Sense of smell disorder and health-related quality of life.
By Smeets, Monique A. M.; Veldhuizen, Maria G.; Galle, Sara; Gouweloos, Juul; de Haan, Anne-Marie J. A.; Vernooij, Jesse; Visscher, Floris; Kroeze, Jan H. A.
Rehabilitation Psychology. Vol 54(4), Nov 2009, 404-412.
Objectives: To compare health-related quality of life and depression between individuals with an inability to smell (anosmia) and a comparison group of individuals with a normal sense of smell. Methods: Ninety individuals from an anosmia organization (anosmia based on self-report) were compared to 89 individuals with a normal sense of smell. The SF-36 and Beck Depression Inventory-II-NL (BDI-II-NL) were administered, along with the Questionnaire for Olfactory Dysfunction (QOD) to assess the degree of problems in daily life related to the smell impairment. Results: Compared to the comparison group, scores in the anosmia group differed on: the QOD-subscale Life Quality (related to tasting and smelling: p < .001) and Parosmia (Smelling odors as different: p < .001); and the SF-36 subscales of Social Functioning, Vitality, Mental Health and General Health (p's < .05). Persons with anosmia scored higher on the BDI-II-NL than persons from the comparison group (p < .01). Discussion: Once a smell dysfunction is recognized, interventions aiming at dealing with the loss of smell as a source of information and enjoyment, as well as at improvement of emotional wellbeing, social interaction, energy, and depression should be considered. )