Tuesday, March 30, 2010

iPost: Developmental growth of orthographic, phonological and morphological awareness

Virginia W. BerningerContact Information, Robert D. Abbott1, William Nagy2 and Joanne Carlisle3

(1) University of Washington, 322 Miller, Box 353600, Seattle, WA 98195-3600, USA
(2) Seattle Pacific University, Seattle, WA, USA
(3) University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA

Published online: 14 October 2009

Abstract  
Growth curve analyses showed that (a) word-level phonological and orthographic awareness show greatest growth during the primary grades but some additional growth thereafter, and (b) three kinds of morphological awareness show greatest growth in the first three or four grades but one—derivation—continues to show substantial growth after fourth grade. Implications of the findings for the role of three kinds of linguistic awareness—phonological, orthographic, and morphological—in learning to read and spell words are discussed. A case is made that phonological awareness, while necessary, is not sufficient for learning to read English—all three kinds of linguistic awareness that are growing during the primary grades need to be coordinated and applied to literacy learning. This finding and a review of the research on linguistic awareness support the conclusion that the recommendations of the National Reading Panel need to be amended so that the research evidence supporting the importance of both orthographic and morphological awareness, and not only phonological awareness, is acknowledged. Moreover, evidence-based strategies for teaching each of these kinds of linguistic awareness and their interrelationships need to be disseminated to educational practitioners.



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Monday, March 29, 2010

AAIDD Manual on intellectual disability: Interviews related to legal, education and background of 11th edtion

The AAIDD web site now has three video interviews available for viewing that deal with three broad topics related to the new green manual.  The titles, presenters, and links are provided below.  Click here for prior blomgaster (Dr. Kevin McGrew) critiques of the manual's chapter on intellectual functioning.

On Legal Aspects of the New Intellectual Disability Definition Manual.  Co-author Ruth Luckasson, JD Distinguished Professor, University of New Mexico

On the New Intellectual Disability Definition Manual.
  Co-author Bob Shalock, PhD Professor Emeritus and Former Psychology Chair, Hastings College

On Education Aspects of the New Intellectual Disability Definition Manual.  Co-author Martha E. Snell, PhD Professor of Special Education, University of Virginia

Friday, March 26, 2010

iPost: Free neuro article from Psychology Press

psypress: Friday's Free Neuro article: Impairments in prospective and
retrospective memory following stroke, from Neurocase

http://bit.ly/cVyvO2

Original Tweet: http://twitter.com/psypress/status/11081555899

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Thursday, March 25, 2010

Reseach bytes 3-25-10: Is impulsivity a hierarchical multidimensionl construct?

I just read the following excellent article re: the possible factor structure of the construct of impulsivity.  The authors borrowed items from many established measures of impulsivity and then conducted exploratory factor analysis.  The sample size was decent (although probably only generalizable to young adults---they were college students).

Whenever I see an article that says it factor analyzed item level data, I always cringe as many folks are not aware of the methodological confound of finding item "difficulty or popularity" factors (which mask substantive construct factors), especially on rating scales.  Thus, the standard recommendation is to factor analyze a matrix of polychoric correlations...which they did (yes, I know, there are even some methodological questions about the use of polychoric correlations and other types of correlation metrics have been sugested).  But, I think this is a decent article worth reading.

I find the idea of a proposed hierarchical structure of impulsivity very intriguing. 

  • Kirby, K & Finch, J. (2010).  The hierarchical structure of self-reported impulsivity. Personality and Individual Differences  Volume 48, Issue 6, Pages 704-713 (click here to view)

Abstract
The hierarchical structure of 95 self-reported impulsivity items, along with delay–discount rates for money, was examined. A large sample of college students participated in the study (N = 407). Items represented every previously proposed dimension of self-reported impulsivity. Exploratory PCA yielded at least seven interpretable components: Prepared/Careful, Impetuous, Divertible, Thrill and Risk Seeking, Happy-Go-Lucky, Impatiently Pleasure Seeking, and Reserved. Discount rates loaded on Impatiently Pleasure Seeking, and correlated with the impulsiveness and venturesomeness scales from the I7 (Eysenck, Pearson, Easting, & Allsopp, 1985). The hierarchical emergence of the components was explored, and we show how this hierarchical structure may help organize conflicting dimensions found in previous analyses. Finally, we argue that the discounting model (Ainslie, 1975) provides a qualitative framework for understanding the dimensions of impulsivity.

1. Introduction
2. Methods

2.1. Participants
2.2. Materials and procedure

2.2.1. Self-report impulsivity items
2.2.2. Discount rate measure
2.2.3. Reward selection

2.3. Analyses

2.3.1. Polychoric correlations
2.3.2. Principal components analyses (PCA)
2.3.3. Hierarchical component emergence
2.3.4. Number of dimensions

3. Results

3.1. Number of dimensions
3.2. Component emergence
3.3. Discount rates

4. Discussion

4.1. Relations to previous dimensions
4.2. The I7
4.3. The BIS-11
4.4. The problem of redundant items
4.5. Face-valid items
4.6. Reward attributes and the time scales of impulsivity
4.7. Reward attributes
4.8. Time scales
4.9. Limitations

5. Conclusion
Acknowledgements
References

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TWU school psychology graduate students at NASP 2010


As I promised at NASP, here is a picture of myself with some of Dr. Dan Miller's school psychology graduate students (Texas Woman's University).  This photo, along with two others from this group (and other photos of different misc. stuff, can be found at IQ's Corner Facebook group page.

Dr. Millers recent (and excellent) book "Best Practices in School Neuropsychology" can be found at IQ's Corner Bookstore....an new feature at IQs Corner blog.

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iPost: thinking aloud raises Ravens Gf scores

See BPS link below for abstract.

http://www.informaworld.com/smpp/content~content=a913549874~db=all

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Wednesday, March 24, 2010

Research Bytes: 3-24-10: WAIS-III/WISC-IV score differences in spec. ed. population

Gordon, S., Duff, S., Davidson, T., & Whitaker, S. (2010). Comparison of the WAIS-III and WISC-IV in 16-Year-Old Special Education Students. Journal of Applied Research in Intellectual Disabilities, 23(2),
197-200.


Abstract:

Previous research with earlier versions of the WISC and WAIS has demonstrated that when administered to people who have intellectual disabilities, the WAIS produced higher IQ scores than the WISC. The aim of this study was to examine whether these differences still exist. A comparison of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale - Third Edition (WAIS-III) with the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children - Fourth Edition (WISC-IV) was conducted with individuals who were 16?years old and receiving special education. Materials and Methods

All participants completed the WAIS-III (UK) and WISC-IV (UK). The order of administration was counterbalanced; the mean Full Scale IQ and Index scores on the WAIS-III and WISC-IV were compared. Results

The WAIS-III mean Full Scale IQ was 11.82 points higher than the mean Full Scale IQ score on the WISC-IV. Significant differences were also found between the Verbal Comprehension Index, Perceptual Reasoning/Organization Index and Processing Speed Index on the WAIS-III and WISC-IV, all with the WAIS-III scoring higher. Conclusions

The findings suggest that the WAIS-III produces higher scores than the WISC-IV in people with intellectual disabilities. This has implications for definitions of intellectual disability and suggests that Psychologists should be cautious when interpreting and reporting IQ scores on the WAIS-III and WISC-IV.

Keywords: intellectual disability diagnosis; intelligence test; WAIS-III; WISC-IV

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Tuesday, March 23, 2010

IQs Corner Recent Literature of Interest 04-01-10 (2weeks worth)

This weeks "recent literature of interest" is now available.  Actually, it is two weeks worth.  I can no longer keep up.  Click here and here to view or download.

Information regarding this feature, its basis, and the reasons for type of references included in each weekly installment can be found in a prior post.

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Monday, March 22, 2010

iPost: Journal of Psychoeducational Assessment Table of Contents for 1 April 2010; Vol. 28, No. 2


 

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Table of Contents

Journal of Psychoeducational Assessment

Journal of Psychoeducational Assessment Online Table of Contents Alert

A new issue of Journal of Psychoeducational Assessment is available online:
1 April 2010; Vol. 28, No. 2

The below Table of Contents is available online at: http://jpa.sagepub.com/content/vol28/issue2/?etoc


Articles
Exploring the Diagnosis of "Gifted/LD": Characterizing Postsecondary Students With Learning Disability Diagnoses at Different IQ Levels
Benjamin J. Lovett and Richard L. Sparks
Journal of Psychoeducational Assessment 2010;28 91-101
http://jpa.sagepub.com/cgi/content/abstract/28/2/91

Reliability of Decision-Making Frameworks for Response to Intervention for Reading
Matthew K. Burns, Sarah E. Scholin, Stacey Kosciolek, and Judy Livingston
Journal of Psychoeducational Assessment 2010;28 102-114
http://jpa.sagepub.com/cgi/content/abstract/28/2/102

Measuring Early Literacy Skills: A Latent Variable Investigation of the Phonological Awareness Literacy Screening for Preschool
Monika Townsend and Timothy R. Konold
Journal of Psychoeducational Assessment 2010;28 115-128
http://jpa.sagepub.com/cgi/content/abstract/28/2/115

Teachers' Assessment of Antisocial Behavior in Kindergarten: Physical Aggression and Measurement Bias Across Gender
Jantine L. Spilt, Helma M. Y. Koomen, Jochem T. Thijs, Reinoud D. Stoel, and Aryan van der Leij
Journal of Psychoeducational Assessment 2010;28 129-138
http://jpa.sagepub.com/cgi/content/abstract/28/2/129

School Climate: Historical Review, Instrument Development, and School Assessment
Keith J. Zullig, Tommy M. Koopman, Jon M. Patton, and Valerie A. Ubbes
Journal of Psychoeducational Assessment 2010;28 139-152
http://jpa.sagepub.com/cgi/content/abstract/28/2/139

Psychometric Properties of the Teachers' Sense of Efficacy Scale Within the Greek Educational Context
Nikolaos Tsigilis, Athanasios Koustelios, and Vasilios Grammatikopoulos
Journal of Psychoeducational Assessment 2010;28 153-162
http://jpa.sagepub.com/cgi/content/abstract/28/2/153

Book Review: Haywood, H. C., & Lidz, C. S. (2007). Dynamic Assessment in Practice: Clinical and Educational Applications. New York: Cambridge University Press
Yuriy V. Karpov
Journal of Psychoeducational Assessment 2010;28 163-166
http://jpa.sagepub.com/cgi/reprint/28/2/163

Test Review: Review of Kaufman Brief Intelligence Test, Second Edition: Kaufman, A. S., & Kaufman, N. L. (2004). Kaufman Brief Intelligence Test, Second Edition. Bloomington, MN: Pearson, Inc
Sherry K. Bain and Kathryn E. Jaspers
Journal of Psychoeducational Assessment 2010;28 167-174
http://jpa.sagepub.com/cgi/reprint/28/2/167

NEPSY-II Review: Korkman, M., Kirk, U., & Kemp, S. (2007). NEPSY—Second Edition (NEPSY-II). San Antonio, TX: Harcourt Assessment
John L. Davis and Robb N. Matthews
Journal of Psychoeducational Assessment 2010;28 175-182
http://jpa.sagepub.com/cgi/reprint/28/2/175


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Thursday, March 18, 2010

Dissertation Dish: Cognitive training and cognitve and achievement gains

Cognitive and academic gains as a result of cognitive training by Luckey, Alicia J., Ph.D., Arizona State University, 2009 , 204 pages; AAT 3391981

Abstract (Summary)

The purpose of this study was to test Feuersetein's Structural Cognitive Modifiability model by evaluating changes in cognitive skills and reading scores after participation in one of two cognitive skills training programs. The Woodcock Johnson Tests of Cognitive Abilities and Tests of Achievement, 3 rd editions were used as evaluation tools. Specific scores evaluated included General Intellectual Ability (GIA), Working Memory (MW), Sound Awareness (SA), and Word Attack (WA).

Three groups, differentiated by parent report, were studied. These groups included; Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, Dyslexia, and students who were not reported to have any type of disability. The intervention programs differed by focus (Reading or Cognitive) and intensity of training.

Significant differences were found between pre and post test scores for all four variables measured. GIA scores increased from pre- to post-test by almost one standard deviation. MW and SA scores increased 2/3 of a standard deviation, and a five standard score point gain was achieved for WA.

There were no significant differences in gain scores between intervention groups in regards to intensity of training or diagnostic group. Students enrolled in the reading-focused intervention group showed slightly higher gains in WA when compared to students in cognitive-focused intervention programs. Students enrolled in the cognitive-focused intervention programs showed larger growth for GIA when compared to students in reading focused intervention. No significant differences were found between intervention groups on measures of MW or SA.

Limitations of the current study included lack of a control group and the use of parent reported diagnoses to differentiate diagnosis groups. Additionally, examiner effects including the halo or expectancy effect may have impacted scores at post-test. The sample was limited in regards to ethnicity and SES, which may limit generalizability of findings to other ethnic or SES groups.

Directions for future studies may include using more robust achievement measures to evaluate academics before and after training, and getting confirmed diagnoses from medical and psychoeducational reports to differentiate groups. Follow up assessment to determine if gains are maintained in the long-term and focus on gains in particular areas of reading may allow for more specific interpretation of findings.

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iPost: What does WAIS-IV measure? In current edition of Psychological Assessment




Independent examination of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale—Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV): What does the WAIS-IV measure?

Sun, Mar 14 2010 10:00 PM 
by Benson, Nicholas; Hulac, David M.; Kranzler, John H.
Published empirical evidence for the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale—Fourth Edition (WAIS–IV) does not address some essential questions pertaining to the applied practice of intellectual assessment. In this study, the structure and cross-age invariance of the latest WAIS–IV revision were examined to (a) elucidate the nature of the constructs measured and (b) determine whether the same constructs are measured across ages. Results suggest that a Cattell–Horn–Carroll (CHC)–inspired structure provides a better description of test performance than the published scoring structure does. Broad CHC abilities measured by the WAIS–IV include crystallized ability (Gc), fluid reasoning (Gf), visual processing (Gv), short-term memory (Gsm), and processing speed (Gs), although some of these abilities are measured more comprehensively than are others. Additionally, the WAIS–IV provides a measure of quantitative reasoning (QR). Results also suggest a lack of cross-age invariance resulting from age-related differences in factor loadings. Formulas for calculating CHC indexes and suggestions for interpretation are provided. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved)



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Wednesday, March 17, 2010

iPost: Detection of malingered MR/ID

Citation

Database: PsycARTICLES
[Journal Article]
Detection of malingered mental retardation.
Shandera, Anne L.; Berry, David T. R.; Clark, Jessica A.; Schipper, Lindsey J.; Graue, Lili O.; Harp, Jordan P.
Psychological Assessment. Vol 22(1), Mar 2010, 50-56. doi:10.1037/a0016585

Abstract

  1. In a cross-validation of results from L. O. Graue et al. (2007), standard psychological assessment instruments, as well as tests of neurocognitive and psychiatric feigning, were administered under standard instructions to 24 participants diagnosed with mild mental retardation (MR) and 10 demographically matched community volunteers (CVH). A 2nd group of 25 community volunteers was instructed to malinger MR (CVM) during testing. CVM participants obtained Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (3rd ed.; D. Wechsler, 1997) Full Scale Intelligence Quotient scores that were significantly lower than the demographically similar CVH group but comparable to the MR group, suggesting that CVM subjects feigned cognitive impairment. On the basis of standard cutting scores from test manuals or published articles, of the 11 feigning measures administered, only the Test of Memory Malingering (TOMM; T. N. Tombaugh, 1996) retention trial had a specificity rate >.90 in the MR group. However, the 2nd learning trial of the TOMM, as well as a short form of the Digit Memory Test (T. J. Guilmette, K. J. Hart, A. J. Guiliano, & B. E. Leininger, 1994), approached this level of specificity, with both at .88. These results raise concerns about the specificity rates at recommended cutting scores of commonly used feigning tests in defendants with MR. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved)


Kevin McGrew PhD
Educational/School Psych. 

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iPost: WISC-V vs WISC-III TBI profiles


Citation

Database: PsycARTICLES
[Journal Article]
WISC-IV profiles in children with traumatic brain injury: Similarities to and differences from the WISC-III.
Allen, Daniel N.; Thaler, Nicholas S.; Donohue, Brad; Mayfield, Joan
Psychological Assessment. Vol 22(1), Mar 2010, 57-64. doi:10.1037/a0016056

Abstract

  1. The Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children—Fourth Edition (WISC–IV; D. Wechsler, 2003a) is often utilized to assess children with traumatic brain injury (TBI), although little information is available regarding its psychometric properties in these children. The current study examined WISC–IV performance in a sample of 61 children with TBI. As compared to the standardization sample, results indicated that the TBI group exhibited relative deficits on all subtest and index scores, with the greatest deficits on the Processing Speed Index (PSI) and Coding subtest scores. However, the Perceptual Reasoning Index score was not uniquely sensitive to brain injury, and the Cognitive Processing Index score was less sensitive to TBI than the PSI score. Also, the PSI did not uniquely predict learning and memory abilities, as had been reported in previous studies of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children—Third Edition (WISC–III; D. Wechsler, 1991). The present findings indicate substantive differences between the WISC–III and WISC–IV profiles of children with TBI. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved)



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Tuesday, March 16, 2010

iPost: Neuropsych res: Working memory, ADHD, aging,xbipolar


IMG_0708.JPG


Neuropsychology - Vol 24, Iss 2
Neuropsychology focuses on (a) basic research, (b) the integration of basic and applied research, and (c) improved practice in the field of neuropsychology. The primary function of Neuropsychology is to publish original, empirical research on the relation between brain and human cognitive, emotional, and behavioral function.



Does the meaning of neurocognitive change change with age?

Sun, Mar 14 2010 10:00 PM 
by Salthouse, Timothy A.
Significant declines in longitudinal comparisons of neurocognitive performance are seldom evident until adults are in their 60s or older, but relatively little is known about the existence, or nature, of age-related changes at earlier periods in adulthood. The current research was designed to address this issue by examining characteristics of change in measures from 12 neuropsychological and cognitive tests at different periods in adulthood. Although change was largely positive for adults under about 55 years of age and frequently negative for adults at older ages, the reliabilities of the changes in the neuropsychological and cognitive variables were similar at all ages. Furthermore, there were few systematic relations of age on the reliability-adjusted correlations between the changes in composite scores representing different abilities. These results imply that although neurocognitive declines may not be apparent at young ages because of positive retest effects or other factors, at least in some respects longitudinal changes may have nearly the same meaning across all of adulthood. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved)

Are working memory deficits in bipolar disorder markers for psychosis?

Sun, Mar 14 2010 10:00 PM 
by Allen, Daniel N.; Randall, Carol; Bello, Danielle; Armstrong, Christina; Frantom, Linda; Cross, Chad; Kinney, Jefferson
Working memory deficits have been identified in bipolar disorder, but there is evidence suggesting that these deficits may be markers for psychosis rather than affective disorder. The current study examined this issue by comparing two groups of individuals with bipolar disorder, one with psychotic features and one without psychotic features, with a group of normal controls. Working memory was conceptualized as a multicomponent system that includes auditory and visuospatial short-term stores, executive control processes, and an episodic buffer that allows for communication between short- and long-term memory stores (Baddeley & Logie, 1999). Results indicated that only executive control processes significantly differentiated the psychotic and nonpsychotic bipolar groups, although visuospatial working memory differentiated both bipolar groups from controls. The results support the idea that some aspects of working memory performance are markers for psychosis, while others may be more general markers for bipolar disorders. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved)

The relationship between working memory capacity and executive functioning: Evidence for a common executive attention construct.

Sun, Mar 14 2010 10:00 PM 
by McCabe, David P.; Roediger, Henry L.; McDaniel, Mark A.; Balota, David A.; Hambrick, David Z.
Attentional control has been conceptualized as executive functioning by neuropsychologists and as working memory capacity by experimental psychologists. We examined the relationship between these constructs using a factor analytic approach in an adult life span sample. Several tests of working memory capacity and executive function were administered to more than 200 subjects between 18 and 90 years of age, along with tests of processing speed and episodic memory. The correlation between working memory capacity and executive functioning constructs was very strong (r = .97), but correlations between these constructs and processing speed were considerably weaker (rs ˜ .79). Controlling for working memory capacity and executive function eliminated age effects on episodic memory, and working memory capacity and executive function accounted for variance in episodic memory beyond that accounted for by processing speed. We conclude that tests of working memory capacity and executive function share a common underlying executive attention component that is strongly predictive of higher level cognition. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved)

To act or not to act, that's the problem: Primarily inhibition difficulties in adult ADHD.

Sun, Mar 14 2010 10:00 PM 
by Boonstra, A. Marije; Kooij, J. J. Sandra; Oosterlaan, Jaap; Sergeant, Joseph A.; Buitelaar, Jan K.
Forty-nine carefully diagnosed adults with persistent attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), who had never been medicated for their ADHD, were compared with 49 normal control adults matched for age and gender on a large battery of tests in five domains of executive functioning (inhibition, fluency, planning, working memory, and set shifting) and several other neuropsychological functions to control for nonexecutive test demands. After stringent controls for nonexecutive function demands and IQ, adults with ADHD showed problems in inhibition and set shifting but not in any of the other executive functioning domains tested. We argue that adult ADHD may be mainly a disorder of inhibition. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved)



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iPost: Neuropsych res: Working memory, ADHD, aging,cbipolar





Neuropsychology - Vol 24, Iss 2
Neuropsychology focuses on (a) basic research, (b) the integration of basic and applied research, and (c) improved practice in the field of neuropsychology. The primary function of Neuropsychology is to publish original, empirical research on the relation between brain and human cognitive, emotional, and behavioral function.



Does the meaning of neurocognitive change change with age?

Sun, Mar 14 2010 10:00 PM 
by Salthouse, Timothy A.
Significant declines in longitudinal comparisons of neurocognitive performance are seldom evident until adults are in their 60s or older, but relatively little is known about the existence, or nature, of age-related changes at earlier periods in adulthood. The current research was designed to address this issue by examining characteristics of change in measures from 12 neuropsychological and cognitive tests at different periods in adulthood. Although change was largely positive for adults under about 55 years of age and frequently negative for adults at older ages, the reliabilities of the changes in the neuropsychological and cognitive variables were similar at all ages. Furthermore, there were few systematic relations of age on the reliability-adjusted correlations between the changes in composite scores representing different abilities. These results imply that although neurocognitive declines may not be apparent at young ages because of positive retest effects or other factors, at least in some respects longitudinal changes may have nearly the same meaning across all of adulthood. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved)

Are working memory deficits in bipolar disorder markers for psychosis?

Sun, Mar 14 2010 10:00 PM 
by Allen, Daniel N.; Randall, Carol; Bello, Danielle; Armstrong, Christina; Frantom, Linda; Cross, Chad; Kinney, Jefferson
Working memory deficits have been identified in bipolar disorder, but there is evidence suggesting that these deficits may be markers for psychosis rather than affective disorder. The current study examined this issue by comparing two groups of individuals with bipolar disorder, one with psychotic features and one without psychotic features, with a group of normal controls. Working memory was conceptualized as a multicomponent system that includes auditory and visuospatial short-term stores, executive control processes, and an episodic buffer that allows for communication between short- and long-term memory stores (Baddeley & Logie, 1999). Results indicated that only executive control processes significantly differentiated the psychotic and nonpsychotic bipolar groups, although visuospatial working memory differentiated both bipolar groups from controls. The results support the idea that some aspects of working memory performance are markers for psychosis, while others may be more general markers for bipolar disorders. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved)

The relationship between working memory capacity and executive functioning: Evidence for a common executive attention construct.

Sun, Mar 14 2010 10:00 PM 
by McCabe, David P.; Roediger, Henry L.; McDaniel, Mark A.; Balota, David A.; Hambrick, David Z.
Attentional control has been conceptualized as executive functioning by neuropsychologists and as working memory capacity by experimental psychologists. We examined the relationship between these constructs using a factor analytic approach in an adult life span sample. Several tests of working memory capacity and executive function were administered to more than 200 subjects between 18 and 90 years of age, along with tests of processing speed and episodic memory. The correlation between working memory capacity and executive functioning constructs was very strong (r = .97), but correlations between these constructs and processing speed were considerably weaker (rs ˜ .79). Controlling for working memory capacity and executive function eliminated age effects on episodic memory, and working memory capacity and executive function accounted for variance in episodic memory beyond that accounted for by processing speed. We conclude that tests of working memory capacity and executive function share a common underlying executive attention component that is strongly predictive of higher level cognition. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved)

To act or not to act, that's the problem: Primarily inhibition difficulties in adult ADHD.

Sun, Mar 14 2010 10:00 PM 
by Boonstra, A. Marije; Kooij, J. J. Sandra; Oosterlaan, Jaap; Sergeant, Joseph A.; Buitelaar, Jan K.
Forty-nine carefully diagnosed adults with persistent attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), who had never been medicated for their ADHD, were compared with 49 normal control adults matched for age and gender on a large battery of tests in five domains of executive functioning (inhibition, fluency, planning, working memory, and set shifting) and several other neuropsychological functions to control for nonexecutive test demands. After stringent controls for nonexecutive function demands and IQ, adults with ADHD showed problems in inhibition and set shifting but not in any of the other executive functioning domains tested. We argue that adult ADHD may be mainly a disorder of inhibition. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved)



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Friday, March 12, 2010

iPost: Episodic buffer as fourth part of working memory





Abstract- selected





Focus your view on this article
Trends in Cognitive Sciences
Volume 4, Issue 11, 1 November 2000, Pages 417-423

doi:10.1016/S1364-6613(00)01538-2 | How to Cite or Link Using DOI
Copyright © 2000 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.
  Cited By in Scopus (775)
  Permissions & Reprints

Review

The episodic buffer: a new component of working memory?
Purchase the full-text article

Alan BaddeleyE-mail The Corresponding Author
Department of Experimental Psychology, University of Bristol, 8 Woodland Road, Bristol UK BS8 1TN. tel: + 44 117 928 8541 fax: +44 117 926 8562


Available online 25 October 2000. 


Abstract

In 1974, Baddeley and Hitch proposed a three-component model of working memory. Over the years, this has been successful in giving an integrated account not only of data from normal adults, but also neuropsychological, developmental and neuroimaging data. There are, however, a number of phenomena that are not readily captured by the original model. These are outlined here and a fourth component to the model, the episodic buffer, is proposed. It comprises a limited capacity system that provides temporary storage of information held in a multimodal code, which is capable of binding information from the subsidiary systems, and from long-term memory, into a unitary episodic representation. Conscious awareness is assumed to be the principal mode of retrieval from the buffer. The revised model differs from the old principally in focussing attention on the processes of integrating information, rather than on the isolation of the subsystems. In doing so, it provides a better basis for tackling the more complex aspects of executive control in working memory.

Article Outline

1. Problems for the current model
1.1. The phonological loop: limits and limitations
1.2. Prose recall
1.3. The problem of rehearsal
1.4. Consciousness and the binding problem

2. The episodic buffer





2.1. How is the buffer implemented biologically?
2.2. So what's new?

3. Some outstanding issues




Acknowledgements




References









Trends in Cognitive Sciences
Volume 4, Issue 11, 1 November 2000, Pages 417-423
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