Tuesday, August 01, 2006

Expertise, ACT-R, CLT (cognitive load theory): Instructional design

In my readings I frequently run across references to Anderson's ACT-R framework for describing the acquisition of expertise. If pushed hard, I would be hard to provide a concise explanation/description of this model. Thus, I found a quick skim of a recent article dealing with CLT (cognitive load theory) a pleasant surprise. The following concise summary (italics added by blogmaster) of the ACT-R framework was provided.

  • "Using worked examples in problem-solving instruction is consistent with a four-stage model of expertise that is based on the well-known ACT-R framework (Anderson, Fincham,& Douglass, 1997). In this model, learners who are in the first stage of skill acquisition solve problems by analogy; they use known examples of problems, and try to relate those problems to the new problem to be solved. At the second stage, learners have developed abstract declarative rules or schemas, which guide them in future problem solving. At the third stage, with sufficient practice, the schemas become proceduralised, leading to the fourth stage of expertise where automatic schemas and analogical reasoning on a large pool of examples are combined to successfully solve a variety of problem types. Empirical evidence has shown that learning with worked examples is most important during initial skill acquisition stages for well-structured domains such as physics, programming, and mathematics (Van-Lehn, 1996)."
Although not the primary purpose of this post, readers may find the complete article, which deals with CLT, of interest. I've been collecting articles on CLT but have yet to devote sufficient time to understanding the implications of CLT (which would allow me to do some intelligent posting). All I can say is that I think CLT appears to have significant implications for instructional interventions when framed within a cognitive information processing framework.

Technorati Tags: , , , , , , , , , , ,

powered by performancing firefox

No comments: