Friday, July 30, 2010

iPost: Phone based IQ testing

Telephone-administered intelligence testing for research in work and organizational psychology: A comparative assessment study.
Blickle, Gerhard; Kramer, Jochen; Mierke, Jan
European Journal of Psychological Assessment, Vol 26(3), 2010, 154-161. doi: 10.1027/1015-5759/a000022


  1. In a 2 × 2 experimental study, we used the Wonderlic Personnel Test (WPT) to assess the quality of intelligence testing by telephone with a sample of 210 individuals active in the world of work and compared it both inter- and intraindividually with intelligence testing by face-to-face test administration. The population median (rxx = .88) of the reliability of ordinary face-to-face-based Wonderlic test-retest reliabilities fit the present data. The pattern of relationships between the WPT and tests of verbal and emotional intelligence was equal in both modalities. The WPT showed high convergence with verbal intelligence and was orthogonal to emotional intelligence. In both experimental groups, WPT scores were positively related to the level of formal education and occupational attainment. Strengths and limitations of the study are discussed. We conclude that, given cooperative testtakers, intelligence testing by telephone is a promising alternative to traditional forms of intelligence testing in work and organizational psychological research. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved)

Sent from KMcGrew iPhone (IQMobile). (If message includes an image-double click on it to make larger-if hard to see) 

iPost: Go (broad olfactory abilities) assessment

Journal ArticlePrintable view

Thomas HummelContact Information, Ute Pfetzing1 and Jörn Lötsch2

(1) Smell and Taste Clinic, Department of Otorhinolaryngology, University of Dresden Medical School ("Technische Universität Dresden"), Fetscherstrasse 74, 01307 Dresden, Germany
(2) pharmazentrum Frankfurt/ZAFES, Institute of Clinical Pharmacology, Johann Wolfgang Goethe-University, Theodor Stern Kai 7, 60590 Frankfurt am Main, Germany

Received: 25 January 2010  Revised:16 February 2010  Accepted: 22 February 2010  Published online: 16 March 2010

Numerous psychophysical tests of olfactory function have been developed during the last 30 years. However, although most tests provide accurate results, testing typically requires time which is not available in clinical routine. The aim of the present study was to investigate results from a test based on the identification of three odors only. A total of 500 subjects (patients with olfactory loss plus healthy controls) were included. They received (1) detailed olfactory testing, and (2) the 3-item odor identification test, the so-called q-Sticks. On a group level the q-Sticks clearly separated between anosmic, hyposmic, and normosmic subjects. In addition, q-Sticks scores were significantly higher in women compared to men, and in younger compared to older subjects. With regard to a q-Sticks score of 0, the new test had a very high specificity of 96% and a moderate sensitivity of 66%. Although the q-Sticks must not be seen as a replacement of more extensive and, therefore, more accurate olfactory tests, they allow the investigator to identify anosmia with a very high specificity. Considering the test's portability, ease of administration, longevity, and possibility to be used over and over again, it can be expected to find its way into the clinician's routine or screening diagnostic armamentarium.

Keywords  Olfaction - Smell - Anosmia

Contact InformationThomas Hummel
Fulltext Preview (Small, Large)
Image of the first page of the fulltext

References secured to subscribers.

Export this article
Export this article as RIS | Text

Sent from KMcGrew iPhone (IQMobile). (If message includes an image-double click on it to make larger-if hard to see) 

Thursday, July 29, 2010

iPost: Magic of pre-school @ Beautiful Minds

Great follow up to yesterdays FYI kindergarten teacher post at BEAUTIFUL MINDS--an excellent blog

Sent from KMcGrew iPhone (IQMobile). (If message includes an image-double click on it to make larger-if hard to see)

Tuesday, July 27, 2010

Joint CFA (Floyd et al., 2010) of WJ III and DKEFS: Guest comments by John Garruto

John Garruto took advantage of my offer and thus, now provides his comments regarding the following recently published research study.  John has been a regular guest blogger at IQ's about the rest of you!!!!!!! 

I am open to any topic, but am particularly interested in guest posts regarding articles that have been FYI-mentioned at this blog (typically under Research Bytes tag)---and I especially would like to encourage graduate students to send me possible guest a way to get experience with analyzing research and providing brief summaries.  Maybe some of my professorial colleagues could make the submission of one guest blog post a requirement in one of their classes :)
  • Floyd, R. G., Bergeron, R., Hamilton, G. & Parra, G. R. (2010).  How do executive functions fit with the Cattell-Horn-Carroll model? Some evidence from a joint factor analysis of the Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System and the Woodcock-Johnson III tests of cognitive abilities.  Psychology in the Schools, 47(7), 721-738. (click here to view/read)
[Note...these are John's comments with only minor copy editing by the blogmaster/dictator]

Before I go into some thoughts regarding the article by Floyd, Bergeron, Hamilton, and Parra, please bear a bit of a sidetracking set of thoughts that are relevant to this article.  When I was in my masters training program for school psychology, we took a course called “Analysis of Individual Learning I”.  My textbook was authored by Samuel Kirk and James Chalfant (copyright was 1984).  I don’t remember being asked to read anything from that text and it wasn’t until well after I graduated that I learned Samuel Kirk was the person who coined the term “learning disability.” I pulled the book of my shelf and decided to take a look at it.  Chapter 3 is entitled “Causes and contributing factors”.  The entire chapter (which wasn’t long…13 pages) was devoted to the brain and neuropsychology. 

Since that book was published, the law and professional opinion have differed  much on what learning disabilities are.  For years, the psychometric framework has seemingly reigned supreme, using a discrepancy approach and an intuitive paradigm (if the child isn’t working to ability, something must be getting in the way).  For the past six years, RTI has permeated the field of LD with an even more distant framework that Kirk conceptualized…that a learning disability is the failure of a child to respond to research based instruction.  Unfortunately, the brain has largely been left out, with a few exceptions. 

Fortunately, there has been hope.  We’re now seeing a surge in publications that are coauthored by those schooled in both the psychometric and neuropsychological traditions.  They’re not distinct entities-they’re two sides to the same coin (or perhaps “face of the die” is more appropriate).  I remember when I first dove into CHC theory after trying the WJ-III (sadly my program did not use any Woodcock tests in our training)-a paradigm altering notion was that cognition and achievement were not distinct constructs-they were on the same continuum.  This marriage of the psychometric and neuropsychological traditions is happening in the same manner.

This brings us to the article, which has examined ways to categorize executive functions under CHC theory.  The authors performed joint-factor analyses of tests from the WJ-III and Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System (DKEFS).  I initially stopped myself from reading the article and made my guesses.  I scratched down “Retrieval Fluency-Verbal Fluency”, “Concept Formation-Sorting Test”, “Tower-Planning/Spatial Relations”.  “Verbal Comprehension-Word Context”.  I then wrote “Ga-nothing” and “Gsm-nothing”.  These were the subtests that I hypothesized would be grouped together given the nature of their tasks.  Some of the results of this study confirmed my hypotheses and some were not close.

The results presented a six first-order factor model conceptualized under the CHC hierarchy.  The factors included Crystallized Ability (Gc), Processing Speed (Gs), Long Term Storage and Retrieval (Glr), Short-Term Memory (Gsm), Executive Functioning, and Visual-Spatial Processing (Gv).  The groupings were Gc: (DKEFS-Free Sorting, Sort Recognition, Word Context; WJ-III-Verbal Comprehension, General Information); Gs: (DKEFS-Color Word Interference-Inhibition; WJ-III-Visual Matching, Pair Cancellation, Decision Speed); Glr: (DKEFS-Verbal Fluency, Trails switching; WJ-III-Retrieval Fluency, Rapid Picture Naming); Gsm: (DKEFS-Trails switching; WJ-III-Numbers Reversed, AWM, Mem for Words); EF: (DKEFS-Verbal Fluency Switching, Design Fluency Switching; WJ-III Rapid Picture Naming, Concept Formation) and Gv: (WJ-III-Planning, Spatial Relations, Picture Recognition). 

The following were huge surprises for me:

  • Sorting as a measure of Gc…I always saw this test as more of a Gf task (although if one thinks about it-Similarities is a Gc task (with some Gf-ness) even if it hasn’t panned out in some analyses)
  • Tower not having a Gv load
  • Trails not having any Gs variance
  • Concept formation as mental flexibility.  I absolutely see it-but more as hypothesis testing rather than set shifting.  I would have thought Gf and sorting would have “hung” together-perhaps perhaps the verbal sorts must have had an influence?
One cannot read the research of Dr. Floyd and not appreciate his contributions to research on the general factor.  His findings are not only interesting but also important.  He noted that although the strongest loaders on the general factors were from the WJ-III, the DKEFS had more subtests that loaded strongly on the general factor.  This is important as many of us tend to think of EF as regulation of thinking--but clearly there is a higher order ability to EF.  In fact, of the six factors, EF was number two (Gc number one) for ranking of an overall g load. 

Floyd and colleagues did address some of the same musings I had-identifying that sorting and 20 questions are probably better measures of Gf but not word context.  I see word context as also having a Gf nature to it (deductive reasoning).  One must engage in hypothesis testing and construct a mental Venn diagram-the key word must fit all clues.  Perhaps we’re looking at a hybrid of Gf-Gc (could Raymond Cattell be trying to tell us something?) 

Nevertheless, the importance of this article cannot be underscored enough.  There are many skills tapped by EF tests that can impact school performance.  How well would we expect a student who has trouble set-shifting to do on calculations with mixed operations (set-shifting constantly being tapped)-or even long division (requiring three sequential operations for each place value of the quotient).  Also, we can see that tests that review some aspects of neuropsychological performance fit very well within CHC theory. 
I’d like to share one more memory.  I once performed  an evaluation of a a student with TBI that was returning to school. The case highlighted the importance of the ongoing fusion of psychometric and neuropsychological traditions.  The hospital indicated that a WISC and WIAT would be fine (that’s rarely fine for me though!)  I decided to accompany the evaluation with VAL, Retrieval Fluency, and Rapid Picture naming from the WJ-III.  For the latter two, the student said, “I did tasks like these at the hospital.”  Indeed.

Technorati Tags: , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , ,

Research bytes 7-27-10: Working memory & language; naming deficits and reading fluency in dyslexia

Three very interesting research articles.  The first provides a nice overview of the research on working memory (and the various constructs involved), even if you are not interested specifically in specific language impairment issues.  Usual quid-pro-quo offer stands---I will supply a copy of the PDF file to anyone who wants to read one of the articles in exchange for a brief guest blog post (at which time I will then provide a link to the article for others)

Montgomery, J. W., Magimairaj, B. M., & Finney, M. C. (2010). Working Memory and Specific Language Impairment: An Update on the Relation and Perspectives on Assessment and Treatment. American Journal of Speech Language Pathology, 19(1), 78-94.

Children with specific language impairment(SLI) demonstrate significant language impairments despite normal-range hearing and nonverbal IQ. Many of these children also show marked deficits in working memory (WM) abilities. However, the theoretical and clinical characterization of the association between WM and language limitations in SLI is still sparse. Our understanding of this association would benefit greatly from an updated and thorough review of the literature. Method: We review the newest developments in these areas from both a theoretical and clinical perspective. Our intent is to provide researchers and practicing clinicians (a) a conceptual framework within which the association between WM and language limitations of children with SLI can be understood and (b) potentially helpful suggestions for assessing and treating the memory-language difficulties of children with SLI.  Conclusions: In the past 10 years, important new theoretical insights into the range and nature of WM deficits and relation between these limitations and the language difficulties in SLI have occurred. New, robust diagnostic assessment tools and computerized treatment methods designed to enhance children’s WM functioning have also been developed. The assessment, diagnosis, and treatment of the language difficulties in SLI should consider the potential influence of WM.

Meisinger, E. B., Bloom, J. S., & Hynd, G. W. (2010). Reading fluency: implications for the assessment of children with reading disabilities. Annals of Dyslexia, 60(1), 1-17.
The current investigation explored the diagnostic utility of reading fluency measures in the identification of children with reading disabilities. Participants were 50 children referred to a university-based clinic because of suspected reading problems and/or a prior diagnosis of dyslexia, where children completed a battery of standardized intellectual, reading achievement, and processing measures. Within this clinical sample, a group of children were identified that exhibited specific deficits in their reading fluency skills with concurrent deficits in rapid naming speed and reading comprehension. This group of children would not have been identified as having a reading disability according to assessment of single word reading skills alone, suggesting that it is essential to assess reading fluency in addition to word reading because failure to do so may result in the under-identification of children with reading disabilities.

Jones, M. W., Branigan, H. P., Hatzidaki, A., & Obregon, M. (2010). Is the 'naming' deficit in dyslexia a misnomer? Cognition, 116(1), 56-70.

We report a study that investigated the widely held belief that naming-speed deficits in developmental dyslexia reflect impaired access to lexical-phonological codes. To investigate this issue, we compared adult dyslexic and adult non-dyslexic readers’ performance when naming and semantically categorizing arrays of objects. Dyslexic readers yielded slower response latencies than non-dyslexic readers when naming objects, but a subsequent comparison of object-naming and object-categorization tasks showed that the apparent ‘naming’ deficit could be attributed to a more general difficulty in retrieving information – either phonological or semantic – from the visual stimulus. Our findings suggest that although visual–phonological connections may be crucial in explaining naming-speed performance they do not fully characterise dyslexic readers’ naming-speed impairments.

Technorati Tags: , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , ,

Re: [NASP-Listserv] iPost: Special JID issue on Gv (visual-spatial abilities)

I have found that the best way to keep up is to transform the articles to audio and listen on the fly. I think there was some discussion about this on the listserv in the past.
Moshe Landsman
Dir. Arara School psyc services

On Tue, Jul 27, 2010 at 7:02 AM, Earthlink <> wrote:

Damn. This looks excellent. Where can I find the time to read all these articles dealing with contemporary visual-spatial (Gv - especially Vz or mental rotation abilities)  processing and assessment?

So much data and enticing readings--so little time. I wish I could take a sabbatical just to do research, read and write. 

Journal of Individual Differences - Vol 31, Iss 2

Ecological aspects of mental rotation around the vertical and horizontal axis.

Sun, May 30 2010 5:00 PM 
by Battista, Christian; Peters, Michael

Rotation of both natural and man-made objects most commonly requires rotation around the vertical rather than the horizontal axis because it is relatively rare that we need to rotate, e.g., trees, mountains, chairs or vehicles around their horizontal axis in order to match images to their canonical orientation. Waszak, Drewing, and Mausfeld (2005) demonstrated the importance of a gravitationally defined vertical axis and the visual context within which objects occur, when performing mental rotations. We extended their findings in a between-subject design by asking 406 subjects to rotate wireframe cube figures around either the vertical axis or around the horizontal axis. Both male and female subjects performed significantly better when rotating objects around the vertical axis. Males performed better than females in both conditions, and there was no interaction between axis of rotation and sex. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved)

Pin:  Mark Read:

Gender differences in the mental rotations test are partly explained by response format.

Sun, May 30 2010 5:00 PM 
by Glück, Judith; Fabrizii, Claudia

Gender differences in the Mental Rotations Test (Vandenberg &; Kuse, 1978) are larger than in virtually all other spatial tests and have been highly robust over decades. Several possible explanations for this phenomenon have been proposed. This research tests the hypothesis that the gender differences are partly due to the response format of the MRT (two out of four responses correct in each item). This format, in combination with the high time pressure of the MRT, may be particularly conducive to the performance of highly confident (i.e., frequently male) participants who use "quick-and-dirty" response strategies. In study of 288 students, a new MRT version was used in which a variable number of 0 to 4 alternatives per item were correct. Gender differences were significantly smaller than in the standard MRT. In particular, the performance of highly confident male participants was markedly lower than in the standard MRT. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved)

Pin:  Mark Read:

Pairwise presentation of cube figures does not reduce gender differences in mental rotation performance.

Sun, May 30 2010 5:00 PM 
by Titze, Corinna; Heil, Martin; Jansen, Petra

Gender differences still are one of the main topics in mental rotation research. Quite a number of different approaches aim to uncover the reasons for the substantial effect sizes observed. In this paper, we focus on the performance factor task complexity, which may contribute to gender differences. A pairwise paper-pencil presentation mode—using the original but rearranged items of the classic MRT by Peters et al. (1995)—was chosen to investigate mental rotation performance of adults. A total of 72 participants were asked to complete a complexity reduced version of the MRT: They had to complete simple "same-different" judgments without any time constraints instead of regular "two-out-of-four-alternatives" choices. Results revealed that the reduction of complexity did not affect the gender differences at all: Men outperformed women in both accuracy and speed. The reasons for these results are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved)

Pin:  Mark Read:

The solution strategy as an indicator of the developmental stage of preschool children's mental-rotation ability.

Sun, May 30 2010 5:00 PM 
by Quaiser-Pohl, Claudia; Rohe, Anna M.; Amberger, Tobias

The solution strategies of preschool children solving mental-rotation tasks were analyzed in two studies. In the first study n = 111 preschool children had to demonstrate their solution strategy in the Picture Rotation Test (PRT) items by thinking aloud; seven different strategies were identified. In the second study these strategies were confirmed by latent class analysis (LCA) with the PRT data of n = 565 preschool children. In addition, a close relationship was found between the solution strategy and children's age. Results point to a stage model for the development of mental-rotation ability as measured by the PRT, going from inappropriate strategies like guessing or comparing details, to semiappropriate approaches like choosing the stimulus with the smallest angle discrepancy, to a holistic or analytic strategy. A latent transition analysis (LTA) revealed that the ability to mentally rotate objects can be influenced by training in the preschool age. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved)

Pin:  Mark Read:

Does children's left hemisphere lateralization during mental rotation depend upon the stimulus material?

Sun, May 30 2010 5:00 PM 
by Lange, Léonie F.; Heil, Martin; Jansen, Petra

Recent publications suggest that there is a developmental-based change of lateralization of brain activity during mental rotation from left to bilateral. But it is an open question whether this left hemisphere activation could also be observed with stimuli other than characters. To test this, behavioral data and event-related potentials (ERPs) were measured in 28 children, 28 juveniles, and 28 adults during a mental rotation task with animal drawings. The results showed that reaction times (RTs) and error rates decreased with the increasing age of the participants. Furthermore, RTs and error rates increased with increasing angular disparity. An unlateralized ERP amplitude modulation at parietal electrodes as a function of angular disparity was present in all age groups. These results contrast former studies revealing a left lateralization in children when characters were used as stimuli for mental rotation. Left hemisphere activation is therefore not a general developmental trend; rather, it is suggested that it might be a correlate of written language acquisition. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved)

Pin:  Mark Read:

The neural network of spatial cognition and its modulation by biological and environmental factors.

Sun, May 30 2010 5:00 PM 
by Jordan, Kirsten; Wüstenberg, Torsten

Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we investigated the question, if the neural spatial cognition network is modulated by biological (Sex) and environmental factors (Experience, Spatial Component). Sex and Experience modulate response selection and motor imagery. Both Spatial Component and Experience are strongly related to brain activity in visual areas. The interaction between Spatial Component and Experience revealed that high spatial experience and significant better performance in the mental rotation task are related to task-specific neural changes. We conclude that brain areas involved in perceptual and motor processes are associated with the investigated factors Sex, Spatial Component, and Experience. The neural activity in core regions of the spatial cognition network seems to be associated with specific performance changes. Further studies should examine whether these results are specific to our spatial tasks or can be generalized to other cognitive tasks. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved)

Pin:  Mark Read:

Effects of age and sex in mental rotation and spatial learning from virtual environments.

Sun, May 30 2010 5:00 PM 
by Schoenfeld, Robby; Lehmann, Wolfgang; Leplow, Bernd

The study examined the age and sex effects in spatial learning and mental rotation in 58 adults. We developed two new spatial learning tasks using virtual reality (VR): a navigation task and a pointing task. The results show that younger adults outperformed older adults in both virtual tasks but not in mental rotation. Males outperformed females in the navigation task and mental rotation. We conclude that age generally drives differences in spatial learning, and that sex drives differences in spatial abilities, which were especially related to ability in navigating through virtual environments. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved)

Pin:  Mark Read:

Use of strategy in a 3-dimensional spatial ability test.

Sun, May 30 2010 5:00 PM 
by Strasser, Irene; Koller, Ingrid; Strauß, Sabine; Csisinko, Mathis; Kaufmann, Hannes; Glück, Judith

Use of strategy was investigated using a new spatial test in which items are presented in three-dimensional space and solutions are actively constructed rather than selected from alternatives. As the final test also comprises a training module, the focus of a first evaluation study was on the strategies participants use and their relationship to performance. Participants were interviewed after completing the test. The number of strategies reported and two specific strategies were significantly correlated to the test score. Implications of the findings for strategy assessment and test design are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved)

Pin:  Mark Read:

On the robustness of solution strategy classifications: Testing the stability of dynamic spatial tasks on a one-year test-retest basis.

Sun, May 30 2010 5:00 PM 
by Contreras, María José; Rubio, Víctor J.; Peña, Daniel; Santacreu, José

Individual differences in performance when solving spatial tasks can be partly explained by differences in the strategies used. Two main difficulties arise when studying such strategies: the identification of the strategy itself and the stability of the strategy over time. In the present study strategies were separated into three categories: segmented (analytic), holistic-feedback dependent, and holistic-planned, according to the procedure described by Peña, Contreras, Shih, and Santacreu (2008). A group of individuals were evaluated twice on a 1-year test-retest basis. During the 1-year interval between tests, the participants were not able to prepare for the specific test used in this study or similar ones. It was found that 60% of the individuals kept the same strategy throughout the tests. When strategy changes did occur, they were usually due to a better strategy. These results prove the robustness of using strategy-based procedures for studying individual differences in spatial tasks. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved)

Pin:  Mark Read:

Map understanding as a developmental marker in childhood.

Sun, May 30 2010 5:00 PM 
by Peter, Michael; Glück, Judith; Beiglböck, Wolfgang

A new test on map understanding for preschool and elementary-school children was constructed based on a Piagetian framework of the development of spatial ability and representational understanding. Results from a study with 95 3- to 6-year-old children are reported. The developmental trajectories for the performance components confirmed the construction rules and were explainable by Piagetian developmental stages. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved)

Pin:  Mark Read:

Spatial tests, familiarity with the surroundings, and spatial activity experience: How do they contribute to children's spatial orientation in macro environments?

Sun, May 30 2010 5:00 PM 
by Neidhardt, Eva; Popp, Michael

Spatial orientation as the ability to know the bearing to the origin of a walked path was investigated in two studies with ca. 140 preschool and primary school children who walked paths of about 1 km beginning at the familiar kindergarten or in a completely unknown territory. Path difficulty and familiarity with the surroundings influenced correctness of pointing. Spatial ability measured by test performance and spatial activity experience, i.e., children's reports about unsupervised walks, effected pointing accuracy as well. The data emphasize that spatial activity experience may be an important factor for spatial orientation beyond kindergarten age. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved)

Pin:  Mark Read:

New approaches to studying individual differences in spatial abilities.

Sun, May 30 2010 5:00 PM 
by Glück, Judith; Quaiser-Pohl, Claudia; Neubauer, Aljoscha C.

Over the last 10 to 15 years, interest in spatial ability research in psychology has not been particularly high, and the field was progressing slowly:Empirical findings were largely correlational and rarely exceeded the ".30 barrier" so characteristic of many methodologically neglected fields in empirical psychology. Recently, however, interest seems to be increasing again, one reason being the growing availability of virtual-reality methods that enable researchers to study spatial cognition in the laboratory in completely new ways. Other methodological advances concern the measurement of brain activity while solving spatial tasks and the study of spatial abilities in very young children. Thus, the ".30 barrier" may be overcome through the development of innovative data-collection as well as statistical methods that offer researchers new possibilities to study both inter- and intraindividual differences. By featuring some of these new developments, we hope that this special issue will stimulate new research efforts. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved)

Sent from KMcGrew iPhone (IQMobile). (If message includes an image-double click on it to make larger-if hard to see) 

Recent Activity:
We expect that all members make their role clear in each post, i.e. school psychologist, NCSP, intern, student, SAIF, parent, advocate etc. Your message may not be distributed if this is absent.

Post message:
Subscribe: Send blank email to
Unsubscribe: Send blank email to
List owner:
URL to this page:

Disclaimer: The comments, thoughts, observations or opinions offered on this Listserv are solely the expressed views of the author and may not represent the policies, positions or intentions of the National Association of School Psychologists.