Saturday, November 27, 2010

Research byte: Working memory, but not IQ, predict ability to multiple-task

Interesting study that suggests that intelligence and working memory are related constructs, but only working memory predicts the ability to engage in complex multiple-tasking.

As per usual when I make a research byte/brief post, if anyone would like to read the original article, I can share via email---with the understanding that the article is provided in exchange for a brief guest post about it's contents. :) (contact me at iap@earthlink.net if interested). Also, if figure/images are included in the post, they can usually be made larger by clicking on the image.

Double click on images to enlarge.








- iPost using BlogPress from my Kevin McGrew's iPad


Research byte: Are reading,listening and video comprehension tasks measuring the same comprehension construct?

As per usual when I make a research byte/brief post, if anyone would like to read the original article, I can share via email---with the understanding that the article is provided in exchange for a brief guest post about it's contents. :) (contact me at iap@earthlink.net if interested). Also, if figure/images are included in the post, they can usually be made larger by clicking on the image.

Double click on images to enlarge.









iPost using BlogPress from my Kevin McGrew's iPad


Visual-graphic of how to develop psychological measures of constructs

I found this figure, which I had developed a few years ago for a specific grant process (thus the scratched out box that is not relevant to this post), which summarizes in a single figure the accepted/recommended approach to developing and validating tests. In simple terms, one starts with the specification of the theoretical domain construct(s) of interest, then examines the measurement domain for possible types of tests to operationalize the constructs, and then one develops and scales the test items (optimally using IRT scaling methods) Very basic. Thought I would share---I love visual-graphic explanations.

Double click on image to enlarge





- iPost using BlogPress from my Kevin McGrew's iPad


Friday, November 26, 2010

iPost: Psychometrika, Vol. 75, Issue 4 - New Issue Alert


For the hard quantoid readers.



Friday, November 26

Dear Valued Customer,
We are pleased to deliver your requested table of contents alert for Psychometrika. Good news: now you will find quick links to the full text of the article in PDF or HTML. Choose your preferred format and access the article with only one click!

Volume 75 Number 4 is now available on SpringerLink

Register for Springer's email services providing you with info on the latest books in your field. ... More!
Important News!
Follow us on Twitter
Follow @Springernomics on Twitter

Free Access on SpringerLink
Explore the new SpringerLink
From now until Dec.31st - Read the top used and new journals in Psychology for free.
In this issue:
A Two-Tier Full-Information Item Factor Analysis Model with Applications
Li Cai
Abstract    Full text PDF

Hierarchical Bayes Models for Response Time Data
Peter F. Craigmile, Mario Peruggia & Trisha Van Zandt
Abstract    Full text PDF

Determinants of Standard Errors of MLEs in Confirmatory Factor Analysis
Ke-Hai Yuan, Ying Cheng & Wei Zhang
Abstract    Full text PDF

Tests of Homoscedasticity, Normality, and Missing Completely at Random for Incomplete Multivariate Data
Mortaza Jamshidian & Siavash Jalal
Abstract    Full text PDF

Bayesian Semiparametric Structural Equation Models with Latent Variables
Mingan Yang & David B. Dunson
Abstract    Full text PDF

On Separable Tests, Correlated Priors, and Paradoxical Results in Multidimensional Item Response Theory
Giles Hooker
Abstract    Full text PDF

Sample Size Determination for Rasch Model Tests
Clemens Draxler
Abstract    Full text PDF

Multidimensional Latent Markov Models in a Developmental Study of Inhibitory Control and Attentional Flexibility in Early Childhood
Francesco Bartolucci & Ivonne L. Solis-Trapala
Abstract    Full text PDF

Using State-Space Model with Regime Switching to Represent the Dynamics of Facial Electromyography (EMG) Data
Manshu Yang & Sy-Miin Chow
Abstract    Full text PDF

Book Review
B. S. Everitt (2009) Multivariable Modeling and Multivariate Analysis for the Behavioral Sciences.
Paul M. W. Hackett
Abstract    Full text PDF

Book Review
S. Guo & M.W. Fraser (2010). Propensity Score Analysis: Statistical Methods and Applications.
Peter M. Steiner
Abstract    Full text PDF

Book Review
R.J. DE AYALA (2009) The Theory and Practice of Item Response Theory.
Adam E. Wyse
Abstract    Full text PDF

Book Review
R.W. LISSITZ (2009) The Concept of Validity. Revisions, New Directions, and Applications.
Klaas Sijtsma
Abstract    Full text PDF
Request a free sample copy
If you are not a current subscriber to the journal, click here to read a free sample copy online.

Subscribers to a Springer publication are entitled to read the full-text articles online in SpringerLink. For registration information please contact your librarian or send us an e-mail:
In the Americas: springerlink-ny@springer.com
In all other countries: springerlink@springer.com
Alert information

This e-mail has been sent to iap@earthlink.net

You are receiving this email because you have opted to receive information from SpringerAlerts as a registered user of our Table of Content Alert for journals.

To modify your subscription (including change of email address etc.) please go to springer.com/alertprofile and log in with user name and password. If you do not remember either of them, write to springeralerts@springer.com.

To unsubscribe from this specific table of contents alert, please click here .
To unsubscribe from ALL table of contents alerts, please click here.

For all enquiries, problems or suggestions regarding this service, please contact springeralerts@springer.com.

Springer's New Book Alert is the best way to keep up to date with new developments in your field.
Sign-up today for notification on new books and related information in your subject areas: springer.com/springeralerts/nba

Springer respects your privacy and does not disclose, sell or rent your personal information to any nonaffiliated third parties without your consent. Please visit the Springer Privacy Statement.

To ensure the delivery to your inbox, please add the sender address springeralerts@springer.delivery.net to your allow list.

Springer-Verlag GmbH Heidelberg, Tiergartenstrasse 17, 69121 Heidelberg, Germany, phone: +49 6221 487 0, fax: +49 6221 487 8366

© Springer 2010, springer.com






Research bytes: ISI Web of Knowledge Alert - Learnng Disorders


*Record 1 of 3. Search terms matched: EN(1)
*Click Here to View Full Record
*Order Full Text [ ]
Title: Auditory Pathways and Processes: Implications for Neuropsychological Assessment and Diagnosis of Children and Adolescents
Authors: Bailey, T
Author Full Names: Bailey, Teresa
Source: CHILD NEUROPSYCHOLOGY 16 (6): 521-548 2010
Language: English
Abstract: Neuroscience research on auditory processing pathways and their behavioral and electrophysiological correlates has taken place largely outside the field of clinical neuropsychology. Deviations and disruptions in auditory pathways in children and adolescents result in a well-documented range of developmental and learning impairments frequently referred for neuropsychological evaluation. This review is an introduction to research from the last decade. It describes auditory cortical and subcortical pathways and processes and relates recent research to specific conditions and questions neuropsychologists commonly encounter. Auditory processing disorders' comorbidity with ADHD and language-based disorders and research addressing the challenges of assessment and differential diagnosis are discussed.
ISSN: 0929-7049
DOI: 10.1080/09297041003783310
IDS Number: 675XM

*Record 2 of 3. Search terms matched: DISABILITIES(2); DISABILITY(1); EN(1); LEARNING(3)
*Click Here to View Full Record
*Order Full Text [ ]
Title: Visual Perception and Memory Impairments in Children at Risk of Nonverbal Learning Disabilities
Authors: Mammarella, IC; Pazzaglia, F
Author Full Names: Mammarella, Irene C.; Pazzaglia, Francesca
Source: CHILD NEUROPSYCHOLOGY 16 (6): 564-576 2010
Language: English
Abstract: Visuospatial working memory (VSWM) and visual perception were examined in two groups aged 11-13, one with children displaying symptoms of nonverbal learning disability (NLD) (n = 18) and the other a control group without learning disabilities (n = 18). The two groups were matched for general verbal abilities, age, gender, and socioeconomic level. The children were presented with VSWM tests involving visual and spatial-simultaneous processes, and also with a classical visual illusion, a classical ambiguous figure, as well as visual perception tests specifically devised for the present study. Results revealed that performance of children at risk of NLD was worse than controls in some VSWM and in visual perception tests without memory involvement; these latter required comparisons of visual stimuli and locations in space with distractors. Moreover, the two groups differed in perceiving the classical ambiguous figure. Findings are discussed in the light of both theoretical and clinical implications.
ISSN: 0929-7049
DOI: 10.1080/09297049.2010.485125
IDS Number: 675XM

*Record 3 of 3. Search terms matched: EN(1)
*Click Here to View Full Record
*Order Full Text [ ]
Title: Processing Speed Weakness in Children and Adolescents with Non-Hyperactive but Inattentive ADHD (ADD)
Authors: Goth-Owens, TL; Martinez-Torteya, C; Martel, MM; Nigg, JT
Author Full Names: Goth-Owens, Timothy L.; Martinez-Torteya, Cecilia; Martel, Michelle M.; Nigg, Joel T.
Source: CHILD NEUROPSYCHOLOGY 16 (6): 577-591 2010
Language: English
Abstract: DSM-IV-TR defines ADHD-Predominantly Inattentive as allowing up to five symptoms of hyperactivity/impulsivity, while theories of the inattentive type usually assume a group that is hypoactive and characterized by processing speed and cognitive interference deficits. In a community-recruited sample of 572 children and adolescents, a pure inattentive subtype of ADHD (ADD) was defined as those who met DSM-IV-TR criteria for ADHD-PI but had two or fewer hyperactive/impulsive symptoms. Processing and output speeds of those with ADD were compared to those identified with DSM-IV-TR ADHD combined type and non-ADHD controls. These results were then contrasted with those found when DSM-IV-TR defined ADHD-PI was compared with ADHD-C and controls. Processing and output speed were assessed with the Trailmaking A and B and the Stroop Naming Tests. Cognitive interference control was assessed with the interference score from the Stroop Task. Slower cognitive interference speed was found in the ADD vs. ADHD-C and controls comparisons, but not the ADHD-PI versus ADHD-C and controls comparisons. On output speed measures, ADD exhibited the slowest performance, significantly different from controls and the effect size for the set-shifting speed contrast (Trailmaking B) was double that of the ADHD-PI vs. control comparison. ADHD-Inattentive type as defined by the DSM-IV-TR is a heterogeneous condition with a meaningful proportion of those affected exhibiting virtually no hyperactive/impulsive symptoms. This subgroup may represent a distinct inattentive condition characterized by poor cognitive interference control and slow processing or output speed.
ISSN: 0929-7049
DOI: 10.1080/09297049.2010.485126
IDS Number: 675XM




Thursday, November 25, 2010

Research byte: Relationship between working memory, memory span and fluid intelligence (Gf)




As per usual when I make a research byte/brief post, if anyone would like to read the original article, I can share via email---with the understanding that the article is provided in exchange for a brief guest post about it's contents. :) (contact me at iap@earthlink.net if interested). Also, if figure/images are included in the post, they can usually be made larger by clicking on the image.


Pascale M.J. Engel de Abreu, Andrew R.A. Conway, Susan E. Gathercole. Working memory and fluid intelligence in young children. Intelligence 38 (2010) 552–561

Abstract

The present study investigates how working memory and fluid intelligence are related in young children and how these links develop over time. The major aim is to determine which aspect of the working memory system—short-term storage or cognitive control—drives the relationship with fluid intelligence. A sample of 119 children was followed from kindergarten to second grade and completed multiple assessments of working memory, short-term memory, and fluid intelligence. The data showed that working memory, short-term memory, and fluid intelligence were highly related but separate constructs in young children. The results further showed that when the common variance between working memory and short-term memory was controlled, the residual working memory factor manifested significant links with fluid intelligence whereas the residual short-term memory factor did not. These findings suggest that in young children cognitive control mechanisms rather than the storage component of working memory span tasks are the source of their link with fluid intelligence.





The findings of this study are very similar to a series of SEM models I ran with indicators from the WJ III. The WJ III CHC-based models also showed that memory span (Gms-MS) was a causal factor for working memory (Gsm-MW) which in turn had a significant causal effect on g (and not just Gf). The primary difference was that these WJ III based analyses also included processing speed (Gs) as a causal influence on MS and MW but, consistent with the developmental cascade hypothesis Gs did not have a direct causal effect on Gf (it was mediated thru Gsm-MS-MW). In addition, these models included a much broader array of indicators of g, inclusive of Gc, Gv, Ga, Glr, and Gf.


- iPost using BlogPress from my Kevin McGrew's iPad


Research byte: Foundational numerical capacities and math disabilities (dyscalculia)

Interesting article in a special issue of Trends in Cognitive Science--Space, Time and Number

Foundational numerical capacities and the origins of dyscalculia, by Brian Butterworth. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, December 2010, Vol. 14, No. 12

Abstract

One important cause of very low attainment in arithmetic (dyscalculia) seems to be a core deficit in an inherited foundational capacity for numbers. According to one set of hypotheses, arithmetic ability is built on an inherited system responsible for representing approximate numer-osity. One account holds that this is supported by a system for representing exactly a small number (less than or equal to four4) of individual objects. In these approaches, the core deficit in dyscalculia lies in either of these systems. An alternative proposal holds that the deficit lies in an inherited system for sets of objects and operations on them (numerosity coding) on which arith-metic is built. I argue that a deficit in numerosity coding, not in the approximate number system or the small number system, is responsible for dyscalculia. Neverthe-less, critical tests should involve both longitudinal studies and intervention, and these have yet to be carried out.



As per usual when I make a research byte/brief post, if anyone would like to read the original article, I can share via email---with the understanding that the article is provided in exchange for a brief guest post about it's contents. :) (contact me at iap@earthlink.net if interested). Also, if figure/images are included in the post, they can usually be made larger by clicking on the image.


- iPost using BlogPress from my Kevin McGrew's iPad


Research byte: Temporal processing (sampling) theory of dyslexia







An interesting article suggesting that temporal processing (temporal sampling) may play a crucial roles in various forms of reading disabilities (dyslexia). IMHO this theory may explain a good portion of individuals with dyslexia, but no single theory or causal mechanism can account for the diversity of causes that have been suggested for severe reading disabilities. Nevertheless...the prominent role of temporal processing is interesing.

As per usual when I make a research byte/brief post, if anyone would like to read the original article, I can share via email---with the understanding that the article is provided in exchange for a brief guest post about it's contents. :) (contact me at iap@earthlink.net if interested). Also, if figure/images are included in the post, they can usually be made larger by clicking on the image.

If nothing else, this article has some cool figures of models :)

Usha Goswami, A temporal sampling framework for developmental dyslexia, Trends in Cognitive Sciences, In Press, Corrected Proof, Available online 18 November 2010, ISSN 1364-6613, DOI: 10.1016/j.tics.2010.10.001.
(http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/B6VH9-51H497T-1/2/28fbdeb2c2e67c43775242a445a171f3)

Abstract

Neural coding by brain oscillations is a major focus in neuroscience, with important implications for dyslexia research. Here, I argue that an oscillatory `temporal sampling' framework enables diverse data from developmental dyslexia to be drawn into an integrated theoretical framework. The core deficit in dyslexia is phonological. Temporal sampling of speech by neuroelectric oscillations that encode incoming information at different frequencies could explain the perceptual and phonological difficulties with syllables, rhymes and phonemes found in individuals with dyslexia. A conceptual framework based on oscillations that entrain to sensory input also has implications for other sensory theories of dyslexia, offering opportunities for integrating a diverse and confusing experimental literature.



















- iPost using BlogPress from my Kevin McGrew's iPad