Saturday, October 31, 2009

Disability stats source

Thanks to BRAIN INJURY BLOG for the fyi post http://braininjury.blogs.com/braininjury/2009/10/finding-statistics-on-disabilities.html


Kevin McGrew PhD
Educational/School Psych.
IAP (www.iapsych.com)

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Friday, October 30, 2009

IQs Corner Recent Literature of Interest 10-30-09

This weeks "recent literature of interest" is now available. Click here to view or download.

Information regarding this feature, its basis, and the reasons for type of references included in each weekly installment can be found in a prior post.

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Intelligence theory and testing posts in the "pipeline"




Future posts at either ICDP or IQs Corner blogs.
  • What does the WAIS-IV measure per CHC theory?
  • School psychologist potential role in Atkins MR proceedings (with actual case example from court records)
  • Can a person with mild MR achieve above their IQ? (remember Forrest Gump)
  • Courts struggle with establishing adaptive behavior functioning during childhood
  • Why IQ scores may differ - scoring errors are potentially more of a problem than we acknowledge
  • Description/overview of major IQ tests
  • CHC analysis of major IQ tests, with emphasis on composite scores (since these are what are paid attention to in court proceedings)
  • Hopefully clear definitions of "standard error of measurement" and "standardized tests" some misunderstandings need clarification
  • Why you can't average standard scores...a psychometric "no no"
  • plus other stuff
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Thursday, October 29, 2009

Wednesday, October 28, 2009

Importance of following standardized IQ test directions: Another Atkins MR/IQ decision

Another Atkins MR/IQ court decision revolving around IQ score issues, this time the Stanford-Binet V.  Affidavit provided by SB5 test author.  Oral arguments available to listen to.  The decision should remind all psychologist re: the importance of following standardized testing procedures when administering an intelligence test.  More information at ICDP sister blog.

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Sunday, October 25, 2009

Cup(s) of Joe good for your brain?

Thanks to SHARP BRAINS for making ne feel good about my love for coffee

http://www.sharpbrains.com/blog/2009/10/24/does-coffee-boost-brain-cognitive-functions-over-time/


Kevin McGrew PhD
Educational/School Psych.
IAP (www.iapsych.com)

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double click on it to make larger-if hard to see)

Kaufman intelligent approach to IQ testing

Excellent overview of Alan Kaufmans Intelligent intelligence test
approach to interp. Includes an interview with Alan Kaufman. Check it
out at BEAUTIFUL MINDS

http://ow.ly/15XdS8

Kevin McGrew PhD
Educational/School Psych.
IAP (www.iapsych.com)

Sent from KMcGrew iPhone (IQMobile). (If message includes an image-
double click on it to make larger-if hard to see)

Friday, October 23, 2009

Research Bytes 10-23-08: RIAS/WAIS-III,Gv,imagery,neuropsychology,test norms



Articles that caught my eye during my weekly search of a wide range of professional literature.

Smith, B. L., McChristian, C. L., Smith, T. D., & Meaux, J. (2009). The relationshipo of the Reynolds Intellectual Assessment Scales and the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Third Edition. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 109(1), 30-40.

The purpose of this study was to compare scores on the Reynolds Intellectual Assessment Scales (RIAS) with scores on the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Third Edition (WAIS-III) in a group of college students diagnosed with a Learning Disability, Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), or a combination of the two. The RIAS Composite Index score was significantly higher than the WAIS-III Full Scale IQ, although scores on both tests were in the average range. Correlations between the two tests were significant on all measures. Male students were significantly higher than female students on both the RIAS Composite Index and on the WAIS-III Full Scale IQ. Although the ADHD group was higher on IQ than the Learning Disabled and combined disorder groups on all IQ measures, no significant differences were found.

Heilbronner, R. L., Sweet, J. J., Morgan, J. E., Larrabee, G. J., & Millis, S. R. (2009). American Academy of Clinical Neuropsychology Consensus Conference Statement on the Neuropsychological Assessment of Effort, Response Bias, and Malingering. Clinical Neuropsychologist, 23(7), 1093-1129.
During the past two decades clinical and research efforts have led to increasingly sophisticated and effective methods and instruments designed to detect exaggeration or fabrication of neuropsychological dysfunction, as well as somatic and psychological symptom complaints. A vast literature based on relevant research has emerged and substantial portions of professional meetings attended by clinical neuropsychologists have addressed topics related to malingering (Sweet, King, Malina, Bergman, & Simmons, 2002). Yet, despite these extensive activities, understanding the need for methods of detecting problematic effort and response bias and addressing the presence or absence of malingering has proven challenging for practitioners. A consensus conference, comprised of national and international experts in clinical neuropsychology, was held at the 2008 Annual Meeting of the American Academy of Clinical Neuropsychology (AACN) for the purposes of refinement of critical issues in this area. This consensus statement documents the current state of knowledge and recommendations of expert clinical neuropsychologists and is intended to assist clinicians and researchers with regard to the neuropsychological assessment of effort, response bias, and malingering.

Thompson, W. L., Slotnick, S. D., Burrage, M. S., & Kosslyn, S. M. (2009). Two Forms of Spatial Imagery: Neuroimaging Evidence. Psychological Science, 20(10), 1245-1253
Spatial imagery may be useful in such tasks as interpreting graphs and solving geometry problems, and even in performing surgery. This study provides evidence that spatial imagery is not a single faculty; rather, visualizing spatial location and mentally transforming location rely on distinct neural networks. Using 3-T functional magnetic resonance imaging, we tested 16 participants (8 male, 8 female) in each of two spatial imagery tasks—one that required visualizing location and one that required mentally rotating stimuli. The same stimuli were used in the two tasks. The location-based task engendered more activation near the occipito-parietal sulcus, medial posterior cingulate, and precuneus, whereas the transformation task engendered more activation in superior portions of the parietal lobe and in the postcentral gyrus. These differences in activation provide evidence that there are at least two different types of spatial imagery.

Dellatolas, G., Watier, L., LeNormand, M. T., Lubart, T., & ChevrieMuller, C. (2009). Rhythm Reproduction in Kindergarten, Reading Performance at Second Grade, and Developmental Dyslexia Theories. Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology, 24(6), 555-563.
Temporal processing deficit could be associated with a specific difficulty in learning to read. In 1951, Stambak provided preliminary evidence that children with dyslexia performed less well than good readers in reproduction of 21 rhythmic patterns. Stambak's task was administered to 1,028 French children aged 5–6 years. The score distribution (from 0 to 21) was quasi-normal, with some children failing completely and other performing perfectly. In second grade, reading was assessed in 695 of these children. Kindergarten variables explained 26% of the variance of the reading score at second grade. The Stambak score was strongly and linearly related to reading performance in second grade, after partialling out performance on other tasks (oral repetition, attention, and visuo-spatial tasks) and socio-cultural level. Findings are discussed in relation to perceptual, cerebellar, intermodal, and attention-related theories of developmental dyslexia. It is concluded that simple rhythm reproduction tasks in kindergarten are predictive of later reading performance.

Crawford, J. R., Garthwaite, P. H., & Slick, D. J. (2009). On percentile norms in neuropsychology: Proposed reporting standards and methods for quantifying the uncertainty over the percentile ranks of test scores. Clinical Neuropsychologist, 23(7), 1173-1195.
Normative data for neuropsychological tests are often presented in the form of percentiles. One problem when using percentile norms stems from uncertainty over the definitional formula for a percentile. (There are three co-existing definitions and these can produce substantially different results.) A second uncertainty stems from the use of a normative sample to estimate the standing of a raw score in the normative population. This uncertainty is unavoidable but its extent can be captured using methods developed in the present paper. A set of reporting standards for the presentation of percentile norms in neuropsychology is proposed. An accompanying computer program (available to download) implements these standards and generates tables of point and interval estimates of percentile ranks for new or existing normative data.

McGee, C. L., Delis, D. C., & Holdnack, J. A. (2009). Cognitive Discrepancies in Children at the Ends of the Bell Curve: A Note of Caution for Clinical Interpretation. Clinical Neuropsychologist, 23(7), 1160-1172.
Discrepancies between IQ scores on the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence (WASI) and scores from the Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System (D-KEFS) were examined at different levels of intellectual functioning in 470 normal-functioning youths (aged 8-19) from the co-standardization sample of the WASI and D-KEFS. Results demonstrated that children with lower IQ scores often had significantly higher D-KEFS scores, whereas children with higher IQ scores often had significantly lower D-KEFS scores. Similar patterns were identified for discrepancies between Verbal and Performance IQ indices. These findings are similar to those found in the adult literature. Clinicians are advised to be cautious when weighing the clinical significance of cognitive discrepancies at the ends of the bell-curve and should avoid interpreting discrepancies in isolation.

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IQs Corner Recent Literature of Interest 10-22-09

This weeks "recent literature of interest" is now available. Click here to view or download.

Information regarding this feature, its basis, and the reasons for type of references included in each weekly installment can be found in a prior post.

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Intelligence test "practice effects": New review overview article

New overview article of intellectual testing "practice effects" over at sister blog--ICDP

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Thursday, October 15, 2009

CHC intelligence theory and testing: Quotes to note from intelligence giants


Regular readers of this blog know that I  frequently reference the need for the Cattell-Horn-Carroll (CHC) theory of cognitive abilities to be used as the organizational framework for intelligence testing.  I typically provide links to two sources (one a pre-pub version of a book chapter that was eventually published; the other an invited 2009 editorial in the journal Intelligence). 

If readers take time to read these sources, they will learn that CHC theory is the combination of Cattell-Horn Gf-Gc theory and Carroll's three-stratum Gf-Gc theory [Carroll, J. B. (1993). Human cognitive abilities:  A survey of factor analytic studies. New York: Cambridge University Press].  I cannot stress enough the importance of the development of CHC theory for evidence-based intelligence theories and test development and interpretation.

To add external credibility to my professional opinion, I suggest skeptical readers read the words of major intelligence scholars as they rendered judgment on the Carroll portion of the CHC model.  Below are a few select quotes.  The conclusion should be obvious. Top notch intelligence scholars recognize the seminal work of Carroll, which is a major cornerstone of CHC theory.  I'll let the words of these giants speak for themselves.

Richard Snow (1993; back cover jacket of Carroll's, 1993 book):
 “John Carroll has done a magnificent thing. He has reviewed and reanalyzed the world’s literature on individual differences in cognitive abilities…no one else could have done it… it defines the taxonomy of cognitive differential psychology for many years to come.”

Burns, R. B. (1994). Surveying the cognitive terrain. Educational Researcher, 35-37.
Carroll’s book “is simply the finest work of research and scholarship I have read and is destined to be the classic study and reference work on human abilities for decades to come” (p. 35).

Horn, J. (1998). A basis for research on age differences in cognitive abilities. In J.J. McArdle, & R.W. Woodcock (Eds.), Human Cognitive Abilities in Theory and Practice (pp. 57-92). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
A “tour de force summary and integration” that is the “definitive foundation for current theory” (p. 58).  Horn compared Carroll’s summary to “Mendelyev’s first presentation of a periodic table of elements in chemistry” (p. 58). 
Jensen, A. R. (2004). Obituary - John Bissell Carroll. Intelligence, 32(1), 1-5.
…on my first reading this tome, in 1993, I was reminded of the conductor Hans von B├╝low’s exclamation on first reading the full orchestral score of Wagner’s Die Meistersinger, ‘‘It’s impossible, but there it is!’’

“Carroll’s magnum opus thus distills and synthesizes the results of a century of factor analyses of mental tests. It is virtually the grand finale of the era of psychometric description and taxonomy of human cognitive abilities. It is unlikely that his monumental feat will ever be attempted again by anyone, or that it could be much improved on. It will long be the key reference point and a solid foundation for the explanatory era of differential psychology that we now see burgeoning in genetics and the brain sciences” (p. 5).


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AP101 Brief #1: g or not to g: IQ part vs full scale IQ scores in determining general intelligence



IQs Corner readers may find the Applied Psychometrics 101 Brief #1:  g or not to g in Atkins MR death penalty cases (post at sister blog) of interest.  Briefly, the two-post AP101 Brief presents and disucsses the relative g-loadings (g-ness) of composite scores from the WAIS-III, WJ III, and KAIT in a university adult sample. Questions are raised, based on analysis of data from a sample of 200 young adults, regarding the use of different composite scores from intelligence batteries in place of the total (full scale) IQ score when considerable variability exists in an IQ batteries composite scores.

Tuesday, October 13, 2009

Disseration Dish: Preschool inhibitory control and kindergarten academic achievement


Inhibitory control in preschool children: Does it predict academic achievement in kindergarten? by Gonik, Ilana, Ph.D., Illinois Institute of Technology, 2008 , 108 pages; AAT 3370855

Abstract
Inhibitory control is a self-regulatory, prefrontal cognitive function which begins to develop during the first year of life and continues developing rapidly through the preschool years. Children's cognitive development has also been shown to increase rapidly in the preschool years. Additionally, early childhood is a sensitive period for the development of important academic skills such as literacy, mathematics, and language skills. This study examined the relationship between different types of inhibitory control abilities in preschool-age children and academic achievement, including both reading and math skills. Participants included 347 4- and 5-year-old children who were given a battery of tasks which tapped into three domains of inhibitory control (delaying gratification, slowing down/inhibiting motor activity, and initiating and suppressing a response to signal). Academic achievement was assessed using three subtests of the Woodcock-Johnson III Tests of Achievement including the Letter-Word Identification, Passage Comprehension, and Quantitative Concepts subtest. Using structural equation modeling, the results indicated that the observed inhibitory control measures at ages 4 and 5 were not measuring common latent factors and the individual variables were substantially different. Results of hierarchical regression analyses indicated that suppressing/initiating a response to signal tasks (Tower at age 4 and Knock and Tap at age 5) and the delay of gratification task at age 5 (Gift Delay) were significantly related to math achievement at age 5. Additionally, the Knock and Tap task at age 5 partially mediated the relationship between the Tower task at age 4 and math achievement. Implications of these findings and suggestions for further research are discussed.

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Wednesday, October 07, 2009

IQ profile variability and MR Dx: Life or death issues


Readers of IQs Corner will likely find the guest post, by Dr. Dale Watson, a clinical forensic neuropsychologist, regarding the intelligence test interpretation issues in a recent Atkins IQ MR death penalty decision of interest. It can be viewed at IQs Corner sister blog - Intellectual Competence and the Death Penalty

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Tuesday, October 06, 2009

Personal post: Life is GRAND in MN!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

It does not get any better.  I may die a happy blogmaster. 

Click here for explanation.

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Dissertation Dish: Memory abilities in high functioning autism


Memory abilities in children with high functioning autism spectrum disorders by Gansle, Mary Ann Thamaravelil, Ph.D., Texas Woman's University, 2009 , 112 pages; AAT 3367231

Abstract
In the present study, demographic and intellectual performance data previously collected on groups of children with Asperger Syndrome (AS) and high functioning autism (HFA) were analyzed. It was hypothesized that children and adolescents with HFA or AS would exhibit lower scores on measures of visual memory as compared to auditory memory. It was also hypothesized that participants would display lower scores on visual memory tasks that contain a social component as compared to visual memory tasks without a social component. It was also hypothesized that this group would have difficulty with the Memory for Faces task on the NEPSY as compared to other visual tasks. Another hypothesis stated that the Symbolic Memory task on the UNIT may yield lower mean scores when compared to the other visual tasks. Additionally, it was hypothesized that these children and adolescents would demonstrate lower mean scores on tasks involving auditory working memory as compared to auditory memory tasks alone. Instruments used included the NEPSY, the Universal Nonverbal Intelligence Test (UNIT), and the Woodcock Johnson Test of Cognitive Abilities, Third Edition (WJ-III Cog).

Participants included child and adolescent volunteers (47 males and 7 females) ranging in age from 8 years to 17 years with a mean age of 11 years. All participants had a full scale IQ of 85 or above. Repeated measures ANOVAs were performed using diagnosis (HFA, AS) as a between subjects effect on the dependent variables. The results failed to reveal significant differences for diagnosis on any of the dependent measures; therefore, the between subjects factor diagnosis (HFA, AS) was collapsed across groups to create one sample of children with autism for subsequent analyses.

Repeated measures analysis of variance, pairwise multiple comparisons using Fisher's Least Significant Difference (LSD), and correlations were performed to analyze performance of the sample group across the various subtests included in the hypotheses. With regard to hypothesis one, results revealed that children's standardized mean responses on visual memory measures were not significantly different from each other. With respect to hypothesis two, scores on the Symbolic Memory Subtest were not significantly lower than other visual tasks.

Results for hypothesis three indicated the standardized mean scores on auditory measures and visual memory measures were not significantly different from each other. Hypothesis four analysis indicated that the standardized mean scores on the auditory memory measures and auditory working memory measures were not significantly different from each other. Overall, four hypotheses failed to show significance. There was some suggested overlap in skills measured by the various subtests. The implications of these results for the development of effective classroom interventions for use with students with AS or HFA were discussed.

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Monday, October 05, 2009

Sunday, October 04, 2009

Intelligence theory and test progress continuum: Updated and revised




 [Double click on image to enlarge]

Intelligence theory and tests have evolved significantly over the past two decades.  This progress is reflected in the above progress continuum.  I will likely be referencing this figure in future posts.

Additional historical information is available via IQs Corner CHC Timeline project.

Interesting questions re: a potential Atkins/MR/death penalty IQ test-intelligence theory gap are noted at IQs Corner sister blog.

School psychology blogs

Thanks to TECHPSYCH for organizing this blog list

http://bit.ly/kTZgk

Kevin McGrew PhD
Educational/School Psych.
IAP (www.iapsych.com)

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double click on it to make larger-if hard to see)

Personal choice and ethical/moral issues in self-cognitive enhancement



Interesting topic (personal choice, ethics, and moral issues in self-cognitive enhacement) discussed in a new Neuroethics article (Automony and coercion in academic "cognitive enhancement" using methlphenidate:  Perspective of key stakeholders)

Abstract

There is mounting evidence that methylphenidate (MPH; Ritalin) is being used by healthy college students to improve concentration, alertness, and academic performance. One of the key concerns associated with such use of pharmaceuticals is the degree of freedom individuals have to engage in or abstain from cognitive enhancement (CE). From a pragmatic perspective, careful examination of the ethics of acts and contexts in which they arise includes considering coercion and social pressures to enhance cognition. We were interested in understanding how university students, parents of university students, and healthcare providers viewed autonomy and coercion in CE using MPH. We found that perspectives converged on the belief that CE is a matter of personal and individual choice. Perspectives also converged on the existence of tremendous social pressures to perform and succeed. Parents emphasized personal responsibility and accountability for CE choices, and expressed feelings of worry, sadness and fear about CE. Students emphasized the importance of personal integrity in CE, expressed tolerance for personal choices of others, and highlighted the challenge that CE poses to maintaining one’s personal integrity. Healthcare providers emphasized the health consequences of CE. These results illustrate: (1) the importance of understanding how context is viewed in relation to perspectives on autonomous choice; (2) the limitations of individualistic libertarian approaches that do not consider social context; and (3) the ethical implications of public health interventions in a value-laden debate where perspectives diverge.

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Friday, October 02, 2009

WJ III Braille Adapted achievement tests now available

Technical problems with this earlier post have been resolved.  Information re: the braille adapted version of the WJ III tests is now available from the American Printing House for the Blind.  Click here for more information.