Sunday, July 31, 2011

On the road again..blogging lite..or not at all

Leave for APA in DC on Tuesday and return Sunday. Will be blogging lite or not at all. I shall return



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Saturday, July 30, 2011

Check out the app for APA 2011 Convention

I'm using the mobile app for APA 2011 Convention and think you'd like it too. Here is a link:
http://m.core-apps.com/apa2011

Kevin McGrew


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The Flynn Effect in MR/ID Capital Cases: Adjust or not to adjust?--That is the question". Select PPT slide images

I am in the process of finalizing a PPT presentation for an Atkins related invited symposium at APA conference next week. The title of my presentation is in the slide below. (double lick on images to enlarge)









This slide is followed by a few of the introductory slides that related to the first working paper previously posted as part of the Flynn Effect series. Eventually the entire PPT show will be uploaded for on-line viewing. Stay tuned.


























































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Research Byte: Executive function important in mental timing (temporal processing)




Another study demonstrating the importance of executive functions and and mental timing, as per the SET pacemaker-accumulator model (the dominant theoretical model)

Double click on images to enlarge.




Very nice brief understandable explanation of pacemaker-accumulator model.


Conclusion-updating process of EF implicated, which also (again) implicates the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex.



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Thursday, July 28, 2011

Wednesday, July 20, 2011

FYiPOST Journal of Educational Psychology - Online First Publications




APA Journal alert for:
Journal of Educational Psychology

The following articles have been published online this week before they appear in a final print and online issue of Journal of Educational Psychology:

Basic calculation proficiency and mathematics achievement in elementary school children.
Cowan, Richard; Donlan, Chris; Shepherd, Donna-Lynn; Cole-Fletcher, Rachel; Saxton, Matthew; Hurry, Jane

Writing strengthens orthography and alphabetic-coding strengthens phonology in learning to read Chinese.
Guan, Connie Qun; Liu, Ying; Chan, Derek Ho Leung; Ye, Feifei; Perfetti, Charles A.

The effectiveness of a question-exploration routine for enhancing the content learning of secondary students.
Bulgren, Janis A.; Marquis, Janet G.; Lenz, B. Keith; Deshler, Donald D.; Schumaker, Jean B.


FYiPOST: Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition - Online First Publications




APA Journal alert for:
Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition

The following articles have been published online this week before they appear in a final print and online issue of Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition:

Ideals and category typicality.
Kim, ShinWoo; Murphy, Gregory L.






Uncovering contrast categories in categorization with a probabilistic threshold model.
Verheyen, Steven; De Deyne, Simon; Dry, Matthew J.; Storms, Gert




Memory inhibition, aging, and the executive deficit hypothesis.
Ortega, Almudena; Gómez-Ariza, Carlos J.; Román, Patricia; Bajo, M. Teresa

The strategic nature of false recognition in the DRM paradigm.
Miller, Michael B.; Guerin, Scott A.; Wolford, George L.


Tuesday, July 19, 2011

Research brief: Orthographic processing and dyslexia

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Research bytes. Multivariate prediction of dyslexia with efficient battery

Interesting study demonstrating effective multivariate prediction of dyslexia. Click on images to enlarge.












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More on the problem with the -1 SD [15 SS (3 ss)] IQ subtest discrepancy rule-of-thumb

In a prior post I raised concerns about the use of the 1 SD (15 SS/3 ss) rule-of-thumb for evaluating differences between two IQ subtest scores that are part of the same composite or cluster. My central point was that this simplistic rule-of-thumb fails to incorporate information regarding the cohesiveness or inter-correlation of the tests within a cluster. More importantly, some human ability domains are more cohesive/tight (e.g., Gc) than others (Gv), and the resulting correlation between two compared tests require the use of the SD (diff) formula that incorporates the correlation between the tests within a domain that are to be compared.

I presented estimated SD (diff) values for select subtest comparisons within the WISC-IV and WJ III in different construct domains. The estimates used the SD (diff) formula that includes the correlation between the measures to be compared.

Knowing that some folks don't like formula's and estimates, I decided to make the point more concrete with real data. A picture is worth a thousand words (or equations).

In the prior post I reported an estimated SD (diff) for the comparison of the WJ III Verbal Comprehension and General Information Gc tests of 9.9, based on their average correlation (across all norm subjects) of .78.

Today I went to the WJ III NU norm data and subtracted all General Information SS's from Verbal Information SS. I then calculated summary stats and generated the histogram below. [Click on image to enlarge]



Beautiful...don't you think? A normal distribution centered on zero (Mean = -0.5) and with an actual data-based SD of 9.8 (9.8 is almost identical to the 9.9 value resulting from the equation method).

Study the graph. It clearly shows that if clinicians want to determine if the WJ III Verbal Comprehension and General Information SS's are 1 SD different (1 SD[diff], technically), then a difference of approximately 10 points is what an examiner should look for...not 15! If an examiner uses the inaccurate rule-of-thumb (i.e, difference of 15 points is 1 SD), in reality the examiner, in the case of these two WJ III Gc tests, is actually requiring a difference of -1.5 SD (diff)....or 15 points.

See prior post for lengthier discussion of the logic, equations, and danger in invoking a subtest difference rule-of-thumb of -1 SD=15 (or, -1 SD = 3 for scaled scores).



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Saturday, July 16, 2011

A workout for working memory: APA article

Good summary of contemporary research on training working memory and the importance of controlled attention

http://www.apa.org/monitor/sep05/workout.aspx


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Friday, July 15, 2011

Humor break: Correlation does not prove causality

Click on image to enlarge. Another great comic from xkcd.


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Intelligent IQ testing: Joel Schneider on proper interpretation of composite/cluster scores







Dr. Joel Schneider has (again) posted an amazing and elegant video tutorial to help individuals who engage in intelligence test interpretation understand whether composite/cluster scores should be interpreted as valid when the individual subtests comprising the composite are significantly different or discrepant (according to Dr. Schneider--"short answer: not very often"). It is simply AWESOME...and makes me envious that I don't have the time or skills to develop similar media content.

His prior and related video can be found here.

Clearly the message is that the interpretation of test scores is not simple and is clearly a mixture of art and science. As Tim Keith once said in a journal article title (1997)...."Intelligence is important, intelligence is complex." This should be modified to read "intelligence is important, intelligence is complex, and intelligent intelligence test interpretation is also complex."


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Brain bugs@brainfitness, 7/14/11 5:56 PM

Brain Fitness (@brainfitness)
7/14/11 5:56 PM
Why is our brain good at some things, but not as good at others? http://n.pr/o2DGXy (via @NPR)


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Wednesday, July 13, 2011

WMF Human Cognitive Abilities Archive Project: Major update 7-13-11


The free on-line WMF Human Cognitive Abilities (HCA) archive project had a MAJOR update today. An overview of the project, with a direct link to the archive, can be found at the Woodcock-Muñoz Foundation web page (click on "Current Woodcock-Muñoz Foundation Human Cognitive Abilities Archive") . Also, an on-line PPT copy of a poster presentation I made at the 2008 (Dec) ISIR conference re: this project can be found by clicking here.


Today's update added the following 29 new data sets from John "Jack" Carroll's original collection.  We now have approximately 40% of Jack Carroll's original datasets archived on-line.

  • PIMS01/PIMS02  Pimsleur, P., Stockwell, R. P., 7 Comrey, A. L. (1962). Foreign language learning ability. Journal of Educational Psychology, 53, 15-26.
  • PEDU01   Pedulla, J. J., Airasian, P. W., & Madaus, G. F. (1980). Do teacher ratings and standardized test result of students yield the same information? American Educational Research Journal, 17, 303-307.
  • PEMB01  Pemberton, C. (1952). The closure factors related to other cognitive processes. Psychometrika, 17, 267-288.
  • PENF01  Penfold, D. M., & Abou-Hatab, F. A. H. (1967). The factorial dimensions of verbal critical thinking. Journal of Experimental Education. 36(2), 1-12.
  • PETR01  Petrove, Y. I. (1970). [Memory structure as a psychic function] (Russian). Voprosy Psikhologii, 16(3), 132-136.
  • PETE01  Petersen, H., Guilford, J. P., Hoepfner, R., & Merrifield, P. R. (1963). Determination of "Structure-of-Intellect" abilities involved in ninth-grade algebra and general mathematics. Los Angeles: reports from the Psychological Laboratory, University of Southern California, No. 31.
  • PARA01/PARA04  Paraskevopoulos, J. N., & Kirk, S. A. (1969) The development and psychometric characteristics of the revised Illinois Test of Psycholinguistic Abilities. Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press.
  • OLSO51  Olson, J. R. (1966). A factor analytic study of the relation between the speed of visual perception and the language abilities of deaf adolescents. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Ohio State University. (University Microfilms 67-2507)
  • PATE01  Paterson, D. G., Elliott, R. M., Anderson, L. D., Toops, H. A., & Heidbreder, E. (1930). Minnesota Mechanical Ability Tests. Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota Press.
  • MOUR01  Moursy, E. M. (1952). The hierarchical organization of cognitive levels. British Journal of Statistical Psychology, 5, 151-180.
  • MOON01  Mooney, C. M. (1954). A factorial study of closure. Canadian Journal of Psychology, 8, 51-60.
  • MULL01  Mulla, M. A. (1979). Aptitude, attitude, motivation, anxiety, intolerance of ambiguity, and other biographical variables as predictors of achievement in English as a Foreign Language by high school science majors in Saudi Arabia. Unpublished Ph. D. Dissertation, University of Michigan.
  • MEEK01  Meeker, M., & Meyers, C. E. (1971). Memory factors and school success of average and special groups of ninth-grade boys. Genetic Psychology Monographs, 83, 275-308. 
  • MICH51  Michael, W. B., Zimmerman, W. S., & Guilford, J. P. (1950). An investigation of two hypotheses regarding the nature of the spatial-relations and visualization factors. Educational & Psychological Measurement, 10, 187-213.
  • MICH61/MICH62  Michael, W. B., Zimmerman, W. S., & Guilford, J. P. (1951). An investigation of the nature of the spatial-relations and visualization factors in two high school samples. Educational & Psychological Measurement, 11, 561-577. 
  • MASN01  Many, D. (1983) Cognitive and linguistic correlates of second language grammaticality judgments. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Montreal.

Request for assistance: The HCA project needs help tracking down copies of old journal articles, dissertations, etc. for a number of datasets being archived. We have yet to locate copies of the original manuscripts for a significant number of datasets that have been posted to the archive. Help in locating copies of these MIA manuscripts would be appreciated.  Please visit the special "Requests for Assistance" section of this archive to view a more complete list of manuscripts that we are currently having trouble locating. If you have access to either a paper or e-copy of any of the designated "fugitive" documents, and would be willing to provide them to WMF to copy/scan (we would cover the costs), please contact Dr. Kevin McGrew at the email address listed at the site.  A copy of the complete list or datasets with missing mannuscripts (in red font) can also be downloaded directlly from here.

Please join the WMF HCA listserv to receive routine email updates regarding the WMF HCA project.

All posts regarding this project can be found here.


Finally, it was exciting to learn that an article "in press" in the journal Intelligence utilized one of the WMF HCA archived datasets.  Information regarding that article is contained in the two images below.







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Sunday, July 03, 2011

Is Gc (as per CHC theory) a statistical concept or a real human capacity?

Thought provoking article "in press" in journal Intelligence.

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Friday, July 01, 2011

Cognitive efficiency measures as the brain's cognitive thermometer




Yet on more study linking poor global processing speed (Gs) with a clinical disorder, this time reading (again). It is very clear that during the past decade one of the most robust research findings (based on the relations between psychometric measures of abilities and all kinds of clinical disorders) is the importance of "cognitive efficiency" in identifying individuals with a wide variety of disorders.

The CHC domains of processing speed (Gs) and working memory (Gsm-WM) have repeatedly been found to be strong indicators that something is wrong in cognitive function, across many clinical disorders. I like to describe measures of cognitive efficiency (Gs+Gsm) as brain thermometers. They can tell you that the cognitive system is not operating efficiently, but they lack specificity to make specific differential diagnoses. Cognitive efficiency markers are domain-general re: Dx.

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Research Brief: How do attention and short-term/working memory relate? Neuropsychologia special issue




The journal Neuropsychologia has a new special issue dealing with the constructs of attention and short-term/working memory. The guest editors remarks can be found here.


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IQs Corner Recent Literature of Interest: 07-29-11









This weeks installment of IQ's Corner Recent Literature of Interest is now available.


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Research Brief: Impact of information on support for the death penalty: Empirical study




Lambert, E. G., Camp, S. D., Clarke, A., & Jiang, S. H. (2011). The Impact of Information on Death Penalty Support, Revisited. Crime & Delinquency, 57(4), 572-599.

In 1972, former Supreme Court Justice Marshall postulated that the public was uninformed about the death penalty and information would change their support for it. There is some indication that information about the death penalty may change people’s level of support. This study re-examines data used by Lambert and Clarke (2001). Using multivariate analyses, the impact that information has on death penalty support is tested, along with level of prior knowledge about the death penalty, personal characteristics (gender, age, political affiliation, race, being a criminal justice major, academic level), and religious factors. The results suggest that information on both deterrence and innocence leads to a reduction in death penalty support and views on the death penalty. Furthermore, the results suggest that the information presented may have varying effects among different subgroups of people.


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Law Review Article: Maroney (2011) on Adolescent Brain Science since Graham v FL




The following has been added to the ICDP Law Review Article blogroll.

Maroney, T. A. (2011). ADOLESCENT BRAIN SCIENCE AFTER GRAHAM V. FLORIDA. Notre Dame Law Review, 86(2), 765-793.


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FYiPOST: PEBS Neuroethics Roundup (JHU)

Last Edition's Most Popular Article: Genetic Basis for Crime: A New Look, New York Times In The Popular Press: How Love Makes (Some) Pain Go Away, Wired Science Sleeping babies can hear you're upset, New Scientist Moral dilemmas and fMRI,...





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