Monday, January 31, 2011

Taxonomy of metacognition@psypress, 1/31/11 10:58 AM

Psychology Press (@psypress)
1/31/11 10:58 AM
Free sample chapter from The Taxonomy of #Metacognition by Pina Tarricone for everyone! Download it here: http://goo.gl/QlM0v


Sent from Kevin McGrew's iPad
Kevin McGrew, PhD
Educational Psychologist

IQ test "practice effects"

A practice effect is a major psychometric issue in many Atkins cases, given that both the state and defense often test the defendant with the same IQ battery (most often a Wechsler), and often within a short test-retest interval. Click here to view all ICDP posts that mention practice effects.

Dr. Alan Kaufman has summarized the majority of the literature on practice effects on the Wechslers. He published an article in The Encyclopedia of Intelligence (1994; Edited by Robert Sternberg) that summarized the research prior to the third editions of the Wechsler scales. That article is available on-line (click here).

The most recent summary of the contemporary Wechsler practice effect research is in Lichtenberger and Kaufman (2009) Essentials of WAIS-IV Assessment (p. 306-309). The tables and text provide much about WAIS-IV and some about WAIS-III. The best source for WAIS-III is Kaufman and Lichtenberger, Assessing Adolescent and Adult Intelligence (either the 2002 second edition or the 2006 third edition), especially Tables 6.5 and 6.6 (2006 edition). Below are a few excerpts from the associated text from the 2006 edition

"Practice effects on Wechsler's scales tend to be profound, particularly on the Performance Scale" (p. 202)

"predictable retest gains in IQs" (p.202)

"On the WAIS-III, tests with largest gains are Picture Completion, Object Assembly, and Picture Arrangement"

"Tests with smallest gains are Matrix Reasoning (most novel Gf test), Vocabulary and Comprehension

Block Design improvement most likely due to speed variance--"on second exposure subjects may be able to respond more quickly, thereby gaining in their scores" (p. 204)

One year interval results in far less pronounced practice effects (p. 208).

"The impact of retesting on test performance, whether using the WAIS-III, WAIS-R, other Wechsler scales, or similar tests, needs to be internalized by researchers and clinicians alike. Researchers should be aware of the routine and expected gains of about 2 1/2 points in V-IQ for all ages between 16 and 89 years. They should also internalize the relatively large gain on P-IQ for ages 16-54 (about 8 to 8 1/2 points), andn the fact that this gain in P-IQ swindles in size to less than 6 points for ages 55-74 and less than 4 points for ages 75-889" (p. 209).

"Increases in Performance IQ will typically be about twice as large as increases in Verbal IQ for individuals ages 16 to 54" (p. 209)


Finally, the latest AAIDD manual provides professional guidance on the practice effect.


"The practice effect refers to gains in IQ scores on test of intelligence that result from a person being retested on the same instrument" (p. 38)

"..established clinical practice is to avoid administering the same intelligence test within the same year to the same individual because it will often lead to an overestimate of the examinee's true intelligence" (p. 38).



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Sunday, January 30, 2011

Research Byte: Cognitive neuroscience 2.0

Excellent overview article explaining meta-analysis of brain imaging studies .As per usual when I make a research byte/brief post, if anyone would like to read the original article, I can share via email---with the understanding that the article is provided in exchange for a brief guest post about it's contents. :) (contact me at iap@earthlink.net if interested). Also, if figure/images are included in the post, they can usually be made larger by clicking on the image.

Yarkoni, T., Poldrack, R. A., VanEssen, D. C., & Wager, T. D. (2010). Cognitive neuroscience 2.0: building a cumulative science of human brain function. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 14(11), 489-496.



Abstract

Cognitive neuroscientists increasingly recognize that continued progress in understanding human brain function will require not only the acquisition of new data, but also the synthesis and integration of data across studies and laboratories. Here we review ongoing efforts to develop a more cumulative science of human brain function. We discuss the rationale for an increased focus on formal synthesis of the cognitive neuroscience literature, provide an overview of recently developed tools and platforms designed to facilitate the sharing and integration of neuroimaging data, and conclude with a discussion of several emerging developments that hold even greater promise in advancing the study of human brain function.
Article Outline

Science by synthesis
The rationale
Most neuroimaging studies are underpowered
False positive results are prevalent
Direct replication is uncommon
Selective association is difficult to establish
Formal structure is needed
The methods
Data aggregation, atlasing and sharing
Meta-analysis
Ontology development
The future
Greater automation and standardization of data reporting and processing
Images, not foci
Open cognitive neuroscience
Concluding remarks
Acknowledgements
References


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Friday, January 28, 2011

Another link to Bob Williams ISIR summary post

I received a comment that the link in the prior post resulted in a corrupted PDF file. Try clicking here as an alternative.


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iPost: 2010 ISIR Conference summary of papers by Bob Williams

Bob Williams regularly attends the annual ISIR conference and usually sends me copies of his notes.  Below is a note I received from Bob.  So, if you are interested in Bob's take on the 2010 ISIR sessions.....following his link below.  I guess this could be considered a Guest Blog FYI post.

In case his long link doesn't work, I created a Tiny URL that should work:  



Kevin,

I finally finished my summary for the 2010 ISIR conference papers.  I thought you might be interested.  Sorry you missed it this year.


International Society for Intelligence Research 2010 conference summary:
http://cid-a3716d376f72e551.office.live.com/self.aspx/.Public/ISIR%202010/ISIR2010%20summary2.pdf


Bob Williams




iPost: 20 Compelling TED talks for Psychology Students

I'm passing this along based on the following request from another blog.  The TED videos are always interesting.

 We would love to share with you an article that we just posted on our own blog! (20 Compelling TED Talks for Psychology Students), is linked below and could be a fun way to share this announcement with your readers.


 (http://www.mastersdegree.net/blog/2011/20-compelling-ted-talks-for-psychology-students/)

It has been a sincere pleasure to read your great content.


Wednesday, January 26, 2011

WJ III/CHC/Etc NASP 2011 schedule - mark your calendars

Below is a listing of workshops, presentations, posters at next months NASP convention that may be of interest to IQ's Corner readers.  I am the Research Director for the Woodcock-Munoz Foundation and a co-author of the WJ III...which will explain why these various presentations and individuals are included on this list (this is a conflict of interest disclosure statement).



There are 4 Workshops (registration required) that may be of special interest to you or your students:
  • Tuesday, 2/22/11 from 6:00pm-9:00pm    WS11   Using CHC Theory to Improve Academic Intervention Selection (Ara Schmitt)
  • Thursday, 2/24/11 from 8:30am-11:30am WS36   Assessment of English Language Learners-Intermediate (Sam Ortiz)
  • Thursday, 2/24/11 from 12:30 -3:30pm     WS40   Assessment of English Language Learners-Advanced (Sam Ortiz)
  • Friday, 2/25/11 from 8:30am-3:30pm       WS 59  Essentials of SLD Identification with Case Presentations (Dawn Flanagan & Vincent Alfonso)

There are 2 poster sessions related to WMF Reseach Projects:

  • Thursday, 2/24/11 from 11:30-1:00  PO282  Will Involving Psychologists in the RTI Process Reduce Referrals?  (Robyn Rix & Leslie Lazzarini from Bethel School District)
  • Friday, 2/25/11 from 11:30-1:00  PO131  Cuba Outreach Project: Training Psychologists on Contemporary Cognitive Assessment (Patricio Romero & Melissa Marsh)

There are three sessions that are specific to the WJ III:

  • Tuesday, 2/22/11 from 5:00-5:50  PA487   Development and Interpretation of the WJ III Relative Proficiency Index (Lynne Jaffe)
  • Wednesday, 2/23/11 from 3:00-4:30  PO723 The Woodcock-Johnson's Cognitive Performance Model: Combining Theory and Practice (Gordon Taub) 
  • Friday, 2/25/11 from 1:00-1:50  PA167  Cultural and Linguistic Biases in Cognitive Assessment (Damien Cormier & Anne Hansen) 


CHC/WJIII RELATED SESSIONS

 

TUESDAY, 2/22/11 

 1:00-1:50

PA290  Who Gets Identified as SLD?  (Cathi Christo)

  5:00-5:50    

PA487  Development and Interpretation of the WJ III Relative Proficiency Index (Lynne Jaffe)

 6:00-9:00    

WS11   Using CHC Theory to Improve Academic Intervention Selection (Ara Schmitt)

 

 

WEDNESDAY, 2/23/11

 3:00-4:30

            PO670  Do G Loadings Depend on G?  (  Matthew Reynolds)

PO723  The Woodcock-Johnson's Cognitive Performance Model: Combining Theory and Practice (Gordon Taub)

 

THURSDAY, 2/24/11

 

 8:00-9:50   

MS082  Assessment of Executive Functions in the Schools   (Michael Hass)

 8:30-11:30

            WS36   Assessment of English Language Learners-Intermediate (Sam Ortiz)

 9:00-9:50   

PA491  CHC Cognitive Abilities and Math Achievement in Young Adults (Briley Proctor)

 11:30-1:00  

PO282  Will Involving Psychologists in the RTI Process Reduce Referrals?  (Robyn Rix)

12:30-3:30

            WS40   Assessment of English Language Learners-Advanced (Sam Ortiz)

 

FRIDAY, 2/25/11

 

8:30-3:30

            WS59   Essentials of SLD Identification with Case Presentations (Dawn Flanagan & Vincent Alfonso)

11:30-1:00 

PO131  Cuba Outreach Project: Training Psychologists on Contemporary Cognitive Assessment (Patricio Romero) 

1:00-1:50

   PA167  Cultural and Linguistic Biases in Cognitive Assessment (Damien Cormier & Anne Hansen) 

 

 


Other CHC/WJ III related or Other (professors from WMF Grant program - variety of topics) 

All Sessions: Either CHC/WJ III related or Other (professors from WMF Grant program - variety of topics)  

 

TUESDAY, 2/22/11

10:00-10:50  

            PA 227  Caregiver Involvement in the Education of Children in Foster Care (Kay Beisse)

10:00-11:30

            SY015  The World Health Organization's ICF: Implications for School Psychology (Nicholas Benson)

11:30-1:00   

PO294  Peer to Peer Education and Evaluation Review [RTI] in RTI (Rachel Brown-Chidsey)

 1:00-1:50    

PA168  Research Productivity and Scholarly Impact of APA-Accredited School Psychology  Programs  (John Kranzler)

PA290  Who Gets Identified as SLD?  (Cathi Christo)

 1:30-3:00   

PO760  Evaluating the Efficacy of Reading Fluency Instruction (Rachel Brown-Chidsey)

 4:00-4:50   

PA162  Direct Behavior Rating in Behavior Assessment Within a Problem-Solving Model  (Sandra Chafouleas)

 4:00-5:50   

MS171  Mindfulness Techniques To Achieve Positive Outcomes in Schools (Paula Gill Lopez)

 5:00-5:50    

PA487  Development and Interpretation of the WJ III Relative Proficiency Index (Lynne Jaffe)

 6:00-9:00    

WS11   Using CHC Theory to Improve Academic Intervention Selection (Ara Schmitt)

 

 

WEDNESDAY, 2/23/11

 

 9:30-10:20  

PA151  Initial Effects of Promoting Positive Peer Relationships Classroom Resource (Shane Jimerson)

            PA485  Validation of a Measure of Student School Engagement (Cynthia Hazel)

 1:00-2:30   

PO235  Self-Concept and Performance on the Arizona Instrument to Measure Standards (Lena Gaddis)

 3:00-4:30   

PO136  Technical Adequacy of CBM Maze Assessments (Sterett Mercer)

PO151  WISC-IV Short Forms: Are They Valid With A Referred Population (Gene Johnson)

PO363  Psychoeducational Assessment: A Survey of Current School Psychologists' Practices  (Marlene Sotelo-Dynega)

PO458  A Comparison Study Between WISC-IV and KABC-II With Referred Students (Sandra Stroebel)

PO670  Do G Loadings Depend on G?  (  Matthew Reynolds)

PO723  The Woodcock-Johnson's Cognitive Performance Model: Combining Theory and Practice (Gordon Taub)

4:00-5:50  

MS152  Eating Disorders in the School Age Population: Etiology to Intervention (Joy Fopiano)

 

THURSDAY, 2/24/11

 

 8:00-9:50   

MS082  Assessment of Executive Functions in the Schools   (Michael Hass)

 8:30-11:30

            WS36   Assessment of English Language Learners-Intermediate (Sam Ortiz)

 9:00-9:50   

PA491  CHC Cognitive Abilities and Math Achievement in Young Adults (Briley Proctor)

 9:30-11:00  

PO042  Relationships Among Elementary School Attendance and Measures of Student Achievement (Ara Schmitt)

10:00-10:45

PO441  Content of Courses and Training Experiences in Bilingual School Psychology (Emilia Lopez)

PO076  Research and Development of the HELPS Program Using Community-Engaged Scholarship  (John Begeny)

10:00-11:50  

MS015  Promoting Positive Peer Relationships A Collaborative Approach to Reducing Bullying  (Shane Jimerson)

11:30-1:00  

PO282  Will Involving Psychologists in the RTI Process Reduce Referrals?  (Robyn Rix)

12:30-3:30

            WS40   Assessment of English Language Learners-Advanced (Sam Ortiz)

 1:00-1:50   

PA334  Examining School Psychology And Rti: Yesterday, Today, And Tomorrow (Nancy Scott)

 1:00-2:30   

SY037  Combining School Psychology With Child Psychiatry To Promote School Success  (Joy Fopiano)

 1:30-3:00   

PO224  Altering Instructional Delivery Options: Does Instructional Intensity Increase Instructional Effectiveness?  (John Begeny)

 2:00-2:50  

PA054  Utility of Curriculum-Based Approaches for Students With Hearing Loss (Bryan Miller)

 2:00-3:50  

MS130  Conducting Collaborative Comprehensive Assessments With Speech Language Pathologist   (Andrew Shanock)

 3:00-3:50 

 PA243 School Psychologists Provision of Counseling Services An Exploratory Study (Timothy Hanchon)

 3:30-5:00  

PO172  Ethnic Proportionality In Special Education  (Gene Johnson)
PO155  Demographic Predictors of
Student School Engagement in Minority Youth (Cynthia Hazel)

PO283  A Multicultural Lesson Addressing Issues of Sexual Minorities (Terry Bontrager)

 

 

FRIDAY, 2/25/11

 

8:30-3:30

            WS59   Essentials of SLD Identification with Case Presentations (Dawn Flanagan & Vincent Alfonso)

9:00-9:50    

PA361  Working Through the Confusion of Emotional Disabilities Identification (Timothy Hanchon)

 9:30-11:00 

PO467  Preventing and Treating Gambling Problems in Undergraduate College Students (Karin Dittrick-Nathan)

PO837  Challenges to Collaboration in the Diagnosis and Management of ADHD (Patrick Grehan)

10:00-11:50 

MS121  Writing Useful, Accessible, and Legally Defensible Psychoeducational Reports  (Michael Hass)

11:00-11:45  

PO279  Brief Collaborative Activities for Teaching Cultural Competence (Terry Bontrager)

11:30-12:50

            SY026  Conceptualizing Issues of Training in Bilingual School Psychology  (Marlene Sotelo-Dynega)

11:30-1:00 

PO131  Cuba Outreach Project: Training Psychologists on Contemporary Cognitive Assessment (Patricio Romero)

PO840  Success at Internship, What are Crucial Intern Traits and Competencies?  (Patrick Grehan)

12:00-1:50

            MS052  Teaching Social Skills to Children With Autism A Tiered Approach (Frank Sansosti) 

 1:00-1:50

            PA167  Cultural and Linguistic Biases in Cognitive Assessment (Damien Cormier & Anne Hansen) 

 1:00-2:20

SY035  Integrating a Multicultural Lens in School Psychology Supervision (Emilia Lopez)

 1:30-3:00

            PO324  College Student' Perception of Risky Behaviors on Facebook (Kim Dielmann)

 2:00-2:50         

PA543  Intervention Strategies for School Refusal (Sandra Stroebel)

 

Blending neuropsychological and CHC psychometric IQ approaches to psych testing

Here is more on my take on how neuropsychological and CHC-based psychometric approaches to assessment can be understood and potentially blended. This is material from my keynote presentation at the Australian Neuropsychology Conference (click here for more information and a link to the PPT of the entire presentation).

Note: Images are embedded in this post. It should be possible to enlarge them by double clicking on each. If that does not work I would suggest you go to the link above and see the entire PPT show, which you can download for free.

​CHC-based neuropsychologists have integrated CHC theory into assessment practice based largely on theoretical, non-CHC empirical research, or logical analysis. Empirical CHC-based neuropsychological assessment research has been sparse. The CHC psychometric-neuropsychological assessment gap is understandable given the two respective assessment models and distinct historical backgrounds. Hoelzle (2008) noted that: (a) the psychometric concept of g has had minimal clinical utility in neuropsychological assessment and theory, (b) neuropsychological assessment has been primarily atheoretical while psychometric research has been searching for the “holy grail” theoretical structural model of intelligence since the days of Spearman, and (c) psychometric models have been primarily focused on internal structural validity while neuropsychological assessment has focused more on the practical questions regarding the ability to differentiate between neurological and normal conditions. McGrew (2010a) described these different approaches as a difference between vertical (factor analysis) trait-oriented psychometric models and more horizontal (multiple regression) functional/pragmatic external prediction neuropsychological models. These two approaches are demonstrated visually below in the two slides.







​As result of its pragmatic functional heritage, many neuropsychological assessment tests are mixed measures of multiple CHC domains. In the language of psychometric CHC Theory, many neuropsychological tests are factorially complex measures with considerable construct-irrelevant variance (when measurement of pure CHC constructs is the criterion). This contrasts with the strong emphasis in contemporary CHC intellectual assessment on developing tests that primarily measure one single CHC construct, purged as much as possible of non-relevant construct variance.

​In the absence of CHC-grounded neuropsyhological assessment research and a consensus neuropsychological assessment model, psychometric (e.g., Flanagan, Alfonso, Ortiz & Dynda, 2010; McGrew, 2010a) , neuropsychological (Strauss et al., 2006), and “blended” neuropsychological+psychometric oriented scholars (e.g., Hale & Fiorello, 2004; Miller, 2007, 2010) have, at times, presented significantly different interpretations of neuropsychological or intelligence tests. For example, more neuropsychologically oriented researchers have described the copy and recall components of Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure (ROCF) test (Meyers & Meyers, 1995, 1996) as measuring planning and organizational abilities, visual memory, visual perception, constructional abilities, motor or visual-motor ability, episodic memory, and incidental learning (Hale & Fiorello, 2004; Straus et al., 2006). Hints of CHC terminology are present in some of these terms but there is no direct mapping to CHC Theory.

Conversely, starting with the results of Hoezle’s (2008) CHC-organized mini-Carroll like meta-analysis of the results of secondary factor analysis of 77 datasets that included neuropsychological and other ability measures (this is one of the best and most comprehensive dissertations I have ever read), McGrew (2010a) suggested that the copy component of the ROCF was likely a mixed measure of Gv-SR (narrow CHC ability of spatial relations in the broad Gv or visual-spatial domain), Gp-P2 (narrow CHC ability of finger dexterity in the broad Gp or psychomotor domain), with possible visual memory (Gv-Mv) involvement. As for the ROCF recall component, McGrew (2010a) suggests that it likely measures a mixture of Gv-MV (narrow CHC visual memory in the broad Gv domain), Glr-M6 (narrow CHC free recall ability in the broad Glr or long-term storage and retrieval domain), with possible involvement of working memory (Gsm-MW). Miller (2010) provides the “blended” interpretation of the ROCF as primarily a measure of visual-perceptual organization, visual-spatial ability and visual-spatial memory (Gv) in particular. Obviously the three sets of ROCF interpretations mention a number of similar abilities, yet practitioners are likely left confused given the varying terminology and ability descriptions.

My CHC neuropsych summaries for the ROCF are presented below:






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iPost: Journal of Educational Psychology - Online First Publications



APA Journal alert for:
Journal of Educational Psychology

The following articles have been published online this week before they appear in a final print and online issue of Journal of Educational Psychology:

Orthographic analogies and early reading: Evidence from a multiple clue word paradigm.
Savage, Robert S.; Deault, Louise; Daki, Julia; Aouad, Julie

Mathematics attitudes and mathematics outcomes of U.S. and Belarusian middle school students.
Lipnevich, Anastasiya A.; MacCann, Carolyn; Krumm, Stefan; Burrus, Jeremy; Roberts, Richard D.

Learning by reviewing.
Cho, Kwangsu; MacArthur, Charles

Does incorrect guessing impair fact learning?
Kang, Sean H. K.; Pashler, Harold; Cepeda, Nicholas J.; Rohrer, Doug; Carpenter, Shana K.; Mozer, Michael C.


Spatially distributed instructions improve learning outcomes and efficiency.
Jang, Jooyoung; Schunn, Christian D.; Nokes, Timothy J.