Sunday, January 31, 2010

Intellectual heterogeneity of MR/ID as evidence against AAIDD "stuck on g" green manual: Even in cleary genetic-based syndromes (Williams Syndrome)

In the last in my series of posts re: concerns I have with the AAIDD 11th Edition ID definition and classification manual, one  point I raised (re: my concern for the AAIDD "stuck on g" position) was the fact that individuals with ID/MR should not be stereotyped as having a single type of cognitive disability (simply poor g---which also implies, for many, a "flat profile" of cognitive abilities). 

Although not so stated in the AAIDD manual, the elevation of general intelligence to such high status, combined with statements that current intelligence measures are not available to reliably and validly assess multiple cognitive abilities (a statement that is simply wrong--see PPT show link in last post in series), implicitly has the potential to convey this stereotype.  I argued that individuals with ID/MR show just as much heterogeneity in profiles of cognitive abilities as individuals without ID/MR.

This past week a colleague reminded me of one article that makes my point clear.  Within the field of ID/MR, there are a number of rare genetic-based disorders.  Such genetically-based disorders typically result in a greater degree of similarity (homogeneity) among individuals with the condition.  Williams syndrome (WS) is one such ID/MR disorder.  Of course, individuals with WS are not those being evaluated in typical Atkins death penalty cases, but the common assumption and lore is that WS individuals show a "syndrome-specific pattern of cognitive strengths/weaknesses"----high verbal abilities and much lower visual-spatial abilities.

I would argue, as have others, that this WS syndrome-specific cognitive stereotype is largely due to the fact that historically MR/ID researchers only had the V/P organized Wechsler batteries as their primary IQ battery...and that the "profile" may be due to this research being constrained by batteries that did not validly measure a greater breadth of cognitive functioning.  This is not a criticism of the past research, as researchers had limited theories of intelligence and measures of constructs from which to work.  However, now that CHC theory has emerged as the consensus psychometric model of cognitive abilities and, more importantly, there are a significant number of well-standardized and psychometrically sound IQ batteries of multiple cognitive abilities, I'm not surprised that a syndrome with a strong genetic core, which typically results in more within-group similarity, when measured by more contemporary CHC-based IQ batteries display considerable variability/heterogeneity in patterns of cognitive abilities. 

Below is the abstract for  2005 study that reported that WS individuals do NOT display the classic and historical syndrome-specific pattern of cognitive strengths and weaknesses when measured with a more contemporary CHC-based cognitive battery (WJ-R:  conflict of interest note--I am a coauthor of the next edition..the WJ III).

This study clearly suggests that even a population of individuals with a shared genetic causal mechanism display significant individual differences in patterns of cognitive abilities.  If this is found in ID/MR populations with a strong shared genetic causal mechanism, one would be hard-pressed to argue that such variability does not exist for more milder forms of ID/MR and the general population.

My point (again)---I'm very concerned that the AAIDD 11th Edition ID manual's "stuck on g" position is out of synch with contemporary intelligence theory and measurement and has the potential to cause serious harm when potentially life-altering decisions are made on the basis of a single g-based composite IQ scores that ignores the heterogeneity of human cognitive abilities across the ability spectrum and different disorders.

Porter, M. A. & Coltheart, M.  Cognitive Heterogeneity in Williams Syndrome.  Developmental Neuropsychology, 27 (2), 275-306. (click here to view article)

This study used the Woodcock-Johnson Tests of Cognitive Ability-Revised to investigate a wide range of cognitive abilities in people with Williams syndrome (WS). It involved a comparatively large sample of 31 people with WS, but took a case-series approach. The study addressed the widespread claims of a characteristic "WS cognitive profile" by looking for heterogeneity rather than homogeneity. People with WS showed a variety of preserved (significantly above mental age [MA]), expected (at MA), and significantly impaired (significantly below MA) levels of functioning. Such results provide clear evidence for heterogeneity in cognitive functions within WS. We found the most homogeneity on a test of phonological processing and a test of phonological short-term memory, with half of the WS sample performing at MA levels on these tests. Interestingly, no WS individual showed a weakness on a test of nonverbal reasoning, and only one WS individual showed a weakness on a test of verbal comprehension. In addition, we found that strengths on analysis-synthesis and verbal analogies occurred only for WS individuals with an MA less than 5.5 years (our sample median MA); people with an MA greater than 5.5 years performed at MA level on these 2 tests. Results also provided preliminary evidence for distinct subgroups of WS people based on their cognitive strengths and weaknesses on a broad range of cognitive functions. On the basis of the findings, caution should be made in declaring a single cognitive profile that is characteristic of all individuals with WS. Just as there is heterogeneity in genetic and physical anomalies within WS, not all WS individuals share the same cognitive strengths and weaknesses. Also, not all WS individuals show the profile of a strength in verbal abilities and a weakness in spatial functions.

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Welcome to the blogosphere: PsychFeeder

PsychFeeder has been added to the blogroll.  A nice blog for keeping up to date on the latest in peer review related to school psychology.

IQs Corner Recent Literature of Interest 01-30-10

This weeks "recent literature of interest" is now available. Click here to view or download.

Information regarding this feature, its basis, and the reasons for type of references included in each weekly installment can be found in a prior post.

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Friday, January 29, 2010

iPost: Caution urged in admin of neuropsych tests to Spanish speaking individuals

More info at BRAIN INJURY blog link below

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Quantoids corner: Methodology: European Journal of Research Methods for the Behavioral and Social Sciences - Volume 6, Issue 1

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A new issue is available for the following Hogrefe & Huber journal:

Methodology: European Journal of Research Methods for the Behavioral and Social Sciences

Volume 6, Issue 1

New developments in missing data analysis.
Page 1-2
van der Ark, L. Andries; Vermunt, Jeroen K.
Incidence of missing item scores in personality measurement, and simple item-score imputation.
Page 17-30
van Ginkel, Joost R.; Sijtsma, Klaas; van der Ark, L. Andries; Vermunt, Jeroen K.
Analysis of incomplete data using inverse probability weighting and doubly robust estimators.
Page 37-48
Vansteelandt, Stijn; Carpenter, James; Kenward, Michael G.

Thursday, January 28, 2010

iAbstract: New Flynn Effect book

  • Citation and Abstract
How to make the world smarter.
Mayer, Richard E.
PsycCRITIQUES. Vol 55(4),2010, No Pagination Specified.
Reviews the book, Human intelligence and medical illness: Assessing the Flynn effect by R. Grant Steen (see record2009-19252-000). The Flynn effect is the empirical finding—first reported by James R. Flynn in 1984 (Flynn, 1984, 1987, 2009)—that average IQ scores have been rising at a substantial rate throughout most of the 20th century in every country for which adequate data are available. Is the Flynn effect real? What is the cause of the Flynn effect? What are the implications of the Flynn effect for improving human intelligence? These are the kinds of questions addressed in this book. The 218-page volume is divided into 13 chapters on topics ranging from whether people are getting smarter, what are the causes of the increase in intelligence test scores, and what are some ways to foster further increases in human intelligence. The author's thesis is that human intelligence is really increasing, that the main cause is an improvement in public health—what can be called the "medical environment" (p. 99)—and that countries that seek to improve the intelligence of their citizenry should invest in improving health care, particularly for children. Steen seeks to back up his conclusions with considerable amounts of research evidence, often grounded in rigorous scientific experiments and quantitative analyses. The book is concise, timely, and generally well written. The author offers a balance between facts and opinions, or between scientific research studies and compassionate analyses of their implications. Looking up a cited reference at the end of the book is a tedious process, and the title of the book may not provide a clear indication of the book's contents. Overall, Human Intelligence and Medical Illness is a thought-provoking book that is well worth reading. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved)
  • Digital Object Identifier:
  • 10.1037/a0018609
Note: Your library may have purchased access to this information through another service provider.

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New Cognitive Science journal

Check it out at link below

Kevin McGrew PhD
Educational/School Psych.

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Wednesday, January 27, 2010

iAbstracts: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, Vol. 40, Issue 1 - New Issue Alert

Wednesday, January 27

Dear Valued Customer,
We are pleased to deliver your requested table of contents alert for Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders.

Volume 40 Number 1 is now available on SpringerLink

Register for Springer's email services providing you with info on the latest books in your field. ... More!
In this issue:
Original Paper
The Relationship Between Systemising and Mental Rotation and the Implications for the Extreme Male Brain Theory of Autism
Author(s)Mark Brosnan, Rajiv Daggar & John Collomosse
Online since
Page1 - 7

Original Paper
Evaluating the Use of Exploratory Factor Analysis in Developmental Disability Psychological Research
Author(s)Megan Norris & Luc Lecavalier
Online since
Page8 - 20

Original Paper
Increased White Matter Gyral Depth in Dyslexia: Implications for Corticocortical Connectivity
Author(s)Manuel F. Casanova, Ayman S. El-Baz, Jay Giedd, Judith M. Rumsey & Andrew E. Switala
Online since
Page21 - 29

Original Paper
Impaired Competence for Pretense in Children with Autism: Exploring Potential Cognitive Predictors
Author(s)Sally Bigham
Online since
Page30 - 38

Original Paper
Unimpaired Perception of Social and Physical Causality, but Impaired Perception of Animacy in High Functioning Children with Autism
Author(s)Sara Congiu, Anne Schlottmann & Elizabeth Ray
Online since
Page39 - 53

Original Paper
Clinical Characteristics Associated with Language Regression for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders
Author(s)Lauren A. Jones & Jonathan M. Campbell
Online since
Page54 - 62

Original paper
Bullying Among Adolescents With Autism Spectrum Disorders: Prevalence and Perception
Author(s)Eeske van Roekel, Ron H. J. Scholte & Robert Didden
Online since
Page63 - 73

Original Paper
ABA Versus TEACCH: The Case for Defining and Validating Comprehensive Treatment Models in Autism
Author(s)Kevin Callahan, Smita Shukla-Mehta, Sandy Magee & Min Wie
Online since
Page74 - 88

original paper
Resolution of the Diagnosis Among Parents of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: Associations with Child and Parent Characteristics
Author(s)Shahaf Milshtein, Nurit Yirmiya, David Oppenheim, Nina Koren-Karie & Shlomit Levi
Online since
Page89 - 99

Original Paper
Responses to Nonverbal Behaviour of Dynamic Virtual Characters in High-Functioning Autism
Author(s)Caroline Schwartz, Gary Bente, Astrid Gawronski, Leonhard Schilbach & Kai Vogeley
Online since
Page100 - 111

Original Paper
Sensory Processing Subtypes in Autism: Association with Adaptive Behavior
Author(s)Alison E. Lane, Robyn L. Young, Amy E. Z. Baker & Manya T. Angley
Online since
Page112 - 122

Brief Report
Brief Report: Perception and Lateralization of Spoken Emotion by Youths with High-Functioning Forms of Autism
Author(s)Kimberly F. Baker, Allen A. Montgomery & Ruth Abramson
Online since
Page123 - 129

Book review
Sally Kirk: Hope for the Autism Spectrum: A Mother and Son Journey of Insight and Biomedical Intervention
Author(s)Mojdeh Bayat
Online since
Page130 - 131

Book Review
Merope Pavlides: Animal-assisted Interventions for Individuals with Autism
Author(s)Nena Adams
Online since
Page132 - 133

Book Review
Vera Bernard-Opitz: Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Structured Teaching and Experience-Based Program for Therapists, Teachers, and Parents
Author(s)Selda Ozdemir
Online since
Page134 - 135

Book review
R. Janney and M.E. Snell: Behavioral Support: Teachers' Guides to Inclusive Practices (Second Edition)
Author(s)Christos K. Nikopoulos
Online since
Page136 - 137
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Tuesday, January 26, 2010

iAbstracts: J of Individual Differences 31(1) 2010

Journal of Individual Differences - Vol 31, Iss 1

Correspondence between the general ability to discriminate sensory stimuli and general intelligence.

Tue, Jan 26 2010 1:39 AM 
by Meyer, Christine Sandra; Hagmann-von Arx, Priska; Lemola, Sakari; Grob, Alexander

For more than a century the veracity of Spearman's postulate that there is a nearly perfect correspondence between general intelligence and general sensory discrimination has remained unresolved. Most studies have found significant albeit small correlations. However, this can be used neither to confirm nor dismiss Spearman's postulate, a major weakness of previous research being that only single discrimination capacities were considered rather than general discrimination. The present study examines Spearman's hypothesis with a sample of 1,330 5- to 10-year-old children, using structural equation modeling. The results support Spearman's hypothesis with a strong correlation (r = .78). Results are discussed in terms of the validity of the general sensory discrimination factor. In addition, age-group-specific analyses explored the age differentiation hypothesis. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved)

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Morningness-eveningness and eating disorders in a sample of adolescent girls.

Tue, Jan 26 2010 1:39 AM 
by Schmidt, Sarah; Randler, Christoph

Eating disorders and morningness-eveningness preferences are presumed to be associated with each other. We tested this hypothesis in an adolescent population using a questionnaire for morningness (CSM) and three scales of the EDI-2: drive for thinness, bulimic behavior, and body dissatisfaction. After controlling for age and BMI, we found a positive association between eveningness and all three scales; evening-oriented girls reported higher values in eating disorders. There was a positive correlation between body dissatisfaction and drive for thinness on the one side and bedtimes during the week and on the weekend on the other, again supporting the view that eveningness and eating disorders are associated. The association between circadian preference and eating disorders thus emerges already in adolescence. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved)

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Vulnerability factors for bipolar disorders as predictors of attributions in ability-based and chance-based tests.

Tue, Jan 26 2010 1:39 AM 
by Meyer, Thomas D.; Barton, Stephen; Baur, Marina; Jordan, Gabriele

The role of attributional style in bipolar disorder has received empirical support. Research suggests that a pattern of global, stable, and possibly internal attributions for positive events might even trigger mania. We tested whether hypothesized risk factors for bipolar disorder are associated with such attributions after feedback of success in an ability- and chance-based test. University students (n = 115) completed the Behavioral Inhibition and Behavioral Activation Scales (BIS/BAS) and the Hypomanic Personality Scale (HPS) to assess risk for bipolar disorder. In addition, participants were interviewed using the Structured Clinical Interview. All participants performed an ability-based (intelligence) test and a chance-based (dice-throwing) test, and success was induced by providing positive feedback regardless of their actual test performance. Attributions of perceived success were assessed after each test. Results showed that high scores on the BAS scale were generally predictive of self-serving attributions in the ability-based test, while scores on the HPS predicted a more global and self-serving attributional style in the chance-based test. Current depression, lifetime affective disorder, BIS, or the dysregulation of the BAS did not consistently predict attributions on either test. Despite some methodological limitations, results suggest that anticipated or experienced success in skill-related contexts triggers self-serving attributions in individuals scoring high on the BAS scale, while perceived positive outcome in chance-related, more unrealistic contexts triggers similar attributions in individuals scoring high on the HPS. Future research has to examine whether these overly positive attributions after positive, chance-related situations are a stable characteristic with respect to vulnerability to mania. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved)

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Sex differences on the German Wechsler Intelligence Test for Children (WISC-IV).

Tue, Jan 26 2010 1:39 AM 
by Goldbeck, Lutz; Daseking, Monika; Hellwig-Brida, Susanne; Waldmann, Hans C.; Petermann, Franz

This study investigates cognitive sex differences in child and adolescent intelligence as measured by the WISC-IV (German edition; Petermann & Petermann, 2007). It was hypothesized that there would be no differences attributable to sex in Full Scale IQ (FSIQ), but on various composite score levels. Sex effects were expected to be more pronounced during/after puberty than before. Method: The standardization sample of the German WISC-IV (N = 1650) was used to assess and evaluate sex differences in test performance across defined age groups (6–9, 10–12, and 13–16 years). Results: At all ages, there were no gender effects in the Full-Scale IQ, but gender effects favoring boys in the Verbal Comprehension Index (t = 3.94, p

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Investigating measures of achievement motivation(s).

Tue, Jan 26 2010 1:39 AM 
by Ziegler, Matthias; Schmukle, Stefan; Egloff, Boris; B�hner, Markus

After a long debate there is now growing agreement that implicit and explicit achievement motivation can be seen as distinct constructs. One of their major differences lies in their predictive validity, which supposedly differs depending on the setting. Empirical evidence exists to the effect that different explicit measures based on different theoretical concepts build one construct. For implicit measures, however, such evidence is lacking. Thus, scores on three implicit and three explicit achievement motivation measures, an intelligence test, and a Big 5 questionnaire were obtained (N = 150) as well as two criteria. The explicit achievement motivation measures were classified as being based either on Murray's or on McClelland's theory. Results replicate the idea of a common construct for explicit measures but not for implicit measures. The assumed predictions did not occur for all tests and disappeared when controlling for intelligence. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved)

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Self-reported cognitive failures: Competing measurement models and self-report correlates.

Tue, Jan 26 2010 1:39 AM 
by Wilhelm, Oliver; Witth�ft, Michael; Schipolowski, Stefan

The Cognitive Failure Questionnaire (CFQ) is a well-known and frequently used self-report measure of cognitive lapses and slips, for example, throwing away the candy bar and keeping the wrapping. Measurement models of individual differences in cognitive failures have failed to produce consistent results so far. In this article we establish a measurement model distinguishing three factors of self-reported cognitive failures labeled Clumsiness, Retrieval, and Intention forgotten. The relationships of the CFQ factors with a variety of self-report instruments are investigated. Measures of minor lapses, neuroticism, functional and dysfunctional self-consciousness, cognitive interference, and memory complaints provide evidence across several studies for the interpretation of self-reported cognitive failures as an aspect of neuroticism that primarily reflects general subjective complaints about cognition. We conclude that self-report measures about cognition ought to be interpreted as expressing worries about one's cognition rather than measuring cognitive abilities themselves. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved)

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AAIDD intellectual disability manual (11th edition): Intelligence component -1 standard deviation below average: Final in 3-part series

[Note...this is cross-blog post.  It also has been posted to IQs Corner sister blog--ICDP]

This is my third (and final) comment in my series of comments re: the intellectual component of the new AAIDD ID/MR definition and classification manual.  I urge readers, if they have not done so, to read my original post.  In the first post I outlined the reason for the series.  I also highlighted positive features of the AAIDD component (chapter 4) of the manual and acknowledged that no manual will be perfect.  In the second post, I presented a comparative analysis of the literature cited in the 2002 and 2010 manuals regarding the nature and definition of intelligence. It was my conclusion that the 2010 manual (11th edition-the green book) failed to incorporate significant consensus-based advances regarding the nature of psychometric theories of intelligence and contemporary intelligence tests based upon these theories.

This final post is intended to provide the foundations for the conclusions in my second critical analysis post. To be honest, I've struggled with how to articulate these concerns in a brief format. This has been the major reason for the delay in this final post. I've struggled with not wanting to be a simple critic who does not offer substantive evidence or guidance. More importantly, I did not want to be a critic who did not try to help rectify the issues identified. Thus, I decided to take a more ambitious educational approach to my concerns regarding the AAIDD ID 2010 manual. Thus, my final post in the form of a lengthy PowerPoint presentation that is intended to educate and provide background information regarding my criticisms.

Below is a description of the PowerPoint presentation which is available via my SlideShare space.  This is an online  presentation that can also be downloaded to your respective hard drive for off-line viewing and use. In addition, I have made available a PDF copy of the slides presentation can be accessed by clicking here. [Warning....the PDF version is very large...30+MB....and should only be downloaded when you have a high speed connection]

Description of presentation:  This presentation traces the evolution of psychometric theories of intelligence from Spearman's g to contemporary CHC. In addition, it simultaneously tracks the evolution of psychometric tests of intelligence as they relate to psychometric theories. Finally, there is a special emphasis on tracking changes in the AAMR/AAIDD intellectual disability (mental retardation) classification manuals over the same period. It is concluded that despite significant advances in psychometric theories of intelligence and contemporary psychometric intelligence tests, the official 2010 AAIDD manual is significantly behind these developments. The 2010 AAIDD manual is "stuck on g" and has failed to incorporate advances in both psychometric theories and tests of intelligence.  A significant intelligence theory--AAIDD ID/MR definition gap exists tat has potential serious consequences for individuals with ID/MR.

Below is my final set of critical summary comments (2nd slide from the end) presented at the end of the presentation.
Despite the widespread acceptance and recognition of the contemporary CHC (aka Extended Gf-Gc) theory of intelligence by intelligence scholars, a 2002 national panel of MR/ID experts, and the clear movement in applied IQ test development to test batteries grounded in the CHC framework, AAIDD continues to be “stuck on g”

The AAIDD definition of intelligence is out-of-date.  A major intelligence theory—AAIDD ID definition gap exists

Contemporary intelligence scholars, experts, and test developers recognize that although g (general intelligence)  may exist at the apex of the CHC taxonomy of human cognitive abilities, there are broad (stratum II) abilities that are important (i.e., have differential validities) that can be assessed and, when interpreted appropriately, can provide a more valid and multidimensional picture of an individuals intellectual functioning.

AAIDD’s continued use of the statement (with regard to measurement of multiple cognitive abilities) that “until such measures of multiple intelligences can be assessed reliably and validly, it is the position of AAIDD that intellectual functioning…is best conceptualized and captured by a general factor of intelligence” is simply wrong!  Reliable and valid measures of the broad CHC ability domains exist and have been published  in most intelligence batteries published from 1989 to 2008. 

The AAIDD g-position is at odds with the known heterogeneity of abilities within the ID (and general) population and fails to recognize that although a g-based total composite score may often represent the best single index of a person’s intellectual functioning, often the g-based composite score may lead to inaccurate conclusions regarding a person’s intellectual functioning and in these cases more attention should be focused on the component part scores.  The stuck on g position has the potential to result in serious consequences for individuals, such as denial of special education services; denial of SS benefits, and unjust execution as in “Atkins MR/ID death penalty cases”.

As I stated in my original post, "ideally I hope that my forthcoming critical comments, combined with a spirited back-and-forth dialogue, will produce productive scholarly discourse, discourse that may result in AAIDD upgrading/revising their current written statement regarding the first prong of an ID diagnosis—intellectual functioning (Chapter 4) via new position papers or journal articles, web-based clarifications, and/or the publication of more specific professional guidelines."  Finally, I extend an invitation to members of the committee (that drafted the 2010 manual) to forward  me any professional responses to my series,  which I will post as "guest post responses" at the ICDP blog.

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Friday, January 22, 2010

iPost: Brain decides when it has enough info and constrains more?


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Neurolaw article

PDF copy of interesting article at link below

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iPost: Heritability of face perception

Abstract at link below

Kevin McGrew PhD
Educational/School Psych.

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Monday, January 18, 2010

On the road again--blogging lite at MSPA: Jan 18-22

I will be on the road again.  I will be attending and presenting at the Minnesota School Psychologists Association conference in Mpls, MN Wed-Friday.  Monday (today) and Tuesday are booked with preparation for my presentation.

I don't expect much time to blog...except for possible "push" type FYI posts re: content posted at other blogging (check out the is very cool...but, of course, I tend to be a tech nerd)......

I shall return.

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Sunday, January 17, 2010

Friday, January 15, 2010

Weiss & Daniel respond to "Wechsler-like IQ scaled score metric..." post

Below is a response to my prior post regarding Wechsler-like scaled score issues.  The response was on the NASP listserv and the authors gave me permission to reproduce it "as is" below.  I'm pleased that they concur with the recommendations at the end of the paper post.

Kevin McGrew's argument can be turned around to show that using subtest score metrics with larger SDs also may lead to misinterpretation if a change of 1 raw score point leads to a change of many standard score points. So, the issue is not as simple as which subtest metric is better (e.g, the Wechsler / Kaufman metric or the WJ metric). The issue is better framed in terms of making the right choice of metric based on how it fits with the underlying RS distribution. Appropriate fit between the RS and SS distributions is necessary to avoid
misinterpretation due to SS metrics that are either too large or small.

We agree with his suggested guidelines at the end of the full paper.

Larry Weiss
Mark Daniel

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Thursday, January 14, 2010

iPost: Journal of Psychoeducational Assessment Table of Contents for 1 February 2010; Vol. 28, No. 1

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Journal of Psychoeducational Assessment

Journal of Psychoeducational Assessment Online Table of Contents Alert

A new issue of Journal of Psychoeducational Assessment is available online:
1 February 2010; Vol. 28, No. 1

The below Table of Contents is available online at:

Applying the Multiple Dimensions of Reading Fluency to Assessment and Instruction
Virginia W. Berninger, Robert D. Abbott, Pamala Trivedi, Erin Olson, Laura Gould, Sandra Hiramatsu, Marta Holsinger, Margaret McShane, Heather Murphy, Jennifer Norton, Annie Scuilli Boyd, and Susanna York Westhaggen
Journal of Psychoeducational Assessment 2010;28 3-18

Identifying Students With Learning Disabilities: Composite Profile Analysis Using the Cognitive Assessment System
Leesa V. Huang, Achilles N. Bardos, and Rik Carl D'Amato
Journal of Psychoeducational Assessment 2010;28 19-30

Is the Structure of Affect Similar for Younger and Older Children? Cross-Sectional Differences in Negative and Positive Affectivity
Bryan B. Bushman and Susan L. Crowley
Journal of Psychoeducational Assessment 2010;28 31-39

Age, Race, and Gender Differences in Depressive Symptoms: A Lifespan Developmental Investigation
Bruce A. Bracken and Cristina Reintjes
Journal of Psychoeducational Assessment 2010;28 40-53

Frequencies of T-Score Differences Between Achenbach Child Behavior Checklist and Teacher's Report Form Summary Scales
Milton E. Harris and Meghan Tiedemann-Fuller
Journal of Psychoeducational Assessment 2010;28 54-59

Using Generalized Mantel-Haenszel Statistics to Assess DIF Among Multiple Groups
Ángel M. Fidalgo and João D. Scalon
Journal of Psychoeducational Assessment 2010;28 60-69

Concurrent Validity of the TONI-3
Sandra H. Banks and Michael D. Franzen
Journal of Psychoeducational Assessment 2010;28 70-79

Test Review: Process Assessment of the Learner-Second Edition
Lisa S. Peterson, Andrew Martinez, and Terez L. Turner
Journal of Psychoeducational Assessment 2010;28 80-86