Wednesday, January 30, 2008

Dissertation dish: WJ III cognitive performance and English language proficiency

Another new WJ III/CHC-related doctoral dissertation has found it's way to IQ's Corner radar screen.

Cognitive performance and the development of English language proficiency by Sotelo-Dynega, Marlene, Psy.D., St. John's University (New York), 2007, 79 pages; AAT 3282715

Abstract (Summary)
  • The present investigator set out to dispel the myth that performance on cognitive assessments and tests of academic achievement are two separate entities, by evaluating the performances of students who are learning English as their second language. A review of the literature indicates that individuals that are culturally and linguistically different from the mainstream, monolingual English population are at risk for receiving a discriminatory assessment of their cognitive abilities, which in turn will lead to an erroneous classification as a student with a disability, as per criteria set forth by the Individual with Disabilities Education Improvement Act (IDEA, 2004). Sixty-one students in a suburban public school district that were designated as Limited English Proficient (LEP) were given the Woodcock-Johnson-Third Edition-Tests of Cognitive Abilities (WJ-III) during the spring term of the 2005-2006 academic year to coincide with the annual administration of the New York State English As a Second Language Achievement Test (NYSESLAT). The sample included students from the four NYSESLAT proficiency groups: 4 Beginner (7%), 14 Intermediate (23%), 29 Advanced (47%), and 14 Proficient (23%). The results support the investigator's hypotheses and confirm the existence of a linear relationship of moderate strength between the WJ-III and the NYSESLAT. In addition, analyses of the data collected demonstrated the impact of acculturation and English language proficiency on the overall General Intellectual Ability (GIA) scores, obtained from the WJ-IIII and on the performance of those specific subtests that have been deemed linguistically demanding and culturally loaded. Generally, performance on tests of cognitive abilities approached the average range as English language proficiency increased. By studying the impact of second language acquisition and acculturation on measures of cognitive abilities, school psychologists will be better able to differentiate between developmental issues related to second language acquisition and disabilities that affect learning. This information will in turn prevent the number of LEP students that are currently referred to and over-represented in special education programs.


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Monday, January 28, 2008

Orthographic processing: IQ's Corner meta-search

I just added another IQ's Corner meta-search to the meta-search section of this blog. The topic is "orthographic processing".....a hot topic in reading and reading disability research. Interestingly, the bulk of the links are to pdf copies of journal articles. Enjoy the reading.



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Tuesday, January 22, 2008

CHC cognitive-achievement correlates meta-analysis project

[Double click on image to enlarge]

I'm pleased to announce the Cattell - Horn - Carroll (CHC) Cognitive Abilities-Achievement Meta-Analysis project. This is a work "in progress". The purpose of this project is to systematically synthesize the key Cattell-Horn- Carroll (CHC) theory of cognitive abilities designed research studies that have investigated the relations between broad and narrow CHC abilities and school achievement.

The current results of this project can be accessed via a clickable MindMap visual-graphic navigational tool (similar to the image above...but "active" and "dyanamic") or via the more traditional web page outline navigational method. You can toggle back and forth between the different navigation methods via the options in the upper right hand corner of the respective home web page.

Feedback is appreciated. I request that feedback be funneled to either the CHC and/or NASP professional listservs, mechanisms that provide for a more dynamic give-and-take exchange of ideas, thoughts, reactions, criticisms, suggestions, etc.






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Sunday, January 20, 2008

Wednesday, January 16, 2008

IQ's Corner Recent Literature of Interest 1-16-08

This weeks recent literature of interest can be found by clicking here.

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IQ Bytes # 5: Cattell's "investment" theory hypothesis

Another IQ Byte from the same source as IQ Byte # 4. This tiny morsel explains Raymond Cattell's "investment theory" hypothesis. As stated by Kvist and Gustafsson:

The Investment theory postulates that in the development of the individual there is initially a single, general, relation-perceiving ability which is connected with the maturation of the brain. This ability, which was labeled Gf by Cattell, is thus primarily associated with genetic factors and neurological functioning. It can be applied to any sensory, motor or memory area, and Cattell argued that a child's rate of learning of different tasks (e.g., spatial, numerical, conceptual) depends on this general ability. In particular the child's:
  • … rate of learning in fields demanding insights into complex relations – and these fields include especially the problems of reading, arithmetic, and abstract reasoning with which he struggles at school – will depend appreciably on his level of fluid intelligence (though motivation, goodness of teaching, etc., will still play their part, as with the acquisitions of low relational complexity). (Cattell, 1987, p. 139).
Thus, through practice and experience children develop knowledge and skills and according to the Investment theory these developed abilities (i. e., Gc) are influenced by Gf and by effort, motivation and interest, and also by previous levels of Gc.

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Gs (speed) invaders computerized game test

I just skimmed, with considerable interest, an article by McPherson and Burns (2007; Behavior Research Methods) that demonstrated a unique use of the CHC theory of cognitive abilities framework and validated markers of CHC abilities (viz., Gv and Gs).

Briefly, the authors developed a computer game-like test designed to assess cognitive processing speed (Gs) as defined by CHC theory. Although the two reported studies are based on small samples of undergraduate psychology students, the study demonstrates how contemporary CHC theory and research can be used as a framework to developed computer game-like measures of CHC abilities.

Cool.

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What's a "knol"? Google vs Wikipedia

I'm a huge fan of means to disseminate timely and reputable information via the internet. Today I stumbled across a new project by Google....the Knol project, which is intended to compete with Wikipdeia by making online information easier to find and more authoritative. It will be interesting to see if this catches on.

Wouldn't it be nice to see some "knols" on various topics in the area of intelligence and intelligence testing?


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Monday, January 14, 2008

Beyond IQ Byte #3: Academic Ability Conception

Thanks to Jeff Evans for alerting me to an article in the most recent issue of Scientific American Mind [Note....see prior post where SAM gave IQ's Corner a nice pat on the back]. The article is by Dweck, who has written extensively about effort vs entity self-perceptions of ability. This construct is labeled academic ability conception in the Model of Academic Competence and Motivation (MACM). Just recently Dweck published a book (Mindset: The New Psychology of Success) on the topic that is receiving considerable attention in popular press and popular bookstore markets...Kudos to Dr. Dweck.

Below is the specific text from the MACM model re: the definition and explanation of academic ability conception.

  • A person’s beliefs, self-evaluation, and self-awareness regarding their academic-related skills and abilities.
  • Research suggests that “a person's view of how intelligence works determines how persistently the person will invest in a challenging intellectual task” (Perkins et al., 2000, p. 285). Contemporary goal setting theory suggests that the development of adaptive or maladaptive learning patterns, vis-à-vis the adoption of different academic goal orientations, may be mediated by a student’s perception and beliefs about their personal skills and abilities (Kaplan &Midgley, 1997). Academic ability conception is an individual’s beliefs and self- evaluation regarding the nature of their academic-related skills and abilities. This includes the student’s personal view on how their skills and abilities operate or work (Dweck, 2002; Kaplan & Midgley, 1997; Perkins et al., 2000).
  • Although related to academic self-efficacy, academic ability conception is concerned with the student’s personal beliefs about the nature and level of their academic competence. Academic self-efficacy focuses on the student’s conviction or belief that they can succeed at a given academic task. Ability conception is hypothesized to play an important role in the development of academic motivation. Once students “have developed a clear and coherent understanding of ability, the particular conception of ability they adopt will determine a great deal about their motivational patterns. It will influence such things as whether they seek and enjoy challenges and how resilient they are in the face of setbacks” (Dweck, 2002, p. 59).
  • Ability conception research is related to research on "thinking dispositions" (Perkins et al., 2000), particularly the distinction between individuals who hold "entity" versus "incremental" theories of intelligence. Entity learners believe intelligence (ability) is fixed and non- changing. Entity learners are typically motivated by successful displays of ability and attaining favorable judgments. They may quit when problems prove difficult, assuming they are not smart enough. In contrast, incremental learners view intelligence (ability) as learnable. Incrementalists tend to be motivated to increase their knowledge and abilities, approaching challenging situations with persistence a desire to learn (Bandura and Dweck, 1985; Elliott and Dweck. 1988, as cited in Dweck, 1986). An incremental mindset has been shown to contribute to better cognitive and academic performance


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Friday, January 11, 2008

Prediction of WJ III reading/math ach by cognitive and language tests

This is an update to my CHC cognitive abilities and reading and math research projects (please visit prior posts for background information).

I recently ran multiple regression analysis in the WJ III norm data [conflict of interest note - I'm a coauthor of the WJ III] where I used the complete set of WJ III cognitive tests (the original WJ III and WJ III Diagnostic Supplement tests) and WJ III oral language tests to predict the WJ III (a) individual reading tests, (b) reading clusters, (c) individual math tests, and (d) math clusters.

Summary tables of the results are now included in the CHC reading and math summary visual-graphic mindmaps posted previously. As noted in the summary documents, I ran step-wise multiple regression models (with backward stepping) at three different age groups in the WJ III norm sample (ages 6-8; 9-13; 14-19). I specified that the models include five predictor tests. Due to possible predictor-criterion contamination, the WJ III Number Series test was excluded from the predictor (IV) pool in the prediction of the Math Reasoning and Quantitative Concepts test (half of the QC test, which is part of the MR cluster, includes number series type items). Finally, the regression models were run on correlation matrices that were calculated in each age group with age variance removed (age-based standard scores were used). The EM missing data algorithm was invoked during the calculation of the matrices. These matrices where then used for the multiple regression analysis.

Descriptions and explanations of the WJ III tests are available via a link in a prior post (first link under "The Results: Phase I" section of prior post)

The summary tables include the final standardized regression weights as well as the coding of tests that, although not ending up in the final regression models, were often close to entering the regression model at some steps (based on inspection of the partial correlations at each step)--call them bridesmaid tests.

This material is being incorporated into a presentation I'm completing as part of a NASP 2008 workshop. The interpretation of these results, combined with a select review and synthesis of CHC- and non-CHC-organized COG-ACH correlates research, will be presented at that workshop, as well as the eventual posting of select PPT slides from that workshop (watch for announcements at this blog).

Please recognize that these results have NOT been peer-reviewed. The results are being presented "as is" with no interpretation. As noted above, interpretation of this material will be part of the NASP workshop. Additionally, this material will be included in the next update to the WJ III Evolving Web of Knowledge (EWOK), which I plan to update prior to (or immediately after) this workshop.

Enjoy running your fingers through the analysis summaries. I hope the posting of this information stimulates hypothesis generation and discussion by other CHC/WJ III scholars and assessment professionals. I urge interested individuals to make comments on the CHC listserv...as the CHC listserv provides for a more dynamic give-and-take learning experience than available via static blog "comment" posts.

You can go directly past go and download the reports at the following two links.


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"Tools of the mind" executive function training

A very interesting post at the Developing Intelligence blog re: research reports that the "Tools of the Mind" cognitive intervention can produce significant gains in executive function in children.

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Thursday, January 10, 2008

CHC listserv n=1000+: Time to celebrate

Call MSNBC, CNN, the AP....spread the word.....the CHC listserv has reached the n=1000 membership level!!!!!!! As of this post, the current membership is n=1003.

The 1000th person to join was Jon Ross. Kudos to Jon. As a result of Jon's excellent timing, he is going to be shipped one of the few remaining "classic" IAP Gf/Fluid Intelligence coffee mugs. They are collectors items.

Check out the picture of the mug and the prior message. This accomplishment has me contemplating the idea of bringing back these mugs for a moderate price. If enough folks would be interested to make it worth my time and costs, I might be willing to offer these for sale to dedicated CHC'ers. I would need to figure out costs to have them designed from scratch as well as the cost to package and ship...plus a little ching in my pocket for the time (I would probably pay a local kid to handle the fulfillment).

In order to ascertain interest, send me an email (iap@earthlink.net) indicating your interest, and more importantly the number of mugs you would be willing to purchase. Of course, multiple mugs would require some kind of special pricing. Suggested prices would also be welcome.

University professors - think of the idea of purchasing these for all students in your intellectual assessment classes...and awarding them at the successful completion of their assessment sequence, their first completed CHC assessment report, the successful defense of their dissertation, etc. If I could anticipate a regular stream of moderate bulk orders from trainers, that would spur me to contemplate this with greater fervor. The tricky part is how many to order.

DNA deletion linked to Autism

A news report of a new study, in the prestigious New England Journal of Medicine, suggesting a genetic link between a DNA deletion and autism.

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What is wisdom?

Thanks to Improbable Research for the FYI post re: a new research effort to define and understand the concept of "wisdom."

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Wednesday, January 09, 2008

IQ Bytes # 4: CHC theory prominence

I found another "IQ Byte" size morsel in an "in press" article in the journal Intelligence by Kvist & J Gustafsson.

(Note: italics and links added by blog dictator)



On CHC/Gf-Gc theories prominence:
  • Ever since Spearman (1904, 1927) introduced his “Theory of Two Factors”, issues concerning the structure of human intelligence have been the focus of attention of much research. While there certainly are differences in opinion regarding a wide range of issues, consensus has been achieved that a hierarchical representation of the structure of cognitive abilities is required to capture the complexities of the phenomenon (e.g., Carroll, 1993; Gustafsson, 1988; Jensen, 1998; Messick, 1992). The currently most widely accepted hierarchical model is the Carroll (1993) “Three-Stratum Model”. Since this model may be regarded as an extension of the Cattell and Horn “Gf–Gc” model (see e. g., Horn&Cattell, 1966) it is also referred to as the Carroll–Horn–Cattell (CHC) model (McGrew, 2005)
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Psychology book nook reviews 01-08-08

A new issue of PsycCRITIQUES is available online.



January 9, 2008
Volume 53, Issue 2


Book Reviews
1. Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Adult ADHD: An Integrative Psychosocial and Medical Approach
Authors: J. Russell Ramsay and Anthony L. Rostain
Reviewer: Robert K. Ax

2. Personality Disorders: Toward the DSM-V
Authors: William O'Donohue, Katherine A. Fowler, and Scott O. Lilienfeld (Eds.)
Reviewer: Joseph J. Guido

3. Child Sexual Abuse: Disclosure, Delay, and Denial
Authors: Margaret-Ellen Pipe, Michael E. Lamb, Yael Orbach, and Ann-Christin Cederborg (Eds.)
Reviewers: April R. Bradley and Holly M. Rusinko

4. Adolescent Psychopathology and the Developing Brain: Integrating Brain and Prevention Science
Authors: Daniel Romer and Elaine F. Walker (Eds.)
Reviewer: F. Richard Ferraro

5. Prologue to Violence: Child Abuse, Dissociation, and Crime
Author: Abby Stein
Reviewer: Steven N. Gold

6. Asylum: A Mid-Century Madhouse and Its Lessons About Our Mentally Ill Today
Author: Enoch Callaway
Reviewer: John M. Reisman

7. The Political Brain: The Role of Emotion in Deciding the Fate of the Nation
Author: Drew Westen
Reviewer: Richard W. Bloom

8. The Science of Social Influence: Advances and Future Progress
Author: Anthony R. Pratkanis (Ed.)
Reviewer: Jared A. DeFife

9. Collateral Damage: How High-Stakes Testing Corrupts America's Schools
Authors: Sharon L. Nichols and David C. Berliner
Reviewer: Ellen L. Nuffer

10. Bodymind Healing Psychotherapy: Ancient Pathways to Modern Health
Author: Michael Mayer
Reviewer: Michael J. Gilewski

11. Handbook of Injury and Violence Prevention
Authors: Lynda S. Doll, Sandra E. Bonzo, James A. Mercy, and David A. Sleet (Eds.)
Reviewer: James Campbell Quick

12. Hope and Despair in Narrative and Family Therapy: Adversity, Forgiveness and Reconciliation
Authors: Carmel Flaskas, Imelda McCarthy, and Jim Sheehan (Eds.)
Reviewer: Alice Sterling Honig

13. Clinical Manual of Eating Disorders
Authors: Joel Yager and Pauline S. Powers (Eds.)
Reviewer: Cindy Ycaza Stroschein

14. Living Alongside a Child's Recovery: Therapeutic Parenting With Traumatized Children
Authors: Billy Pughe and Terry Philpot
Reviewer: Nancy Burke

15. Social Neuroscience: Integrating Biological and Psychological Explanations of Social Behavior
Authors: Eddie Harmon-Jones and Piotr Winkielman (Eds.)
Reviewer: Susan L. Trumbetta

16. In the Mind's Eye: Julian Hochberg on the Perception of Pictures, Films, and the World
Authors: Mary A. Peterson, Barbara Gillam, and H. A. Sedgwick (Eds.)
Reviewer: Thomas F. Cloonan

Video Review
17. Interpersonal Psychotherapy for Older Adults With Depression
with Gregory A. Hinrichsen
Reviewer: Jerry Gold

Film Review
18. Longford
Director: Tom Hooper
Reviewer: Marianne Arieux

Saturday, January 05, 2008

DI blogging on the brain FYI post

Chris Chatman (DI blog)has posted a set of links to a nice mixture of posts at other blogs that are worth a peak. Thanks Chris.

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Time perception and impulsivity

I made a post at IQ's Corner sister blog (IQ Brain Clock) re: an interesting article suggesting a link between impulsivity and the function of the internal brain clock.

Jensen's "Clocking the Mind" book reviews

I purchased a copy of Jensen's "Clocking the Mind: Mental Chronometry and individual differences" and it has sat on my pile of "to read" publications for a good year. So...I have no first-hand knowledge from which to render a review. However, other reviews are now becoming available. Click here for prior post regarding a review at the DI blog.

Two reviews (one quite positive; the other more negative) are now "in press" in the journal Intelligence. Check out Detterman's review and a review by Wagenmakers.


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2007 ISIR conference summary by Bob Williams


Thanks to Bob Williams for posting a personal summary of the 2007 ISIR conference...complete with some nice pictures. Check it out at the following link...where you can also download the file (pdf file). I was unable to attend ISIR this year and am very grateful to Bob for providing a nice summary.

Kudos to Bob.

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Thursday, January 03, 2008

WJ III NU (Normative Update) Assessment Service Bulletin #9 available



I'm pleased to announce that the Woodcock-Johnson III Assessment Service Bulletin 9: Woodcock-Johnson III®/Woodcock-Johnson III Normative Update Score Differences: What the User Can Expect and Why (click here to view/download) is now available. I want to thank all users for their patience during the delay in this publication. Below is the introduction to the document.

I want to thank Riverside Publishing for allowing me to post this publication today. In a few weeks it will be available for their web page. At that time I'll make a new post with the official link to the publication then being their web page.

[Conflict of interest disclosure - I'm a coauthor of the WJ III]

  • The Woodcock-Johnson III Normative Update (WJ III® NU) (Woodcock, McGrew, Schrank, & Mather, 2001, 2007) is a recalculation of the normative data for the Woodcock-Johnson III (WJ III) (Woodcock, McGrew, & Mather, 2001), based on the final 2000 U.S. census statistics (U.S. Census Bureau, 2005). The final 2000 census data are reflected in the norms provided by the WJ III Normative Update Compuscore® and Profiles Program (Compuscore) (Schrank & Woodcock, 2007) and in the documentation provided in the WJ III Normative Update Technical Manual (McGrew, Schrank, & Woodcock, 2007). The WJ III NU norms replace the original WJ III norms, which were based on the U.S. Census Bureau’s 2000 census projections issued in 1996 (Day, 1996).
  • The U.S. Census Bureau’s Population Projections Program issues projections of the United States resident population based on assumptions about future births, deaths, and international migration. Census projections are estimates of the population for future dates and are subsequently replaced by census statistics. The 2000 census statistics produced a somewhat different description of the U.S. population than was assumed from the last projections issued in 1996. For example, according to the bureau’s Greg Spencer, “When we took the 2000 census, we found about 6.8 million more people than we were expecting. When we went in and looked at the sources of that growth, we found that during the late 1990s, there was more migration than we had been measuring” (Landphair, 2004, p. 1). Other unanticipated changes in the population were documented (U.S. Census Bureau, 2005), including shifts in age, sex, race, Hispanic origin, and residence. Some states grew at three times the national rate, and people tended to cluster in locations where jobs were available and climate was preferred. For users of the WJ III, the normative update (WJ III NU) provides the most current comparisons to the U.S. population.
  • In addition, the WJ III NU used innovative statistical advancements to calculate the new norms. The use of bootstrap resampling procedures (Efron & Tibshirani, 1993) allowed for estimates of uncertainty and potential bias (in the sample data) to be incorporated into the calculation of the WJ III NU norms. The bootstrap-based norm development procedures used to recalculate WJ III NU norms result in more precise estimates of an individual’s tested performance. Collectively, the refinement of the demographic characteristics in the WJ III NU norm data, based on updated U.S. census statistics, and the use of state-of-the-art statistical methods for estimating the sample statistics used to calculate norms allow users of the WJ III to have greater confidence in the accuracy of the WJ III NU-based scores.


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Wednesday, January 02, 2008

IQs Corner image icon

I decided I needed to come up with an image/icon for this blog..which has the nickname "IQ's Corner." This is what I crafted. I pulled together two images from a Google search and pasted them together.

You gotta love the 'net.

Kevin McGrew

Tech tidbit - 2007 and software (MIT Tech Review)

Interesting post from the MIT Tech Review regarding their perception of significant developments in software during the past year (2007)

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CHC cognitive abilities and reading research

In preparation for a NASP 2008 workshop I'm doing with Barb Wendling and Barb Read, I've been completing a select review of key CHC organized and non-CHC organized research dealing with the relations between cognitive abilities (using the CHC theory lens) and reading and math achievement.

I just posted a copy of the reading summary...which is a "work in progress." It currently is "up" on the web in the form of a relatively large visual-graphic mind map that will require extra navigation via your mouse. But, if you start in the upper right hand corner (with the "Overview-Read First" branch) you should understand the gist of this resource.

This will be updated as the workshop approaches. Below is a summary of the workshop from the NASP web page.

Workshop 51: Using CHC Theory to Link Assessment to Interventions

Kevin S. McGrew, PhD, Institute for Applied Psychometrics, St. Joseph, MN; Barbara J. Wendling, BJ Consulting, Dallas, TX; Barbara G. Read, Department of Defense Schools, Okinawa, Japan

  • Sponsored by Riverside Publishing Company and the Woodcock-Muñoz Foundation
  • Saturday, February 9, 2008, 9:00 a.m.–4:00 p.m.
  • This workshop will help school psychologists use the Cattell-Horn-Carroll (CHC) theory of cognitive abilities to link cognitive and achievement test results to a variety of targeted, evidence-based instructional interventions. Although CHC theory can be applied to the interpretation of any broad-based cognitive or achievement battery, workshop examples and case studies primarily use the Woodcock-Johnson III. The CHC broad and narrow abilities test, and underlying cognitive processes that are required for task performance on the WJ III, provide cues to related interventions for improving performance in key areas of academic functioning, or they may be used as the basis for requesting educational accommodations.
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Beyond IQ: A Model of Academic Competence and Motivation

As promised, and ahead of schedule, today I make available the results of over 5 years of work---Beyond IQ: A Model of Academic Competence and Motivation. The gist of the Beyond IQ project is simple - to present a preliminary conceptual framework from which to organize non-cognitive (conative) variables important for school learning...those essential student learning facilitators that are important above and beyond intelligence/cognitive ability.

The material can be accessed one of three ways (and you can switch between each navigation mode via the viewing options in the upper right-hand corner of the web pages).

If you want to navigate via a more traditional web-page expanding outline format, which is available on the left-hand side of the "Home" web page, start here.

If you want a linear "Table of Contents" outline navigation mode, start here.

If you love seeing the "big picture" all at once (using your Gv skills), start with my favorite, the clickable visual-graphic "Overview Map" mind map approach - click here.

Or mix and match navigational methods to meet your temporary whims.

Enjoy. I hope this work stimulates comments, responses, and more importantly, research focused on the development of a validated comprehensive model/framework of conative variables important for school learning (what I often like to call "essential student academic facilitators").

I will maintain a Beyond IQ category label term on the blog page which will allow readers to locate all Beyond IQ related articles with one click.

3-30-08 update. A set of PowerPoint slides that supplement the material at the Beyond IQ EWOK are now available via Slide Share. Click here.

Enjoy

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Tuesday, January 01, 2008

Is executive function a valid construct ?

A though provoking post at the Developing Intelligence blog re: the psychometric validity of the construct of executive function. The DI blog dissects a recent article by Tim Salthouse, a prominent psychometrically-oriented intelligence scholar who I always read.

From my reading of various articles over the past few years I've reached the conclusion that some neuropsychological constructs (like EF) can be differentiated from more psychometrically-based intelligence constructs if one thinks about the difference between form and function. Form constructs are akin to the psychometric building blocks of CHC theory--fluid intelligence (Gf), processing speed (Gs), etc. In contrast, EF is a functional construct as it represents a combination of various form abilities that work together to perform some kind of cognitive function. Thus, I'm not surprised that it has been hard to psychometrically prove the validity of EF. Salthouse makes a solid contribution in trying to decompose the various form abilities that are combined under the umbrella functional term of EF. Chris Chatman of the DI blog also makes a good contribution via his critique of some of Salthouse's key conclusions.

A clear understanding of the various components of EF will only occur as research accumulates...and we are far from a research-based consensus today.

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