Sunday, June 04, 2023

What is intelligence: A psycho-physiological paradigm article

What is intelligence?: Conceptualising a psycho-physiological paradigm to identify and assess domains of intelligence
  • Megha Agrawal, Gyan Vardhan
  • Published 1 May 2023
  • Psychology
  • Physiology
Background: Even after years of debate, "intelligence" seems to be an obscure concept with no conclusive way of assessment. Intelligence has been categorized differently by various scientists; such as fluid vs crystallized intelligence, Triarchic theory of intelligence, Multiple Intelligence Theory etc. Though scientists have described it in various ways, intelligence is a broad term that encompasses multiple domains, subdomains and cognitive abilities. With growing advances in the field of artificial intelligence, it is still not clear as to what should be classified as intelligence and what shouldn't.It would be worthwhile to explore what intelligence means in qualitative as well as quantitative terms, and how it extends to other animal species too. Our traditional methods of assessing intelligence rely heavily on IQ tests and problem solving, which may only reflect certain aspects of intelligence while ignoring the rest. Evaluating a human's aptitude is a challenging task, especially in a non-invasive setup. Also, most neuronal networks are interconnected functionally instead of being discrete. The brain has tremendous plasticity and scope for improvisation.Many people are unaware about their own potential. It is thus crucial, to not only understand the attributes of intelligence but also find definite ways to recognize it correctly. Can intelligence be quantified? Perhaps, understanding the neural underpinnings of intelligence through brain mapping can throw some light on its true nature and help in objective assessment for an individual. Qualitative methods might assist as well. Having a rough idea of innate prowess can be of much significance to an individual and how the society perceives him/her. Aim: Conceptualizing the design of a preliminary easy-to-use, comprehensive research tool that can identify and evaluate various domains of intelligence using psycho-physiological techniques Materials and methods: DSM 5 categorizes neuro-cognition into 6 domains- language, learning and memory, social cognition, complex attention, executive function and perceptual motor function. Identifying all the major domains/subdomains under the ambit of intelligence may be the first step in designing a relevant paradigm. The second step could be to evaluate cognitive ability of an individual using qualitative/quantitative/ mixed methods.An appropriate research tool could be developed by formulating a completely new technique or using one/more known modalities of brain evaluation: electrical activity/magnetic activity/ blood flow hemodynamics /imaging of the brain /cognitive function battery /qualitative methods (questionnaires/interviews). Conclusion: More elaborate understanding of brain may help the world embrace its diversity and coexist joyfully through mutual cooperation. Based on initial findings of a preliminary paradigm, further detailed genetic studies may be integrated to establish whether intelligence is constitutional or modifiable. This is the full abstract presented at the American Physiology Summit 2023 meeting and is only available in HTML format. There are no additional versions or additional content available for this abstract. Physiology was not involved in the peer review process.

Kevin S. McGrew, PhD
Educational & School Psychologist
Institute for Applied Psychometrics (IAP)

No comments: