C)
2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


*Pages: 732-734 (Article)
*View Full Record:;KeyUT=CCC:000327289500045
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Effects of processing speed on intelligence may be underestimated: Comment on Demetriou et al. (2013)

Coyle, TR

*INTELLIGENCE*, 41 (5):732-734; SEP-OCT 2013

This commentary suggests ways to extend research by Demetriou et al.
(2013), who may have underestimated the effects of processing speed on
the development of intelligence. It argues that future research should
consider variability in processing speed, complexity in speed tasks, and
reaction times excluded from speed estimates. (C) 2013 Elsevier Inc. All
rights reserved.


*Pages: 735-737 (Article)
*View Full Record:;KeyUT=CCC:000327289500046
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Developmental analyses of individual differences in intelligence: Comments on Demetriou et al. (2013)

Kail, RV

*INTELLIGENCE*, 41 (5):735-737; SEP-OCT 2013

In this commentary, I mention strengths of the work reported by
Demetriou et al. (2013), including sophisticated methods, a powerful
integrative theory, and provocative findings. I also suggest ways in
which this line of work could be extended, including extending the
developmental trajectory, moving beyond tests and tasks, and exploring
the full richness of individual variations. (C) 2013 Elsevier Inc. All
rights reserved.


*Pages: 738-743 (Article)
*View Full Record:;KeyUT=CCC:000327289500047
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Can we model organismic causes of working memory, efficiency and fluid intelligence? A meta-subjective perspective

Pascual-Leone, J

*INTELLIGENCE*, 41 (5):738-743; SEP-OCT 2013

I critically examine the target paper by Demetriou et al. (2013)
noticing that their epistemological perspective is meta-empiricist
(i.e., taking the viewpoint of an external observer). This viewpoint is
contrasted with to a metasubjective perspective (i.e., that of the
subject-matter itself - organismic processes). I explain working memory
(whose key developmental determinant is mental - M - attention), as well
as processing speed, and Gf from a metasubjective perspective; and I
emphasize that difficulty of an item/task is relative to the trade-off
level between its item/task mental-attentional demand and the
participant's mental-attentional capacity. I list principles of
measurement for proper assessment of mental/executive/endogenous
attention (M-capacity) and explain some of the results of Demetriou et
al. as resulting from inadequate control of this M-demand/M-capacity
trade off in their tasks. Demetriou et al. have achieved clear
demonstration that WM, Gf, and processing speed are distinct latent
variables whose interrelations change with age. To clarify further their
organismic causal determinants they should make a "metasubjective turn"
in their theorizing. (C) 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


*Pages: 744-749 (Article)
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Developmental intelligence: From empirical to hidden constructs

Demetriou, A; Spanoudis, G; Shayer, M

*INTELLIGENCE*, 41 (5):744-749; SEP-OCT 2013

This article answers some of the criticisms and suggestions of the three
commentaries. We showed, in agreement with Coyle, that (i) variability
is indeed distinct from speed, (ii) they both additively reflect
processing efficiency and (iii) that they differentially relate to WM
and gf during development. In agreement with Kail, we showed that
developmental intelligence and psychometric intelligence are (i) related
but distinct, they additively contribute to school learning and (iii)
their role varies with developmental phase. Finally, in agreement with
Pascual-Leone, we proposed a number of higher level hidden constructs to
account for the data patterns observed between empirical constructs,
such as speed, variability, WM, and reasoning. (C) 2013 Elsevier Inc.
All rights reserved.

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