Tuesday, October 29, 2013

Literacy and Numeracy Are More Heritable Than Intelligence in Primary School


 
 
Shared via feedly // published on PSYCHOLOGICAL SCIENCE - Web of Knowledge // visit site
Literacy and Numeracy Are More Heritable Than Intelligence in Primary School
Title: Literacy and Numeracy Are More Heritable Than Intelligence in Primary School
Author(s): Kovas, Yulia; Voronin, Ivan; Kaydalov, Andrey; et al.
Source: PSYCHOLOGICAL SCIENCE, 24 (10): 2048-2056 OCT 2013
IDS#: 233GC. ISSN: 0956-7976




Training the Approximate Number System Improves Math Proficiency


 
 
Shared via feedly // published on PSYCHOLOGICAL SCIENCE - Web of Knowledge // visit site
Training the Approximate Number System Improves Math Proficiency
Title: Training the Approximate Number System Improves Math Proficiency
Author(s): Park, Joonkoo; Brannon, Elizabeth M.
Source: PSYCHOLOGICAL SCIENCE, 24 (10): 2013-2019 OCT 2013
IDS#: 233GC. ISSN: 0956-7976




Memory assessment and depression: Testing for factor structure and measurement invariance of the Wechsler Memory Scale-Fourth Edition across a clinical and matched control sample [feedly]


 
 
Shared via feedly // published on JOURNAL OF CLINICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL NEUROPSYCHOLOGY - Web of Knowledge // visit site
Memory assessment and depression: Testing for factor structure and measurement invariance of the Wechsler Memory Scale-Fourth Edition across a clinical and matched control sample
Title: Memory assessment and depression: Testing for factor structure and measurement invariance of the Wechsler Memory Scale-Fourth Edition across a clinical and matched control sample
Author(s): Pauls, Franz; Petermann, Franz; Lepach, Anja Christina
Source: JOURNAL OF CLINICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL NEUROPSYCHOLOGY, 35 (7): 702-717 AUG 2013
IDS#: 219NG. ISSN: 1380-3395




Article: A Tale of Two BRAINS: #BRAINI and DARPA's SUBNETS




Article: Does brain training work? Yes, if it meets these 5 conditions



******************************************************
Kevin McGrew, PhD
Educational Psychologist
Director, Institute for Applied Psychometrics
IAP
******************************************************

Daniel Ferguson: Big Data opens a world of opportunity in health, psychology, neuroscience [feedly]


 
 
Shared via feedly // published on SharpBrains // visit site
Daniel Ferguson: Big Data opens a world of opportunity in health, psychology, neuroscience
Daniel Ferguson

Daniel Ferguson

Please tell us about your interest in applied brain science. What areas are you most interested in? 
I am mostly intrigued by brain training and behavioral response using neuro/biofeedback and augmented/virtual reality.

What is one important thing you are working on now, and where can people learn more about it? 
We are working on ways to leverage augmented reality for fully immersive experiences that can impact mood. This will allow us to work with patients even if they are on the other side of the world.

What excites you the most about your current line of work?
As the Founder of the New Dawn Advanced Mind and Body Research and Development, I am passionate about helping people that suffer with depression, bipolar, pain and childhood issues that the current health system often wipes off as ""too hard."

What are 1–2 key things you'd like every person to understand regarding his/ her own brain and mind, that you think is commonly misrepresented or not addressed in the popular media? 
I believe few people understand that anyone can refine mind state easily, either via meditation, EEG technology or even a single breath.

Where do you see clear "low-hanging fruit" to enhance behavioral and brain health based on neuroscience and innovation? 
Using cutting edge technology, we can envision producing an interactive virtual reality that responds to the user's mind state using neuro/biofeedback. We are looking at a whole new world of brain training and human machine interaction.

What surprised you the most at the 2013 SharpBrains Virtual Summit? 
The big data elements of the technology that is already available, which can open a world of opportunity in health, psychology and neuroscience.

Finally, what do YOU do to stay sharp? 
Biofeedback for mind state training.

2013 SharpBrains Summit—This con­ver­sa­tion is part of the inter­view series with Speak­ers and Par­tic­i­pants in the 2013 Sharp­Brains Vir­tual Sum­mit (Sep­tem­ber 19-20th). Previous interviews include:


Sunday, October 27, 2013

Individual differences in info processing - new Schneider & McGrew (2013) chapter

I am pleased to announce the publication of the following chapter in The Handbook of Educational Theories. Click here to review/read the chapter.

 

WISC-IV GAI and CPI in Psychoeducational Assessment

WISC-IV GAI and CPI in Psychoeducational Assessment
Bremner, D.; McTaggart, B.; Saklofske, D. H.; Janzen, T.
Canadian Journal of School Psychology, Vol. 26 Issue 3 – 2011: 209 - 219

10.1177/0829573511419090

Social-Emotional Predictors of Postsecondary Enrollment for Students with Disabilities: Findings from a Nationally Representative Sample

Social-Emotional Predictors of Postsecondary Enrollment for Students with Disabilities: Findings from a Nationally Representative Sample
Kaprolet, Charles M.; Sullivan, Amanda L.
Exceptionality, Vol. 21 Issue 3 – 2013: 158 - 175

10.1080/09362835.2013.802232

Creativity, visualization abilities, and visual cognitive style

Creativity, visualization abilities, and visual cognitive style
Kozhevnikov, Maria; Kozhevnikov, Michael; Yu, Chen Jiao; Blazhenkova, Olesya
British Journal of Educational Psychology, Vol. 83 Issue 2 – 2013: 196 - 209

10.1111/bjep.12013

Saturday, October 26, 2013

Assessment of Processing Speed in Children with Mild TBI: A “First Look” at the Validity of Pediatric ImPACT

Assessment of Processing Speed in Children with Mild TBI: A "First Look" at the Validity of Pediatric ImPACT
Newman, Julie B.; Reesman, Jennifer H.; Vaughan, Christopher G.; Gioia, Gerard A.
The Clinical Neuropsychologist, Vol. 27 Issue 5 – 2013: 779 - 793

10.1080/13854046.2013.789552

The influence of parents' education in the Italian standardization sample of the WISC-III

The influence of parents' education in the Italian standardization sample of the WISC-III
Cianci, Laura; Orsini, Arturo; Hulbert, Sabina; Pezzuti, Lina
Learning and Individual Differences, Vol. 28 – 2013: 47 - 53

10.1016/j.lindif.2013.09.009
*

Article: MIND Reviews: The Gap


MIND Reviews: The Gap
http://www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=mind-reviews-the-gap


Friday, October 25, 2013

Article: Journal of Intelligence



******************************************************
Kevin McGrew, PhD
Educational Psychologist
Director, Institute for Applied Psychometrics
IAP
******************************************************

DARPA allocates $70 million for improving deep brain stimulation technology [feedly]


 
 
Shared via feedly // published on The Neurocritic // visit site
DARPA allocates $70 million for improving deep brain stimulation technology


In what appears to be an exclusive story, the New York Times has reported that the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) will spend $70 million over the next 5 years to further develop and improve deep brain stimulation (DBS) techniques. This funding is part of President Obama's BRAIN Initiative.
Agency Initiative Will Focus on Advancing Deep Brain Stimulation

By JAMES GORMAN
Published: October 24, 2013

. . .

The federal Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, known as Darpa, announced Thursday that it intended to spend more than $70 million over five years to jump to the next level of brain implants, either by improving deep brain stimulation or by developing new technology.

Justin Sanchez, Darpa program manager, said that for scientists now, "there is no technology that can acquire signals that can tell them precisely what is going on with the brain."

And so, he said, Darpa is "trying to change the game on how we approach these kinds of problems."

The new program, called Systems-Based Neurotechnology and Understanding for the Treatment of Neuropsychological Illnesses, is part of an Obama administration brain initiative, announced earlier this year, intended to promote innovative basic neuroscience. Participants in the initiative include Darpa, as well as the National Institutes of Health and the National Science Foundation.

The announcement of Darpa's goal is the first indication of how that research agency will participate in the initiative. The money is expected to be divided among different teams, and research proposals are now being sought.

I couldn't find a news announcement on DARPA's website or a request for research proposals. The program hasn't even been mentioned in their Twitter feed!

On the other hand, the NIH Director's BRAIN Advisory Committee issued its Interim Report (PDF) on September 16. The report is focused primarily on animal models, including improved technologies for recording neuronal activity and manipulating circuit function. Section 6d mentions Devices for Monitoring and Stimulating the Human Brain, but mostly in the context of recruiting patients as research participants.1

DARPA tends to fund, shall we say, very ambitious (and unorthodox) research projects. For BRAIN, they want to develop a device that can monitor and detect the symptoms of a psychiatric illness, deliver appropriate DBS, and record neural activity to determine whether the treatment was successful.2 The article continues:
Darpa's goal would require solving several longstanding problems in neuroscience, one of which is to develop a detailed model of how injuries or illnesses like depression manifest themselves in the systems of the brain.

The next step is to create a device that can monitor the signs of illness or injury in real time, treat them appropriately and measure the effects of the treatment. The result would be something like a highly sophisticated pacemaker for a brain disorder.

Darpa is asking for research teams to produce a device ready to be submitted to the Food and Drug Administration for approval within five years.

"Is it overambitious? Of course," said Dr. Mayberg, adding that working with the brain is "a slow process." But she said that it was an impressive first investment and that the clear emphasis on human illness was "stunning."

The driving force of the research program is to improve treatments for combat veterans who suffer from mental and physical conditions. These are pressing needs for DARPA, problems that warrant immediate solutions. This is one government agency that doesn't want to wait around for "a slow process" to yield results...


Footnotes

1 Oddly, the NYT article says NIH "has not decided on its emphasis, appears to be aiming for basic research, based on the recommendations from a working committee advising the agency." I thought the 58 page report provided detail on NIH's emphasis.

2 Perhaps they would also like a device to predict (and prevent) criminal offending, like in this rough sketch:
Is it possible for a brain scan to predict whether a recently paroled inmate will commit another crime within 4 years? A new study by Aharoni et al. (2013) suggests that the level of activity within the anterior cingulate cortex might provide a clue to whether a given offender will be rearrested.

Dress this up a bit and combine with a miniaturized brain-computer interface that continuously uploads EEG activity to the data center at a maximum security prison. There, machine learning algorithms determine with high accuracy whether a given pattern of neural oscillations signals the imminent intent to reoffend that will trigger deep brain stimulation in customized regions of prefrontal cortex, and you have the plot for a 1990s cyberpunk novel.



*******************************************
Kevin McGrew, PhD
Educational Psychologist
Director, IAP
*******************************************

Thursday, October 24, 2013

PEBS Neuroethics Roundup (JHU) [feedly]


 
 
Shared via feedly // published on Neuroethics & Law Blog // visit site
PEBS Neuroethics Roundup (JHU)
Last Edition's Most Popular Article(s): Evolution and Bad Boyfriends, New York Times Sunday Review In The Popular Press Perceiving Is Believing, PLoS Blogs Memory Modification, Emotions, and Social "Collective" Memory I (by Greg Caramenico), Neuroethics & Law Blog Tibetan monastics...



*******************************************
Kevin McGrew, PhD
Educational Psychologist
Director, IAP
*******************************************

Article: Learning to modulate one's own brain activity: the effect of spontaneous mental strategies.


Learning to modulate one's own brain activity: the effect of spontaneous mental strategies.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24151462?dopt=Abstract

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*******************************************
Kevin McGrew, PhD
Educational Psychologist
Director, IAP
*******************************************

Wednesday, October 23, 2013

Attentional control in early and later bilingual children [feedly]


 
 
Shared via feedly // published on COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT - Web of Knowledge // visit site
Attentional control in early and later bilingual children
Title: Attentional control in early and later bilingual children
Author(s): Kapa, Leah L.; Colombo, John
Source: COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT, 28 (3): 233-246 JUL-SEP 2013
IDS#: 225LQ. ISSN: 0885-2014



*******************************************
Kevin McGrew, PhD
Educational Psychologist
Director, IAP
*******************************************

Think3d!: Training Spatial Thinking Fundamental to STEM Education [feedly]


 
 
Shared via feedly // published on COGNITION AND INSTRUCTION - Web of Knowledge // visit site
Think3d!: Training Spatial Thinking Fundamental to STEM Education
Title: Think3d!: Training Spatial Thinking Fundamental to STEM Education
Author(s): Taylor, Holly A.; Hutton, Allyson
Source: COGNITION AND INSTRUCTION, 31 (4): 434-455 OCT 2013
IDS#: 223GL. ISSN: 0737-0008



*******************************************
Kevin McGrew, PhD
Educational Psychologist
Director, IAP
*******************************************

Bifactor Modeling and the Estimation of Model-Based Reliability in the WAIS-IV [feedly]


 
 
Shared via feedly // published on MULTIVARIATE BEHAVIORAL RESEARCH - Web of Knowledge // visit site
Bifactor Modeling and the Estimation of Model-Based Reliability in the WAIS-IV
Title: Bifactor Modeling and the Estimation of Model-Based Reliability in the WAIS-IV
Author(s): Gignac, Gilles E.; Watkins, Marley W.
Source: MULTIVARIATE BEHAVIORAL RESEARCH, 48 (5): 639-662 SEP 2013
IDS#: 226PS. ISSN: 0027-3171



*******************************************
Kevin McGrew, PhD
Educational Psychologist
Director, IAP
*******************************************

Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Third Edition profiles and their relationship to self-reported outcome following traumatic brain injury [feedly]


 
 
Shared via feedly // published on JOURNAL OF CLINICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL NEUROPSYCHOLOGY - Web of Knowledge // visit site
Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Third Edition profiles and their relationship to self-reported outcome following traumatic brain injury
Title: Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Third Edition profiles and their relationship to self-reported outcome following traumatic brain injury
Author(s): Harman-Smith, Yasmin E.; Mathias, Jane L.; Bowden, Stephen C.; et al.
Source: JOURNAL OF CLINICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL NEUROPSYCHOLOGY, 35 (8): 785-798 OCT 2013
IDS#: 226TQ. ISSN: 1380-3395



*******************************************
Kevin McGrew, PhD
Educational Psychologist
Director, IAP
*******************************************

Tuesday, October 22, 2013

Article: Online Course: How to Be Your Own Brain Fitness Coach


Online Course: How to Be Your Own Brain Fitness Coach
http://sharpbrains.com/online-course-how-to-be-your-own-brain-fitness-coach-in-2012/

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*******************************************
Kevin McGrew, PhD
Educational Psychologist
Director, IAP
*******************************************

Article: Babies Are Born With Some Math Skills



*******************************************
Kevin McGrew, PhD
Educational Psychologist
Director, IAP
*******************************************

IQ testing can be series business-life or death: Hall v. Florida : SCOTUSblog


 
Navigated from Hall v. Florida : SCOTUSblog | shared via feedly mobile



*******************************************
Kevin McGrew, PhD
Educational Psychologist
Director, IAP
*******************************************

Sunday, October 20, 2013

Key CHC Theory Articles by Kevin McGrew (10-20-13 update)

I'm often asked for copies of the key Cattell-Horn-Carroll (CHC) theory of cognitive abilities articles or book chapters I have written.  Today I finally bite the bullet and scanned my 1997 and 2005 chapters into PDF files.  Together with my 2009 editorial in Intelligence, the following are the three most current manuscripts I've authored that  provide an overview and history of CHC theory and its role in intellectual assessment.  A special sidebar section will be added to the blog so readers can locate this source page quickly when needed.
 
  • Schneider, W. J., & McGrew, K. (2012).  The Cattell-Horn-Carroll model of intelligence. In, D. Flanagan & P. Harrison (Eds.), Contemporary Intellectual Assessment: Theories, Tests, and Issues (3rd ed.) (p. 99-144). New York: Guilford. (click here)
  • McGrew, K. (2009).  Editorial:  CHC theory and the human cognitive abilities project: Standing on the shoulders of the giants of psychometric intelligence research, Intelligence, 37, 1-10. (click here)
  • McGrew, K. S. (2005).  The Cattell-Horn-Carroll (CHC) theory of cognitive abilities:  Past, present and future. In D. Flanagan, & Harrison (Eds.), Contemporary intellectual assessment: Theories, tests, and issues-Second Edition (p.136-202). New York: Guilford Press. (click here)
    • A pre-pub. web-based version of this chapter, which includes links to additional resources and materials not in the final published chapter, can be found by clicking here.
    • McGrew, K. (1997).  Analysis of the major intelligence batteries according to a proposed comprehensive Gf-Gc framework.  In D.P. Flanagan, J.L. Genshaft, & P.L. Harrison (Eds).  Contemporary intellectual assessment:  Theories, tests, and issues (p. 151-180).  New York:  Guilford. (click here)

    Additional historical CHC timeline information is available in the CHC Timeline Project

    Other CHC-related theory and assessment references can be found in my resume.

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    Does g (general intelligence) exist? Schneider & McGrew's (2012) position







    Click on images to enlarge for reading. This is from "The Cattell-Horn-Carroll Theory of Intelligence" chapter (warning...thus is large 20MB file)in Flanagan and Harrison's 3rd edition of Contemporary Intellectual Assessment.


    - Posted using BlogPress from my iPad

    INTRODUCTION TO THE SPECIAL ISSUE: ADOLESCENTS AND ADULTS ON THE AUTISM SPECTRUM via BrowZine

    INTRODUCTION TO THE SPECIAL ISSUE: ADOLESCENTS AND ADULTS ON THE AUTISM SPECTRUM
    Wilczynski, Susan M.
    Psychology in the Schools, Vol. 50 Issue 9 – 2013: 863 - 865

    10.1002/pits.21714

    Sharing Change Over Time: Conducting Longitudinal Studies of Children's Cognitive Development via BrowZine

    Change Over Time: Conducting Longitudinal Studies of Children's Cognitive Development
    Grammer, Jennie K.; Coffman, Jennifer L.; Ornstein, Peter A.; Morrison, Frederick J.
    Journal of Cognition and Development, Vol. 14 Issue 4 – 2013: 515 - 528

    10.1080/15248372.2013.833925

    Article: A New Map of How We Think: Top Brain/Bottom Brain - Wall Street Journal


    A New Map of How We Think: Top Brain/Bottom Brain - Wall Street Journal
    http://stream.wsj.com/story/latest-headlines/SS-2-63399/SS-2-358634/

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    *******************************************
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    Educational Psychologist
    Director, IAP
    *******************************************

    Talk in Georgia about modifying its (too) tough approach to Atkins death penalty issue [feedly]


     
     
    Shared via feedly // published on Sentencing Law and Policy // visit site
    Talk in Georgia about modifying its (too) tough approach to Atkins death penalty issue
    This new AP article, headlined "Ga. to review tough death penalty provision," reports about talk of possible reform to Georgia's application of the constitutionally mandated death penalty exception for the mentally retarded. Here are excerpts:

    The state that was the first to pass a law prohibiting the execution of mentally disabled death row inmates is revisiting a requirement for defendants to prove the disability beyond a reasonable doubt — the strictest burden of proof in the nation.

    A state House committee is holding an out-of-session meeting Thursday to seek input from the public. Other states that impose the death penalty have a lower threshold for proving mental disability, and some don't set standards at all....

    Georgia's law is the strictest in the U.S. even though the state was also the first, in 1988, to pass a law prohibiting the execution of mentally disabled death row inmates. The U.S. Supreme Court followed suit in 2002, ruling that the execution of mentally disabled offenders is unconstitutional....

    Thursday's meeting comes against the backdrop of the case of Warren Lee Hill, who was sentenced to die for the 1990 beating death of fellow inmate Joseph Handspike, who was bludgeoned with a nail-studded board as he slept. At the time, Hill was already serving a life sentence for the 1986 slaying of his girlfriend, Myra Wright, who was shot 11 times. Hil

    l's lawyers have long maintained he is mentally disabled and therefore shouldn't be executed. The state has consistently argued that his lawyers have failed to prove his mental disability beyond a reasonable doubt. Hill has come within hours of execution on several occasions, most recently in July. Each time, a court has stepped in at the last minute and granted a delay based on challenges raised by his lawyers. Only one of those challenges was related to his mental abilities, and it was later dismissed.

    A coalition of groups that advocate for people with developmental disabilities pushed for the upcoming legislative committee meeting and has been working to get Georgia's standard of proof changed to a preponderance of the evidence rather than proof beyond a reasonable doubt. Hill's case has drawn national attention and has shone a spotlight on Georgia's tough standard, they say.

    The process has taken an enormous amount of education, said Kathy Keeley, executive director of All About Developmental Disabilities. Rather than opposition to or support for the measure she's pushing, she's mostly encountered a lack of awareness about what the state's law says, she said. The groups are hoping to not only express their views at the meeting, but also to hear from others to get a broader perspective, Keeley said. The changes should be relatively simple and very narrow in scope, targeting only the burden of proof for death penalty defendants, she said.

    Ashley Wright, district attorney for the Augusta district and president of the state District Attorneys' Association, said prosecutors question the logic of changing a law that they don't see as problematic and that has repeatedly been upheld by state and federal courts. "The district attorneys don't believe that you change a law for no reason and, in this case, the law appears to be working," she said. "Where has a jury done a disservice? Why are we putting all our eggs in the defendant's basket and forgetting that there's a victim?"

    Prosecutors agree that the mentally disabled shouldn't be executed, and defendants are frequently spared the death penalty when there is proof of their mental disability supported by appropriate documentation from credible and reliable experts, she said.

    But Hill's lawyer, Brian Kammer, argues that psychiatric diagnoses are complex, and "experts who have to make diagnoses do not do so beyond a reasonable doubt, they do it to a reasonable scientific certainty." Furthermore, he said, disagreements between experts make the beyond-a-reasonable-doubt standard nearly impossible to meet.... In Hill's case, a state court judge concluded the defendant was probably mentally disabled. In any other state, that would have spared him the death penalty, Kammer said.




    *******************************************
    Kevin McGrew, PhD
    Educational Psychologist
    Director, IAP
    *******************************************

    Friday, October 18, 2013

    Article: BrainTech: Six Take-aways on Neuroplasticity and Cognitive training



    *******************************************
    Kevin McGrew, PhD
    Educational Psychologist
    Director, IAP
    *******************************************

    School achievement isn't just in your genes [feedly]


     
     
    Shared via feedly // published on New Scientist - Online news // visit site
    School achievement isn't just in your genes
    Anyone who asserts that educational attainment is in large part inherited needs a lesson in modern genetics, says biologist Steven Rose
        









    *******************************************
    Kevin McGrew, PhD
    Educational Psychologist
    Director, IAP
    *******************************************

    Thursday, October 17, 2013

    The Heritability of Intelligence: Not What You Think [feedly]


     
     
    Shared via feedly // published on Scientific American - Mind & Brain // visit site
    The Heritability of Intelligence: Not What You Think
    [More]

    -- Read more on ScientificAmerican.com



    *******************************************
    Kevin McGrew, PhD
    Educational Psychologist
    Director, IAP
    *******************************************

    Article: Brain Health meets Digital Health



    *******************************************
    Kevin McGrew, PhD
    Educational Psychologist
    Director, IAP
    *******************************************

    Working Memory Differences Between Children Living in Rural and Urban Poverty [feedly]


     
     
    Shared via feedly // published on Cogn-IQ // visit site
    Working Memory Differences Between Children Living in Rural and Urban Poverty

    Michele Tine. Working Memory Differences Between Children Living in Rural and Urban Poverty. Journal of Cognition and Development, 2013; : 130614095141000 DOI: 10.1080/15248372.2013.797906

    LINK

    Authors

    Michele Tinea

    Abstract

    This study was designed to investigate if the working memory profiles of children living in rural poverty are distinct from the working memory profiles of children living in urban poverty. Verbal and visuospatial working memory tasks were administered to sixth grade students living in low-income rural, low-income urban, high-income rural, and high-income urban developmental contexts. Both low-income rural and low-income urban children showed working memory deficits compared to their high-income counterparts, but their deficits were distinct. Low-income urban children exhibited symmetrical verbal and visuospatial working memory deficits compared to their high-income urban counterparts. Meanwhile, low-income rural children exhibited asymmetrical deficits when compared to their high-income rural counterparts, with more extreme visuospatial working memory deficits than verbal working memory deficits. These results suggest that different types of poverty are associated with different working memory abilities.




    *******************************************
    Kevin McGrew, PhD
    Educational Psychologist
    Director, IAP
    *******************************************

    Wednesday, October 16, 2013

    Article: Why is a widely-used concussion test failing to protect athletes?


    Why is a widely-used concussion test failing to protect athletes?
    http://www.theverge.com/2013/10/16/4842176/what-causes-impact-concussion-test-forms-unreliability

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    *******************************************
    Kevin McGrew, PhD
    Educational Psychologist
    Director, IAP
    *******************************************

    Tuesday, October 15, 2013

    Article: The nature and extent of working memory dysfunction in schizophrenia - Cao - 2013 - PsyCh Journal


    The nature and extent of working memory dysfunction in schizophrenia - Cao - 2013 - PsyCh Journal
    http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/pchj.30/full

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    *******************************************
    Kevin McGrew, PhD
    Educational Psychologist
    Director, IAP
    *******************************************

    Sunday, October 13, 2013

    Article: Finnish Doctors Are Prescribing Video Games for ADHD





    *******************************************
    Kevin McGrew, PhD
    Educational Psychologist
    Director, IAP
    *******************************************

    Article: Removal of information from working memory: A specific updating process


    Removal of information from working memory: A specific updating process
    http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0749596X13000752

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    *******************************************
    Kevin McGrew, PhD
    Educational Psychologist
    Director, IAP
    *******************************************

    Saturday, October 12, 2013

    Sharing Sleep and Cognition in Preschool Years: Specific Links to Executive Functioning via BrowZine

    Sleep and Cognition in Preschool Years: Specific Links to Executive Functioning
    Bernier, Annie; Beauchamp, Miriam H.; Bouvette-Turcot, Andrée-Anne; Carlson, Stephanie M.; Carrier, Julie
    Child Development, Vol. 84 Issue 5 – 2013: 1542 - 1553

    10.1111/cdev.12063
    *

    Sharing Observed-Score Equating: An Overview

    Observed-Score Equating: An Overview
    Davier, Alina A.
    Psychometrika, Vol. 78 Issue 4 – 2013: 605 - 623

    10.1007/s11336-013-9319-3

    Article: Picking up mistakes



    *******************************************
    Kevin McGrew, PhD
    Educational Psychologist
    Director, IAP
    *******************************************

    Friday, October 11, 2013

    Thursday, October 10, 2013

    Article: TECHdotMN — Minnesota startup Third Iron is hot


    TECHdotMN — Minnesota startup Third Iron is hot
    http://tech.mn/news/2013/10/10/third-iron-browzine/

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    *******************************************
    Kevin McGrew, PhD
    Educational Psychologist
    Director, IAP
    *******************************************

    Article: Brain Development Differs in Children Who Stutter


    Brain Development Differs in Children Who Stutter
    http://neurosciencenews.com/neurodevelopment-stuttering-brain-development-496/

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    *******************************************
    Kevin McGrew, PhD
    Educational Psychologist
    Director, IAP
    *******************************************

    FwKnowledge Alert - RESEARCH IN AUTISM SPECTRUM DISORDERS

    > Journal Name: RESEARCH IN AUTISM SPECTRUM DISORDERS (ISSN: 1750-9467)
    > Issue: Vol. 7 No. 10, 2013
    > IDS#: 218SB
    > Alert Expires: 10 JAN 2014
    > Number of Articles in Issue: 13 (13 included in this e-mail)
    > Organization ID: c4f3d919329a46768459d3e35b8102e6
    > ========================================================================
    > Note: Instructions on how to purchase the full text of an article and Thomson Reuters Science Contact information are at the end of the e-mail.
    > ========================================================================
    >
    >
    > *Pages: 1183-1195 (Article)
    > *View Full Record: http://gateway.webofknowledge.com/gateway/Gateway.cgi?GWVersion=2&SrcAuth=Alerting&SrcApp=Alerting&DestApp=CCC&DestLinkType=FullRecord;KeyUT=CCC:000324451700001
    > *Order Full Text [ ]
    >
    > Title:
    > The double ABCX model of family adaptation in families of a child with an autism spectrum disorder attending an Australian early intervention service
    >
    > Authors:
    > Paynter, J; Riley, E; Beamish, W; Davies, M; Milford, T
    >
    > Source:
    > *RESEARCH IN AUTISM SPECTRUM DISORDERS*, 7 (10):1183-1195; OCT 2013
    >
    > Abstract:
    > It is well established that families caring for a child with an autism
    > spectrum disorder (ASD) experience increased psychological distress
    > compared to other families (e.g., Baker-Ericzen, Brookman-Frazee, &
    > Stahmer, 2005; Lee et al., 2009). However, little research has captured
    > the range of variables linked to family outcomes, and research in the
    > early childhood period has been largely atheoretical. The current study
    > sought to investigate the applicability of the double ABCX Model of
    > Family Adaptation (McCubbin & Patterson, 1983) in understanding the
    > factors underlying family outcomes when children with ASD attend early
    > intervention. Participants included 43 parents (18 males, 25 females) of
    > children aged 2.5 to 6 years (M=49.35, SD = 9.21 months; 8 female, 35
    > male) with ASD who were attending an autism-specific intervention
    > service. Participants completed standardised questionnaire measures of
    > constructs of the double ABCX Model. As predicted by the model, family
    > systems outcomes (individual, relationship, or family) were linked to
    > symptom severity (challenging behaviour), pile-up demands, internal and
    > external resources, appraisals, and active-avoidant coping styles. Level
    > of ASD symptoms however, were not significantly linked to outcomes.
    > Limitations, directions for future research, and practical implications
    > are discussed. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    >
    > ========================================================================
    >
    >
    > *Pages: 1196-1203 (Article)
    > *View Full Record: http://gateway.webofknowledge.com/gateway/Gateway.cgi?GWVersion=2&SrcAuth=Alerting&SrcApp=Alerting&DestApp=CCC&DestLinkType=FullRecord;KeyUT=CCC:000324451700002
    > *Order Full Text [ ]
    >
    > Title:
    > Parent and teacher ratings of adaptive and challenging behaviours in young children with autism spectrum disorders
    >
    > Authors:
    > Lane, BR; Paynter, J; Sharman, R
    >
    > Source:
    > *RESEARCH IN AUTISM SPECTRUM DISORDERS*, 7 (10):1196-1203; OCT 2013
    >
    > Abstract:
    > This study examined parent and teacher rating correspondence of adaptive
    > and challenging behaviours for children with autism spectrum disorders
    > (ASDs) enrolled in an early intervention program. Data were collected on
    > the Behaviour Assessment System for Children, second edition (BASC-2; n
    > = 22), and Vineland Adaptive Behaviour Scales, second edition (VABS-II;
    > n = 28). Adaptive behaviour ratings generally demonstrated high
    > parent-teacher correlations, while challenging behaviour ratings
    > demonstrated relatively low correlations. Only adaptive skills on the
    > BASC-2 showed significant mean parent-teacher differences, with parent
    > ratings suggesting greater impairment. Results suggest that clinicians
    > should consider gaining both parent and teacher perspectives on a
    > child's challenging behaviour, but that a single informant measure of
    > adaptive behaviour, either parent or teacher, may be sufficient after
    > initial assessments are completed. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights
    > reserved.
    >
    > ========================================================================
    >
    >
    > *Pages: 1204-1210 (Article)
    > *View Full Record: http://gateway.webofknowledge.com/gateway/Gateway.cgi?GWVersion=2&SrcAuth=Alerting&SrcApp=Alerting&DestApp=CCC&DestLinkType=FullRecord;KeyUT=CCC:000324451700003
    > *Order Full Text [ ]
    >
    > Title:
    > Relationship between coping, rumination and posttraumatic growth in mothers of children with autism spectrum disorders
    >
    > Authors:
    > Zhang, W; Yan, TT; Du, YS; Liu, XH
    >
    > Source:
    > *RESEARCH IN AUTISM SPECTRUM DISORDERS*, 7 (10):1204-1210; OCT 2013
    >
    > Abstract:
    > This study examined the relationship between coping, rumination and
    > posttraumatic growth in mothers of children with autism spectrum
    > disorders (ASD). One hundred and two mothers of autistic children in
    > China were surveyed using Post-traumatic Growth Inventory, Trait Coping
    > Style Questionnaire, and Event Related Rumination Inventory. Mothers
    > reported mediate level of PIG, mostly on the growth of personal
    > strength. Hierarchal regression analysis indicated that positive coping
    > positively predicted PTG and growth on "relating to others"; deliberate
    > rumination was positively correlated with growth on "appreciation of
    > life"; and intrusive rumination negatively predicted growth on "personal
    > strength", "new possibilities" and "spiritual change". No statistically
    > significant relationship between negative coping and PIG was found. The
    > results may be used to provide mothers with a better understanding of
    > the underlying growth process and assist service providers in
    > facilitating this progress. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    >
    > ========================================================================
    >
    >
    > *Pages: 1211-1220 (Article)
    > *View Full Record: http://gateway.webofknowledge.com/gateway/Gateway.cgi?GWVersion=2&SrcAuth=Alerting&SrcApp=Alerting&DestApp=CCC&DestLinkType=FullRecord;KeyUT=CCC:000324451700004
    > *Order Full Text [ ]
    >
    > Title:
    > Discounting of restraint usage, problem behavior management, and risk of autism severity
    >
    > Authors:
    > Dixon, MR; Whiting, SW; Miller, JR
    >
    > Source:
    > *RESEARCH IN AUTISM SPECTRUM DISORDERS*, 7 (10):1211-1220; OCT 2013
    >
    > Abstract:
    > The current study examined whether a history of experience with children
    > with autism affected the rate of discounting of a delayed or probable
    > consequence. Experiment 1 utilized a temporal discounting task to
    > compare the discounting rates of adults who have worked in an autism
    > service setting and have experience with physical restraints to that of
    > adults who have little or no experience with these populations. The
    > results showed that adults with a history of contact with autism made
    > less optimal choices and discounted restraint responsibilities more
    > steeply than adults with no such history, indicating increased avoidance
    > of engaging in restraints. Experiment 2 investigated how the same groups
    > discounted child problem behavior, and showed that those with experience
    > with autism preferred to delay working with children with severe problem
    > behavior and discounted the student's problem behavior more steeply,
    > again demonstrating increased avoidance. Experiment 3 examined risk
    > tendencies in relation to having children with diminished functioning in
    > parents who have children with autism and those who have only worked
    > with them. Results showed that parents made riskier choices than
    > non-parents. Overall, all 3 experiments showed that those with increased
    > experience with children with autism tended toward more impulsive and
    > risky choices. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
    >
    > ========================================================================
    >
    >
    > *Pages: 1221-1227 (Article)
    > *View Full Record: http://gateway.webofknowledge.com/gateway/Gateway.cgi?GWVersion=2&SrcAuth=Alerting&SrcApp=Alerting&DestApp=CCC&DestLinkType=FullRecord;KeyUT=CCC:000324451700005
    > *Order Full Text [ ]
    >
    > Title:
    > Emotion differentiation in autism spectrum disorder
    >
    > Authors:
    > Erbas, Y; Ceulemans, E; Boonen, J; Noens, I; Kuppens, P
    >
    > Source:
    > *RESEARCH IN AUTISM SPECTRUM DISORDERS*, 7 (10):1221-1227; OCT 2013
    >
    > Abstract:
    > Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is commonly associated with reduced
    > ability to recognize emotions in others. It is less clear however,
    > whether ASD is also associated with impaired knowledge of one's own
    > emotions. In the current study we present a first examination of how
    > much knowledge individuals with ASD have about their emotions by
    > investigating their ability to differentiate between emotions. Across
    > two lab tasks that measured to what extent and how people differentiate
    > between their own feeling states and semantic emotion terms, results
    > showed that ASD individuals differentiated less than typically
    > developing individuals. Yet, both groups of participants similarly
    > categorized emotions according to previously established theoretical
    > categories. These findings indicate that while both give similar meaning
    > to emotions, individuals with ASD make less subtle distinctions between
    > emotions. With low levels of emotion differentiation being linked to
    > reduced well-being, these findings may help to better understand the
    > high prevalence of internalizing problems associated with ASD. (C) 2013
    > Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    >
    > ========================================================================
    >
    >
    > *Pages: 1228-1233 (Review)
    > *View Full Record: http://gateway.webofknowledge.com/gateway/Gateway.cgi?GWVersion=2&SrcAuth=Alerting&SrcApp=Alerting&DestApp=CCC&DestLinkType=FullRecord;KeyUT=CCC:000324451700006
    > *Order Full Text [ ]
    >
    > Title:
    > Comorbidity and autism: Trends, topics and future directions
    >
    > Authors:
    > Matson, JL; Goldin, RL
    >
    > Source:
    > *RESEARCH IN AUTISM SPECTRUM DISORDERS*, 7 (10):1228-1233; OCT 2013
    >
    > Abstract:
    > Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are common, life-long disorders.
    > Symptoms of ASD often co-occur with other difficulties that also tend to
    > be chronic and debilitating. Common co-occurring difficulties include
    > intellectual disabilities, physical conditions, comorbid
    > psychopathologies and challenging behaviors. However, the idea of
    > comorbidities among individuals with ASD is still a relatively new
    > notion. Thus, a new field of research is developing examining
    > comorbidities with ASD. This field is developing rapidly but is still
    > lacking. This paper highlights the most common forms of comorbid
    > disorders, and the future direction of research on comorbidities among
    > individuals with ASD is discussed. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights
    > reserved.
    >
    > ========================================================================
    >
    >
    > *Pages: 1234-1243 (Review)
    > *View Full Record: http://gateway.webofknowledge.com/gateway/Gateway.cgi?GWVersion=2&SrcAuth=Alerting&SrcApp=Alerting&DestApp=CCC&DestLinkType=FullRecord;KeyUT=CCC:000324451700007
    > *Order Full Text [ ]
    >
    > Title:
    > Effects of reducing stereotypy on other behaviors: A systematic review
    >
    > Authors:
    > Lanovaz, MJ; Robertson, KM; Soerono, K; Watkins, N
    >
    > Source:
    > *RESEARCH IN AUTISM SPECTRUM DISORDERS*, 7 (10):1234-1243; OCT 2013
    >
    > Abstract:
    > Researchers have shown that high levels of stereotypy in individuals
    > diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders were correlated with more
    > significant impairments in social and adaptive functioning. Reducing
    > stereotypy may thus potentially occasion an increase in appropriate
    > social and adaptive behaviors. Hence, the purpose of this systematic
    > review was to examine the effects of reducing stereotypy on engagement
    > in other behaviors. Following a thorough literature search, we
    > identified 60 studies that both reduced engagement in stereotypy and
    > measured engagement in at least one other behavior. We divided the
    > studies into six broad categories: noncontingent reinforcement,
    > differential reinforcement, punishment-based interventions, multiple
    > contingencies, physical exercise, and other antecedent-based
    > interventions. The results of our analyses suggest that reducing
    > stereotypy produces reallocation toward other behaviors, albeit not
    > necessarily appropriate. As such, clinicians and researchers targeting
    > stereotypy should plan to strengthen an appropriate alternative behavior
    > while targeting all response forms of stereotypy for reduction.
    > Moreover, our review suggests that measuring untargeted behaviors when
    > implementing interventions designed to reduce stereotypy may be
    > essential in clinical and research settings. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All
    > rights reserved.
    >
    > ========================================================================
    >
    >
    > *Pages: 1244-1249 (Article)
    > *View Full Record: http://gateway.webofknowledge.com/gateway/Gateway.cgi?GWVersion=2&SrcAuth=Alerting&SrcApp=Alerting&DestApp=CCC&DestLinkType=FullRecord;KeyUT=CCC:000324451700008
    > *Order Full Text [ ]
    >
    > Title:
    > Fine and gross motor performance of the MABC-2 by children with autism spectrum disorder and typically developing children
    >
    > Authors:
    > Liu, T; Breslin, CM
    >
    > Source:
    > *RESEARCH IN AUTISM SPECTRUM DISORDERS*, 7 (10):1244-1249; OCT 2013
    >
    > Abstract:
    > The purpose of this study was to investigate the fine and gross motor
    > performance of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and
    > age-matched typically developing children as measured by the Movement
    > Assessment Battery for Children-2 (MABC-2). Thirty children with ASD
    > (ages 3-16 years, male = 25, female = 5) and 30 age-matched typically
    > developing children (male = 16, female = 14) performed the MABC-2. Group
    > differences on MABC-2 percentile scores were analyzed using descriptive
    > data and one-way ANOVAs. Effect sizes were also calculated for practical
    > significance. Descriptive data showed that all typically developing
    > children were classified in the green zone on MABC-2. However, the
    > majority of children (80%) with ASD were categorized in the red and
    > amber zones suggesting they experienced motor difficulty or were at risk
    > for motor delay. In addition, children with ASD showed significantly
    > lower MABC-2 percentile scores than the typically developing children on
    > manual dexterity, ball skills, and static and dynamic balance, F(1, 59)
    > = 109.043, p < .001, and the effect sizes were large (>.80). In
    > conclusion, children with ASD were delayed in both fine and gross motor
    > skill performance on MABC-2 when compared to their age-matched typically
    > developing children. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    >
    > ========================================================================
    >
    >
    > *Pages: 1250-1256 (Article)
    > *View Full Record: http://gateway.webofknowledge.com/gateway/Gateway.cgi?GWVersion=2&SrcAuth=Alerting&SrcApp=Alerting&DestApp=CCC&DestLinkType=FullRecord;KeyUT=CCC:000324451700009
    > *Order Full Text [ ]
    >
    > Title:
    > Can gaze-cueing be helpful for detecting sound in autism spectrum disorder?
    >
    > Authors:
    > Zhao, S; Uono, S; Yoshimura, S; Kubota, Y; Toichi, M
    >
    > Source:
    > *RESEARCH IN AUTISM SPECTRUM DISORDERS*, 7 (10):1250-1256; OCT 2013
    >
    > Abstract:
    > Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a developmental disorder characterized
    > by impaired social interaction, including joint attention, but
    > psychological studies generally have reported intact gaze-triggered
    > joint attention in ASD. These studies used a uni-modal paradigm (i.e.
    > visual cue-target pairs) with eyes or faces as cues and letters or dots
    > as targets. However, it has not been determined whether joint attention
    > is impaired under cross-modal conditions in ASD, although cross-modal
    > impairment has been reported. This study investigated joint attention in
    > ASD under cross-modal conditions with gaze stimuli as visual cues and
    > two kinds of sound (social voice or non-social tone) stimuli as targets.
    > The task for the subject was to locate the target sound and click as
    > soon and as accurately as possible. The ASD group was impaired in joint
    > attention when a tone was used as the target, while both groups showed
    > joint attention to a voice. The results suggest that cross-modal joint
    > attention is impaired in the ASD group when the cue-target relationship
    > is weak (i.e. social cue and non-social target) while it is unimpaired
    > when there is a strong cue-target relationship (i.e. social cue and
    > social target). (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    >
    > ========================================================================
    >
    >
    > *Pages: 1257-1264 (Review)
    > *View Full Record: http://gateway.webofknowledge.com/gateway/Gateway.cgi?GWVersion=2&SrcAuth=Alerting&SrcApp=Alerting&DestApp=CCC&DestLinkType=FullRecord;KeyUT=CCC:000324451700010
    > *Order Full Text [ ]
    >
    > Title:
    > ASD intervention research in real world contexts: Refining single case designs
    >
    > Authors:
    > Bulkeley, K; Bundy, A; Roberts, J; Einfeld, S
    >
    > Source:
    > *RESEARCH IN AUTISM SPECTRUM DISORDERS*, 7 (10):1257-1264; OCT 2013
    >
    > Abstract:
    > There is a pressing need for intervention research that reflects real
    > world practice to support evidence-based decision making for families,
    > professionals and administrators who support children with ASD. Some of
    > the challenges confronting intervention research are explored, with
    > solutions offered based on single case design methodology. Challenges
    > with single case designs are also outlined and contemporary solutions
    > that are applicable in real world contexts are illustrated in a study by
    > the authors. Research utilizing these strategies may assist with
    > facilitating practitioners to engage in practice-based research to
    > bridge the research to practice gap in intervention with young children
    > with ASD. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    >
    > ========================================================================
    >
    >
    > *Pages: 1265-1272 (Article)
    > *View Full Record: http://gateway.webofknowledge.com/gateway/Gateway.cgi?GWVersion=2&SrcAuth=Alerting&SrcApp=Alerting&DestApp=CCC&DestLinkType=FullRecord;KeyUT=CCC:000324451700011
    > *Order Full Text [ ]
    >
    > Title:
    > Promoting adaptive behaviors by two girls with Rett syndrome through a microswitch-based program
    >
    > Authors:
    > Stasolla, F; Caffo, AO
    >
    > Source:
    > *RESEARCH IN AUTISM SPECTRUM DISORDERS*, 7 (10):1265-1272; OCT 2013
    >
    > Abstract:
    > We assessed a microswitch-based program to improve self-determination to
    > access to preferred stimuli and to foster locomotor behavior by two
    > girls with Rett syndrome and multiple disabilities. To enhance the first
    > behavior (access to preferred stimuli) a wobble microswitch (sensitive
    > touch sensor) was used while for the second behavior (step responses)
    > optic sensors were applied. A second aim of the study was to monitor
    > indices of happiness as consequence of the use of assistive technology.
    > Finally, a third objective of the study was the reduction of hand
    > washing and body rocking related stereotypies. The study was carried out
    > according to a multiple probe design across behaviors for both
    > participants, where the two behaviors were first learned independently,
    > then combined together. Results showed an increasing of performance and
    > of indices of happiness and a decreasing of stereotyped behaviors for
    > both participants during intervention phases. Practical, psychological
    > and clinical implications of the findings are discussed. (C) 2013
    > Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    >
    > ========================================================================
    >
    >
    > *Pages: 1273-1281 (Article)
    > *View Full Record: http://gateway.webofknowledge.com/gateway/Gateway.cgi?GWVersion=2&SrcAuth=Alerting&SrcApp=Alerting&DestApp=CCC&DestLinkType=FullRecord;KeyUT=CCC:000324451700012
    > *Order Full Text [ ]
    >
    > Title:
    > A comparison of video prompting with and without voice-over narration on the clerical skills of adolescents with Autism
    >
    > Authors:
    > Bennett, KD; Gutierrez, A; Honsberger, T
    >
    > Source:
    > *RESEARCH IN AUTISM SPECTRUM DISORDERS*, 7 (10):1273-1281; OCT 2013
    >
    > Abstract:
    > The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of video prompting
    > with and without voice-over narration on the acquisition of clerical
    > skills among five secondary students with Autism Spectrum Disorder. We
    > used an adapted alternating treatments design consisting of baseline,
    > comparison, and best treatment conditions. Results showed there were
    > negligible differences between video prompting with or without
    > voice-over narration. However, participants indicated differing
    > preferences for one method over the other. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All
    > rights reserved.
    >
    > ========================================================================
    >
    >
    > *Pages: 1282-1290 (Article)
    > *View Full Record: http://gateway.webofknowledge.com/gateway/Gateway.cgi?GWVersion=2&SrcAuth=Alerting&SrcApp=Alerting&DestApp=CCC&DestLinkType=FullRecord;KeyUT=CCC:000324451700013
    > *Order Full Text [ ]
    >
    > Title:
    > Efficacy of cognitive behavior therapy-based social skills intervention for school-aged boys with autism spectrum disorders
    >
    > Authors:
    > Koning, C; Magill-Evans, J; Volden, J; Dick, B
    >
    > Source:
    > *RESEARCH IN AUTISM SPECTRUM DISORDERS*, 7 (10):1282-1290; OCT 2013
    >
    > Abstract:
    > School-aged children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) experience
    > significant difficulty with peer interaction. Research to identify the
    > most effective strategies to address this difficulty has increased but
    > more evidence is needed. Cognitive behavior therapy (CBT), which focuses
    > on changing how a person thinks about social situations as well as how
    > he behaves, is a promising approach. This study evaluated the efficacy
    > of a 15 week CBT-based social skills intervention for boys aged 10-12
    > years diagnosed with an ASD. Boys with average or better IQ and
    > receptive language skills were randomly assigned to either a control (n
    > = 8) or intervention condition (n = 7). During intervention, boys
    > attended weekly 2 h long group sessions focusing on self-monitoring
    > skills, social perception and affective knowledge, conversation skills,
    > social problem-solving, and friendship management skills. Comparison of
    > the outcomes using repeated measures analyses indicated that boys
    > receiving the intervention scored significantly better on measures of
    > social perception, peer interaction, and social knowledge than boys who
    > had not received intervention. There were no differences on general
    > measures of socialization. The manualized intervention used in this
    > study shows promise but replication with larger samples is needed. Crown
    > Copyright (C) 2011 Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    >
    >