Tuesday, March 31, 2009

IQs Corner Recent Literature of Interest 3-31-09

This weeks "recent literature of interest" is now available. Click here to access.

Information regarding this feature, its basis, and the reasons for type of references included in each weekly installment can be found in a prior post.

Brain structures and impulsivity

Thanks to MIND BLOG


Kevin McGrew PhD
Educational/School Psych.
IAP (www.iapsych.com)

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Monday, March 30, 2009

Free brain videos

Thanks to BRAIN INJURY blog.


Kevin McGrew PhD
Educational/School Psych.
IAP (www.iapsych.com)

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Sunday, March 29, 2009

NYTimes book review: Get Smart

From The New York Times:

Get Smart

A prominent cognitive psychologist stresses the nonhereditary factors
in determining I.Q....


Get The New York Times on your iPhone for free by visiting http://nytimes.com/iphoneinstaller

Kevin McGrew PhD
Educational/School Psych.
IAP (www.iapsych.com)

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Saturday, March 28, 2009

Brain atlas project

Check it out at WIRED


Kevin McGrew PhD
Educational/School Psych.
IAP (www.iapsych.com)

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Friday, March 27, 2009

APA PsycCRITIQUES - Volume 54, Issue 12 is now available online

March 25, 2009
Volume 54, Issue 12

Book Reviews
1. Engaging Crystallization in Qualitative Research: An Introduction
Author: Laura L. Ellingson
Reviewer: Karl N. Kelley

2. Reflections on Human Potential: Bridging the Person-Centered Approach and Positive Psychology
Author: Brian E. Levitt (Ed.)
Reviewer: Grant J. Rich

3. Everyday Survival: Why Smart People Do Stupid Things
Author: Laurence Gonzales
Reviewer: Gordon Pitz

4. Exploring Animal Social Networks
Authors: Darren P. Croft, Richard James, and Jens Krause
Reviewer: Thomas R. Zentall

5. Meeting the Challenge of Adolescent Literacy: Research We Have, Research We Need
Authors: Mark W. Conley, Joseph R. Freidhoff, Michael B. Sherry, and Steven Forbes Tuckey (Eds.)
Reviewer: Sherri McCarthy

6. Autism: An Integrated View From Neurocognitive, Clinical, and Intervention Research
Authors: Evelyn McGregor, María Núñez, Katie Cebula, and Juan Carlos Gómez (Eds.)
Reviewer: Scott J. Hunter

7. Challenges of the Faculty Career for Women: Success and Sacrifice
Author: Maike Ingrid Philipsen
Reviewer: Patricia L. Wolleat

8. Preventing Boundary Violations in Clinical Practice
Authors: Thomas G. Gutheil and Archie Brodsky
Reviewer: Annie Lee Jones

9. Clinician's Guide to Evidence-Based Practices: Mental Health and the Addictions
Authors: John C. Norcross, Thomas P. Hogan, and Gerald P. Koocher
Reviewer: Patrick M. Flynn

Film Review
10. Man on Wire
Director: James Marsh
Reviewer: Marilyn Newman Metzl

Monday, March 23, 2009

Biology of creativity

Check out interesting study at ENL blog. I found the finding that
diffuse attention may be linked to creativity to be of particular


Kevin McGrew PhD
Educational/School Psych.
IAP (www.iapsych.com)

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Friday, March 20, 2009

More on SES and brain development

See my prior brief post on new article on brain development and SES
research. The MOUSE TRAP blog provides a more detailed review and
commentary. See URL below.


Kevin McGrew PhD
Educational/School Psych.
IAP (www.iapsych.com)

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Thursday, March 19, 2009

SES and brain functions

How does SES related to neurological functioning?

Much has been written and summarized regarding the relation between SES, achievement, and intelligence. More recently on the scene are researchers trying to establish links between SES and neurological functioning. In the recent edition of Trends in Cognitive Sciences (on of my favorite science journals for providing brief overview summaries of topics), Hackman and Farah summarize much of this literature. I found the strongest links between SES and the executive function and language systems of the brain (they organized their review around five primary brain systems) of most interest. The discussion of the operationalization of the construct of SES was also informative and should be reviewed by those doing research on the relations between SES and intelligence and/or those who design representative norm samples for intelligence and achievement tests.

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Tuesday, March 17, 2009

New Howard Gardner book

Gardner has a new book on how society should appreciate and train five
kinds of minds for the future. A popular media book that is probably
good foe stimulating thought. Has anyone read it?


Kevin McGrew PhD
Educational/School Psych.
IAP (www.iapsych.com)

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Blog break - maybe?

I'm going to be taking a brief blogging break (maybe) for the next week. I'm having eye surgery that requires an unusual positioning of my head for up to four days. However, I've set up a recovery work place that might result in me being even more prolific than before. If you are curious, and esp. if you want to see into the potential future of the efficient work/play station, check out the pictures and description at my personal blog.

"Eye" shall return.

Brain Awareness week

Brain awareness week over at SHARP BRAINS


Kevin McGrew PhD
Educational/School Psych.
IAP (www.iapsych.com)

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Saturday, March 14, 2009

IQs Corner Recent Literature of Interest 3-14-09

This weeks "recent literature of interest" is now available. Click here to access.

Information regarding this feature, its basis, and the reasons for type of references included in each weekly installment can be found in a prior post.

Quantoids corner: Confirmatory factor analysis guidelines

Just read a good article in Psychological Methods on the state-of-the-art of CFA methods, statistical methods used with considerable frequency in intelligence research. Here is a nifty manuscript/research checklist ... double click on image to enlarge. I will follow-up with a more detailed post in the next few days.

From the past: Phrenology favorites

Thanks to IMPROVABLE RESEARCH for this post.


Kevin McGrew PhD
Educational/School Psych.
IAP (www.iapsych.com)

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Wednesday, March 11, 2009

A map of knowledge

I think this map of knowledge is one of the best data visualizations
I've ever seen. See link to article in WIRED.


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Neurofeedback for ADHD?

Interesting post at the great SharpBrains blog.


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Improving psychological science

Thanks to BPS for info on a free online access of a special issue of
Perspectives on Psychological Science devoted to improving the state
of the art of psychological research


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Broad knowledge Gkn factor explained--maybe

In response to my CHC ability definition post, someone asked the question "If Gkn is domain specific, in what sense can it be a broad factor?"

My reading of the literature is that the various stores of domain-specific knowledge may be like narrow abilities with an over-arching broad factor that accounts for the covariance among them being broad Gkn. Ackerman et al have published considerable research demonstrating a broad knowledge factor. In addition, two recent articles in Intelligence present analyses that demonstrate a higher-order broad Gkn (although labeled differently by the the researchers) factor when narrow domain-specific Gkn abilities are present (e.g., knowledge of different domains of current events; technical knowledge, arts knowledge, etc.) --- Two relevant model figures are below (double click on images to enlarge). These are from Reeve (2004) and Hambrick et al. (2008). There are more such studies....esp. by the Ackerman et al. research group.

Mabye the name (broad domain-specific) is a bit confusing....as how can something be "broad" and "specific" at the same time. Suggestions for a better knowledge label? Gk?

CHC intelligence definitions: "Official" table (for now)

In 1997, as part of a book chapter I wrote for Flanagan et al's 1997 CIA book, I developed a table of Cattell-Horn-Carroll cognitive ability definitions (CHC Theory; back then called Extended Gf-Gc theory), which I extracted from Carroll's (1993) seminal treatise. As described in that chapter, Jack Carroll was gracious enough to review and make suggestions via an iterative back-and-forth process...eventually blessing that 1997 table.

Since then this table of broad and narrow CHC definitions has more-or-less become the "official" set of working definitions and has surfaced in most CHC publications.

Since then I've worked to refine these definitions. Part of the refinement process has been seeking feedback from other professionals. I've recently revised the table as it will be used by all authors in a forthcoming special issue on CHC theory and assessment in a school psychology journal.

Today I'm announcing the latest (and greatest) revision of CHC broad and narrow ability definitions. Consider it a "working list" that will undergoe revision as additional research accumulates and additional feedback is received.

A copy can be viewed/downloaded by clicking here.

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Gesturing improved vocab (Gc-VL)

From BPS

http://bps-research- digest.blogspot.com/2009/03/experts-point-to-

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Tuesday, March 10, 2009

The neural noise efficiency hypothesis: Processing efficiency, Gf, Gc and Gv model support

I just skimmed a brief and interesting article that adds to the continually expanding research that suggests that processing efficiency (Gsm-MW or working memory; Gs-processing speed) is highly related to fluid reasoning/intelligence (Gf), possibly in a causal manner. [Click here and here for definitions of the CHC abilities]

The research by Martinez and Colom (2009), in an adult sample of 265 (caution - generalization to children and adolescents needs independent study; esp. given the developmental cascade hypothesis), used the unique approach of statistically removing the Gf variance from their respective Gc (crystallized intelligence or comprehension knowledge) and Gv (visual-spatial ability) factor measures, and then finding that processing efficiency (Gs and Gsm-working memory) only predicted Gf and NOT Gc or Gv. This would also support the Gs-->Working Memory-->Gf model that has been previously tested, including by yours truley.

The authors interpret their findings as support for the "neural noise hypothesis regarding the biological base of cognitive functions such as working memory." The neural noise hypothesis is grounded in Jensen's neural osciillation model of intelligence. The authors concluded that "participants with higher levels of fluid intelligence show cognitive patterns reflecting less neural noise-oscillations and more processing efficiency and working memory capacity." Stated differently, the lower the "noisy" transmission among groups of neurons in the brain the greater the efficiency of efficient neural processing ...which results in better fluid intelligence (Gf), which in turn, via the "investment hypothesis", results in the development of other human abilities (Gc, Gv, etc.)

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IQs Corner Reading Inbox: 3-10-09

As I've lamented before..."so much to read...so little time." I simply can't keep up with the deluge of research publications related to the IQs Corner). The constant stream of intelligence and related literature is like a tsunami.I download PDF articles (constantly) with good intentions...to read them and blog about those I think are important for readers of this blog. Good intentions....but lack of time (and I'm having the same problem with my other blog - IQ Brain Clock)

Today I cleaned out in IQs Corner Reading Inbox on my hard drive. I made some decisions (often difficult) on articles that I will simply file in e-folders. I culled those I had already skimmed and blogged about. This left me with a handful of articles, book chapters, etc. that I want to skim and comment on. But I know I will find another dozen within the week.

Thus....I'm going to start a new feature. I'm not sure it will last...but it is worth a try. This feature is the IQs Corner Reading Inbox. I will add a link section to the blog home page. I will routinely post a link to a PDF file that includes the title, author, and abstract of the "I wish I could read" material. Readers can then skim the manuscripts and see what I'm interested in reading. However, the REAL goal behind this feature is to pique the interest of some readers...so much so that they will ask me for a copy of an article (or two, or.....)...and I will provide a copy in exchange for brief guest blog posts regarding the manuscripts.

Any takers? Please contact me at iap@earthlink.net if you are interested.

In the meantime you may see some posts that are given birth from the list. Today I've posted my first PDF listing of the IQs Corner Reading Inbox (3-10-09).

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Dissertation dish: KABC II and role of English langage proficiency

The performance evaluation of low achieving Mexican American students on the Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children II (KABC-II): The role of English language proficiency by Gomez, Micaela T., Ph.D., Capella University, 2008, 121 pages; AAT 3339017

Abstract: This study investigated the relationship of English language proficiency and IQ scores of low achieving Mexican American students at ages between 7 and 12 whose native language was not English. The research was designed to determine if IQ differences would be found between males and females and if a correlation exists between language proficiency and IQ scores and academic scores, respectively. It was also designed to determine which variables were statistically significant in a model utilizing gender, age, English language proficiency level, and IQ scores to predict academic achievement. Predictive models differed in significant variables found by gender. Criterion sampling was utilized to determine participation ( N = 137). The students had previously been administered the Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children, Second Edition (KABC-II) for IQ assessment, the California English Language Development Test for language competency assessment, and the Woodcock-Johnson Tests of Achievement, Third Edition (WJ-III ACH) for academic achievement assessment. The results indicated a significant difference of IQ scores between males and females within this age range (7-12). Correlational analysis indicated that English language proficiency did have a significant relationship with IQ scores. ANOVA found significant differences of IQ among the five levels of the CELDT and age did not seem to have an impact on this relationship. Furthermore, there was a significant relationship between IQ and academic achievement, with the strongest relationship in Mathematics and Writing skills. Finally, the regression equations that emerged from the analyses differed by gender with variable subcategories of the CELDT. The results provided the understanding of the relationships among IQ, English language proficiency, and academic achievement in this special population. The study also recommends English language assessment strategies for low achieving Mexican American elementary students.

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Quantoids corner: Reporting CFA results

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iAbstract: Working memory span development

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Quantoids corner: Psychological Methods - Volume 14, Issue 1

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Psychological Methods

iAbstract: Cognitive reserve hypothesis

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Planning ability: We are not alone

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Monday, March 09, 2009

IQs Corner Recent Literature of Interest 3-9-09

This weeks "recent literature of interest" is now available. Click here to access.

Information regarding this feature, its basis, and the reasons for type of references included in each weekly installment can be found in a prior post.

Friday, March 06, 2009

WMF Human Cognitive Abilities (HCA) Project update - 03-06-09

The free on-line WMF Human Cognitive Abilities (HCA) archive project was updated today. An overview of the project, with a direct link to the archive, can be found at the Woodcock-Muñoz Foundation web page (click on "Current Woodcock-Muñoz Foundation Human Cognitive Abilities Archive") . Also, an on-line PPT copy of a poster presentation I made at the 2008 (Dec) ISIR conference re: this project can be found by clicking here.

Current Update:
Today's update added information (either original correlation matrix or manuscript--or both) for the datasets listed below:
  • FAIRO1A/FAIRO1:  Fairbank, B.A. Jr., Tirre, W., Anderson, N.S. (1991).  Measures of thirty cognitive tasks:  Intercorrelations and correlations with aptitude battery scores. In P.L. Dann, S. M. Irvine, & J. Collis (Eds.), Advances in computer-based human assessment (pp. 51-101).  Dordrecht & Boston: Kluwer Academic.
  • FAUL11:  Faulds, B. (1959).  The perception of pitch in music.  Princeton, NJ: Educational Testing Service Technical Report.
  • SEGE01:  Segel, D. (1957). The multiple aptitude tests. Personnel & Guidance Journal, 35, 424-432.
  • SEIB02:  Seibert, W. F., Reid, J. C., & Snow, R. E. (1967). Studies in cine-psychometry II: Continued factoring of audio and visual cognition and memory. West Lafayette, IN: Purdue University Audio Visual Center. [ERIC Doc. 019 877]
Request for assistance: The HCA project needs help tracking down copies of old journal articles, dissertations, etc. for a number of datasets being archived. Please visit the "master bibliography/inventory" section of this archive and visit the on-line dataset/reference file. When viewing the on-line working inventory, manuscripts/references featured in the color red are those we are currently having trouble locating. If you have access to either a paper or e-copy of any of the designated "fugitive" documents, and would be willing to provide them to WMF to copy/scan (we would cover the costs), please contact Dr. Kevin McGrew at the email address listed at the site.

Of the new materials posted today, we are in need of assistance in tracking down copies of the manuscripts designated by the red font.

Please join the WMF HCA listserv to receive routine email updates regarding the WMF HCA project.

All posts regarding this project can be found here.

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Thursday, March 05, 2009

Wednesday, March 04, 2009

Where does attention fit in the CHC intelligence model?

I just read with great interest (and attention) an excellent article that investigated the relations between the construct of attention and intelligence within the confines of the CHC model of intelligence. A constant source of discomfort with the CHC model, and, in particular, the use of the CHC nomenclature to classify what is measured by the tests in individual intelligence batteries, has been the lack of clarity of the role/presence/validity of AC (attention/concentration) in the model. Carroll (1993) clearly articulated the unknown status of attention in a model of cognitive abilities when he stated:
"...it can be argued that attention is involved, in varying degrees, in all cognitive performances and, thus, in all performances that are regarded as indicating cognitive abilities. One can expect it to be very difficult to separate the attentional components of such performances from those components that represent latent traits of abilities other than the ability to attend. An individual differences factor could often be equally well interpreted either as a factor of some particular cognitive ability or as a factor of attentional ability
(p. 547)"
The current article reference and abstract is listed below:

Burns, N., Nettelbeck, T. & McPherson, J. (2009) Attention and intelligence: A factor analytic study. Journal of Individual Differences, 30(1), 44–57. (click here to view)

  • Abstract: Carroll (1993) found few factor-analytic studies that addressed attentional abilities. We reviewed and reanalyzed some of these studies and concluded that an exploratory approach to the study of the relationships between tests of attention and cognitive abilities was warranted. We sampled N = 147 adults from the general community and administered 17 tests of attention, including well-known neuropsychological tests along with tests drawn from the differential and experimental literatures on attention. We also administered 14 tests of cognitive ability designed to measure constructs described in Carroll’s taxonomy of intelligence, including a higher-order general ability factor. Regression of a general factor from the abilities battery onto a general factor from the attentional battery showed these two latent variables to be near identical (β = .98). Exploratory structural equation modeling, which allowed a model wherein the abilities part of the model was a confirmatory measurement model but the attention variables were modeled by three rotated exploratory factors, clarified this outcome. There were two sustained attention factors and one working-memory capacity factor with differential relationships with the latent abilities variables and with age. Results are discussed in the context of the network of processes that underlies a description of general cognitive ability at the psychological level, which includes mental speed, working memory, and sustained attention.

Although the study suffers from a being a restricted sample of adults (n=147), therefore begging for replication in younger samples, the beauty of the study is the presence of a large number of cognitive variables (14) selected to represent the CHC domains of Gc, Gf, Gv, Gs, and Gy (in the Catell-Horn model this would be combining Glr and Gsm) and 17 attentional variables AND the use of (I need to find out more about this) a combined confirmatory and exploratory factor analysis procedure called ESEM (exploratory structural equation modeling). Of interest were some of the following findings:

  • The latent factor correlaiton between the cognitive g factor and the attention g factor was .977. According to the authors, this suggests the interesting hypohtesis that "there is little that determines performance on the attentional tests but g, or that g is constituted essentially by executive attentional capacities." I find the later hypothesis of interesting in the context of Kane, Engle, Conway et al.s controlled executive attention model of working memory and the working memory = (or is strongly related to) G or Gf. The authors do discuss the relations between these various research findings.
  • Three separate attention factors were identified, two interpreted as reflecting aspects of sustained attention (with one being very similar to Gs abilities) and one working memory (Gsm-MW). Practically this suggests that many speeded cognitive tests on intelligence batteries may be reflecting the strong influence of sustained attention (as suggested in Carroll quote above). The other sustained attention factor might be getting at a more "attentional" construct as it had "less explicit demand for continuous speeded performance but a demand that performance be maintained for longer periods, or with more complex task demands, or both. This attention factor had a near-zero relationship with Gs but a substantial one with the higher-order general factor." Maybe we in the field of applied test development should examine the variables of this second attention factor and experiment with the development of applied psychometric measures for clinical use.
Kudos to the authors for making an important contribution to the evolution of CHC theory, a theory/model that needs continual refinement and exploration (see McGrew, 2009).

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Tuesday, March 03, 2009

Attention and working memory

I've blogged frequently regarding what I think is one of the better models of working memory--the controlled executive attention model of Kane Conway Engle et al. COGNITIVE DAILEY provides a nice post re one recent study by this group.

For those readers of the IQ BRAIN CLOCK blog, this has been one of the primary cognitive
mechanisms I've suggested as being a possible causal explanation for the efficacy of mental timing interventions.


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Neuropsychology - Volume 23, Issue 2

Subject: Neuropsychology - Volume 23, Issue 2

Volume 23, Issue 2

The neural response to facial attractiveness.
Pages 135-143
Chatterjee, Anjan; Thomas, Amy; Smith, Sabrina E.; Aguirre, Geoffrey K.
Remote semantic memory in patients with Korsakoff's syndrome and herpes encephalitis.
Pages 144-157
Kopelman, Michael D.; Bright, Peter; Fulker, Helena; Hinton, Nicola; Morrison, Amy; Verfaellie, Mieke
Correction to Fortier et al. (2008).
Page 157
Fortier, Catherine Brawn; Steffen, Elizabeth M.; LaFleche, Ginette; Venne, Jonathan R.; Disterhoft, John F.; McGlinchey, Regina E.
Free testosterone levels, attentional control, and processing speed performance in aging men.
Pages 158-167
Martin, Donel M.; Burns, Nicholas R.; Wittert, Gary
Time estimation abilities in mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease.
Pages 178-188
Rueda, Alicia D.; Schmitter-Edgecombe, Maureen
Norms for change in episodic memory as a prerequisite for the diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment (MCI).
Pages 189-200
Bläsi, Stefan; Zehnder, Antoinette E.; Berres, Manfred; Taylor, Kirsten I.; Spiegel, René; Monsch, Andreas U.
Incentive effects on event-based prospective memory performance in children and adolescents with traumatic brain injury.
Pages 201-209
McCauley, Stephen R.; McDaniel, Mark A.; Pedroza, Claudia; Chapman, Sandra B.; Levin, Harvey S.
A large-scale investigation of lateralization in cortical anatomy and word reading: Are there sex differences?
Pages 210-222
Chiarello, Christine; Welcome, Suzanne E.; Halderman, Laura K.; Towler, Stephen; Julagay, Janelle; Otto, Ronald; Leonard, Christiana M.
Anosognosia for motor impairment following left brain damage.
Pages 223-230
Cocchini, Gianna; Beschin, Nicoletta; Cameron, Annette; Fotopoulou, Aikaterini; Della Sala, Sergio
Comparisons of methods for multiple hypothesis testing in neuropsychological research.
Pages 255-264
Blakesley, Richard E.; Mazumdar, Sati; Dew, Mary Amanda; Houck, Patricia R.; Tang, Gong; Reynolds III, Charles F.; Butters, Meryl A.
Contraction of time in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder.
Pages 265-269
Gilden, David L.; Marusich, Laura R.

Culture-Language Interpretive Matrix for IQ tests: New research

[double click on image to see enlarged and clearer image]

How good are current models for evaluating the cultural loading and linguistic complexity of individual tests in individually administered intelligence batteries?

To date, the most visible work has been based on the Flanagan, Ortiz et al. groups cross-battery work and their presentation of the Culture-Language Interpretive Matrix (C-LIM) in which individual tests in IQ batteries are categorized in terms of their perceived linguistic demand and cultural loading.

I've always believed that the C-LIM made logical and theoretical sense, but was in sore need of some empirical research evidence support.

Previously I presented an attempt by myself and Jeff Evans to quantify the linguistic demands of individually administered tests. That research effort was conducted in the spirit of stimulating others to attempt more sophisticated methods for validating the quantification of the two dimensions of the C-LIM. That post and unpublished research report is available here. Until my attendance at NASP 2009 in Boston this past week, I was unaware of any other empirical attempts to investigate the validity of this model (for example, I've routinely searched the ProQuest digital dissertation abstract service for any CHC, XBA, etc. related dissertations, and to date have not found one that has investigated this matrix-- check out those found at WMF Dissertation Abstracts Project). [Note - if such disserations exist and I've missed them, please contact me to rectify my lack of knowledge and I'll make the appropriate post]

At NASP, John Kranzler and students presented a poster (click here for single page PPT image of poster) (albeit based on a small n---thus caution is urged in generalizing from the results) that investigated the C-LIM classifications of certain Woodcock-Johnson III (WJ III) tests [conflict of interest disclosure - I'm a coauther of the WJ III). The purpose of Kranzler et al's study "was to empirically examine the relationship between English-language proficiency and linguistic demands on the cognitive test performance of a sample of culturally and linguistically diverse children in the English for Speakers of Other Languages (ESOL) program". The authors concluded that:

Results of this study for an ESOL sample do not follow the predicted pattern based on the C-LIM for the WJ-III. It is important to note that this is a small sample and replication is needed. Nonetheless, these results do not support the use of the C-LIM. These results are consistent with the general conclusion that, on IQ tests, there is very little evidence to suggest that any of the cognitive factor, scale, or subtest profile differences can be used to improve decisions about individuals.

Of course, an alternative explanation is that the C-LIM model may be correct/valid but the Flanagan, Ortiz et al. classifications of some of the WJ III tests are not accurate.

We need more research on this matrix and related interpretations. It is nice to see that some folks are attempting to do this. Kudos to Kranzler and his students for adding a small piece of empircal data to this literature.

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WJ III CHC cluster g and specificty characteristics

The following manuscript served as the basis for a poster at the recent NASP 2009 conference and is also "in press" in School Psychology Review. A pre-pub copy can be viewed by clicking here. A set of supplementary tables to the manuscript are also available.

Floyd, R., McGrew, K., Barry, A., Rafael, F & Rogers, J. (in press) General and Specific Effects on Cattell–Horn–Carroll Broad Ability Composites: Analysis of the Woodcock–Johnson III Normative Update CHC Factor Clusters Across Development. School Psychology Review.

[conflict of interest disclosure - Kevin McGrew is a coauther of the WJ III]

Many school psychologists focus their interpretation on composite scores from intelligence test batteries designed to measure the broad abilities from the Cattell–Horn–Carroll (CHC) theory. The purpose of this study was to investigate the general factor loadings and specificity of the broad ability composites scores from one such intelligence test battery, the Woodcock-Johnson III Tests of Cognitive Abilities Normative Update (Woodcock, McGrew, Schrank, & Mather, 2007). Results from samples beginning at age 4 and continuing through age 60 indicate that Comprehension–Knowledge, Long-Term Retrieval, and Fluid Reasoning appear to be primarily measures of the general factor at many ages. In contrast, Visual-Spatial Thinking, Auditory Processing, and Processing Speed appear to be primarily measures of specific abilities at most ages. We offer suggestions for considering both the general factor and specific abilities when interpreting CHC broad ability composite scores.

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Monday, March 02, 2009

Quantoids corner: Dealing with (and planning for) missing data in data gathering

It has been a long time since I've made a post that may tweak the cockles of the quantoids who read this blog. This is one for my fellow quants....and is also intended for those less quantitatively oriented---as the topic is one that will mentioned with greater regularity in research articles, test manuals, etc.

Missing data has been a problem that has plagued researchers and test developers for decades. Over the past 20 years very sophisticated methods of handling missing data and producing "complete" data sets via sophisticated statistical algorithms have become available. And....many individuals who have run data may have used these procedures and have been completely unaware that their analysis used imputed or plausible values! For example, if you use one of the primary structural equation modeling (SEM) software programs (e.g., LISREL; Mplus; AMOS), and you had incomplete data on some subjects, the programs most likely utilized one of these new algorithms to impute plausable values before running the SEM model.

I've been schooling myself on this literature for the past 15 years and have found these contemporary missing data imputation methods very useful. More and more researchers need to become aware of the benefits of these methods, as well as some of the nuances of using it correctly.

This past week I received a copy of the latest issue of the Annual Review of Psychology and found (to my pleasure) probably the most simple, conceputal, understandable summary of this area of statistics. I was not surprsied to see that it was written by John Graham, who has written many other important journal articles on this topic. I would urge the readers of IQs Corner who conduct applied research or test develpoment projects to read this overview article. It is well worth the read. Also, I would suggest that readers take a serious look at the NORM software of Schaefer...the program I use when serious data imputation is necessary. A nicely written description of the program, as well as a short and sweet overview of some of the missing data literature, is available in an article written by Darmawan (2004).

What is really cool is the concept of "planned missing data"-----that is, designing one's data collection project to deliberately have missing data in order to allow for the collection of more variables across a larger number of subjects....which can then be handled (if designed correctly) via these new quantoid toys.

Fellow (and future) quantoids...enjoy

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CHC selective referral-focused testing scenarios

I just posted Part B of the mini-skills workshop I just made at NASP 2009 Boston (CHC COG-ACH Relations Research Synthesis:  What We've Learned From 20 Years of Research) as on on-line viewable PPT at SlideShare, and my SlideShare space in particular. You should view the prior description of this project and presentation at the link above. 

The second part of this presentation is the application of the results of the research synthesis vis-a-vis the demonstration of "CHC selective (branching tree) referral-focused testing scenarios" that are grounded in the research synthesis.  The direct link to the slide show can be accessed by clicking here.

The description included with the slide show follows:

This is the second half of the a mini-skills workshop made at NASP 2009 in Boston (CHC COG-ACH Relations Research Synthesis:  What We've Learned From 20 Years of Research".  The first half of this presentation is also available at Kevin McGrew’s SlideShare space and is called “CHC-Cog-Ach Relations Research Synthesis”  ---- the current module is an attempt to demonstrate selective testing (branching-tree) referral-focused testing scenarios based on the results of the CHC Cog-Ach relations research synthesis, using the WJ III battery as the illustrative instrument.  The viewer should first view the CHC Cog-Ach Relations Research Synthesis module prior to viewing this module.

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School recess and learning

Thanks to the ENL blog fir this story tip


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Testing and reading skills

From BPS blog


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