And more evidence for ADHD as being related to poor brain network connectivity. (click here for more posts) Click on images to enlarge.
And, again, this extant research is consistent with the three-level hypothesized explanation of the impact of certain brain training programs on controlled attention (click here for special white paper as well as on-line PPT modules and keynote video presentation of this model).
I just skimmed the article below. I like the way it uses the terms external/internal-directed (ECD/ICD) cognition framework to discuss the differences and relations between the activities of the default brain network and the executive control networks (click here for excellent article explaining these two networks)
Click on images to enlarge
I resonate to this EDC/IDC framework as it is relevant to my white paper on improving attentional control (via IM training--although the paper, IMHO, is more about how different brain training programs may work). That hypothesized model is in the figure above, and can be found at the MindHub.
Excellent review article on the relationship between the development of self-regulated learning strategies/competence and school readiness. Having worked in the schools as a school psychologist for 12 years, I would like to have a buck for every time a kindergarten teacher described children who where struggling in terms of self-regulation--although they did not use that term. A must ready for anyone working with preschool and early elementary students and stuff.
Click on images to enlarge. For more on self-regulated learning as per the Model of Academic Competence and Motivation (MACM), click here.
This research is also consistent with my previously posted white-paper on brain networks, temporal processing (brain clock) and cognitive efficiency processing with a strong influence of white matter integrity (paper is written around explaining the efficacy of the IM intervention but can also be viewed as a three level explanation of how brain networks influence working memory, attentional control, and executive functioning).
First, forget multitasking and try mono-tasking. Focus on just one thing...it may be beneficial.
Next, I have frequently blogged about the default mode or default brain network (Brain Clock posts; IM-HOME post). The default mode (which is estimated to be active approximately 40% of our waking day) has been implicated in how our mind, when idling or resting, is very active--it does not rest while resting. Difficulty quieting the default network has also been implicated in a variety of clinical disorders such as ADHD, Alzheimers, schizophrenia, and autism. This literature is now frequently referred to as mind wandering research (see Brain Clock mind wandering posts). The following is a nice brief overview of the default brain network.
I have also suggested that some brain fitness technologies (Interactive Metronome in particular; conflict of interest disclosure--I serve as a paid external consultant to IM regarding research) are achieving success by either directly or indirectly training controlled, focused attention, which requires shutting down and inhibiting the mind wandering predisposition of the default mode network. I have posted both a set of PPT slides and the video of my recent IM keynote presentation at the Brain Clock blog where I presented the relevant research and hypotheses in detail.
Finally, a more lengthy, thought provoking video is presented last. This video makes it clear that the brain is best conceptualized as an evolving interconnected network.
Keynote presentation by Dr. Kevin McGrew at the 2012 Interactive Metronome professional conference in San Antonio, Texas. Dr. McGrew
presents his three-levels of interpretation research and theory-based
hypothesis re: the reason IM improves cognitive performance across
different domains. The primary message focuses on improving focus
(controlled attention), working memory and executive functions. Recent
brain network research implicates improve brain network communication
via white matter tracts, particularly the Parietal-Frontal Integration
Theory (P-FIT) of intelligence.
Taping was from a distance so the audio, at
times, is weak. Listening with ear buds suggested. Also, a non-audio version of the complete set of PPT slides is available for more reflective viewing via my SlideShare account.
[Heads up - the "cat" video clip near the beginning is not a mistake. Don't think that YouTube has done something weird--I comment on the interpretation of the cat video after it is over]
Below is a snippet of a part of the larger video that explains the key concepts and PPT-based animations that are used in the Keynote presentation.
Finally, if you are unfamiliar with the IM technology, you might want to watch the following brief introductory video before viewing the Keynote video. The video is a bit dated with regard to current understanding of how IM may work, as explained in the Keynote video above. However, it is a good video for understanding the task demands of IM
As noted in my conflict of interest disclosure statement, I am an external paid consultant to IM (Director of Research and Science)
I just learned that the following article is soon to be
here for journal info)
[Click on image to enlarge]
This is the second peer-reviewed article to demonstrate a significant positive impact of Interactive
Metronome (IM) training on certain reading behaviors in a study with both
experimental and control groups.The
other study was one I was involved with (Taub, McGrew, & Keith, 2007; the abstract
is presented below).You can access that
complete 2007 manuscript at the Brain
[Click image to enlarge]
In the new Ritter et al. study, IM was combined with reading
and language interventions in school-age children that had language and reading
impairments.This will be called the
IM+language/reading intervention experimental group (IM+).Half of the subjects
were randomly assigned to this experimental group (n=21).The other subjects (n=28) were randomly
assigned to the same language/reading intervention, but without IM.So, this study
is not a pure investigation of the isolated benefits of IM.Instead, it should be viewed as a study that
investigated whether IM training could be a good “add on” component to other
interventions focused on language and reading.The outcome domain assessed was various components of reading
Both groups demonstrated statistically
significant gains in reading rate/fluency and comprehension.However, the IM+ demonstrated statistically significant
stronger gains than the language/reading intervention only (control) group.This suggests that IM may be a useful adjunct intervention to be used with other more
traditional academic related treatments directed at reading improvement.
Similar to the Taub et al. (2007) study, the IM+ students showed more improvement
(over the control students) in reading
fluency/rate.This consistent finding
across both studies has been hypothesized to be due to either (a)improvements in speed of cognitive processing, which results in greater efficiency
and automaticity in reading words, (b) greater controlled attention (focus) which improves working memory functioning, or (c) a combination of both.
The new study differed from the earlier study in that IM+ group displayed greater reading
comprehension gains than the academic only intervention group.Taub et al. (2007) found no improvement in reading
comprehension.Given that both groups
received the same language and reading comprehension treatment, it is
hypothesized that the addition of IM may be impacting some cognitive processes
that facilitate reading comprehension.I
agree with Ritter et al. (2012) that a viable hypothesis is that by increasing
focus (attentional control) the students working memory’s were more efficient.Working memory is the minds limited capacity
“mental workbench” (just think of trying to recall a new phone number you just
looked up in the phone book).Increased
attentional control (focus) increases the ability to actively maintain
information just read in working memory long enough for it to be associated
with material retrieved from long-term memory—thus “hooking” newly read
information into the person’s store of acquired knowledge.Click here for a recent brief video (I
think…therefore IM) where I explain the role of focus and working memory
and how it may facilitate higher level cognitive processing, comprehension,
Of course, the small total sample (n=49) suggests some
degree of caution.But when combined
with the Taub et al. (2007) study with larger samples, this form of replication
in a new sample provides more support for the academic benefits (especially
ease and rate of reading words) of IM interventions in school-age children.Independent replication is a cornerstone of
Very thought provoking review in the prestigious Annual Review of Neuroscience that provides insights into the possible domain-general learning that may occur during some video games that may generalize to other learning domains and brain plasticity.
Click on image to enlarge
Posted using BlogPress from Kevin McGrew's iPad www.themindhub.com
An interesting research synthesis that helps sort out the positive impact of different types of psychological mediation on different outcomes. I am particularly interested in the support for meditation techniques that emphasis control of attention (e.g., focusing on breathing; a tone; etc.) given the parallels I have written about with regard to the Interactive Metronome neurotechnology.
http://www.iqscorner.com/2012/05/visual-graphic-tools-for-implementing.htmlPosted using BlogPress from Kevin McGrew's iPad www.themindhub.com
Trends in Cognitive Sciences, January 2012, Vol. 16, No. 1
I just skimmed this excellent article which is consistent with the hypothesis that problems with controlled attention (focus) may be responsible for a number of the behavioral symptoms of ADHD....and this is due to the poor ability to suppress the random self-talk of the default brain network. As per the IQs Reading feature, an annotated copy of the article is now available.
Based on my reading and research regarding Interactive Metronome technology, I advanced the position that the efficacy of this technology in improving focus or controlled attention is that it helps to "quiet the busy mind" that is due to the REST (random, episodic, spontaneous thought or thinking) of the default brain network. In simple terms, poor ability to suppress or quiet the default network results in poor controlled attention and focus...and one has a hard time with inhibiting the intrusion of these task-irrelevant thoughts when trying to engage in controlled, deliberate cognitive tasks.
This article reviews research that suggests that ADHD may be a default brain network disorder. The authors state "In 2007, Sonuga-Barke and Castellanos suggested that ADHD could be considered a default network disorder"...and the authors of the current article agree.
Most of my readers are aware of my interest in brain-clock based neurotechnologies particularly as they relate to improving cognitive functioning. All posts related to this area of interest, as well as posts linking readers to other neuroscience developments, can be found at the Brain Clock blog.
I drill down deeper into Interactive Metronome as a guest blogger at the IM-Home blog. Now all my IM-related posts can be viewed via one URL. I hope readers check out these posts and become more aware of the exciting neurotechnologies that are emerging based on the concept of temporal processing and the human brain clock.
Most of my readers are aware of my interest in brain-clock based neurotechnologies particularly as they relate to improving cognitive functioning. All posts related to this area of interest, as well as posts linking reader to other neuroscience developments, can be found at the Brain Clock blog.
I drill down deeper into Interactive Metronome as a guest blogger at the IM-Home blog. Now all my IMr-relatedposts can be viewed via one URL. I hope readers check out these posts and become more aware of the exciting neurotechnologies that are emerging based on the concept of temporal processing and the human brain clock.