- "Using worked examples in problem-solving instruction is consistent with a four-stage model of expertise that is based on the well-known ACT-R framework (Anderson, Fincham,& Douglass, 1997). In this model, learners who are in the first stage of skill acquisition solve problems by analogy; they use known examples of problems, and try to relate those problems to the new problem to be solved. At the second stage, learners have developed abstract declarative rules or schemas, which guide them in future problem solving. At the third stage, with sufficient practice, the schemas become proceduralised, leading to the fourth stage of expertise where automatic schemas and analogical reasoning on a large pool of examples are combined to successfully solve a variety of problem types. Empirical evidence has shown that learning with worked examples is most important during initial skill acquisition stages for well-structured domains such as physics, programming, and mathematics (Van-Lehn, 1996)."
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